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  • Lind, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Litteraturundervisningens digitalisering: En studie om lärares erfarenheter av och tankar om digitala verktyg i litteraturundervisningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Litteratur och läsning har länge varit en grundläggande del i svenskundervisningen och har det än idag. Digitala verktyg är ett desto nyare inslag i svenskämnet men har i den reviderade upplagan av läroplanen fått en större och mer framträdande roll. Denna studiens syfte var därför att

    undersöka hur fem svensklärare i år 7-9 förhåller sig till användandet av digitala verktyg i litteraturundervisningen.

    Den metod jag har använt för att svara på mina frågeställningar är en kvalitativ intervjumetod där jag har intervjuat fem lärare som undervisar i årskurs 5-9. Intervjuerna har varit semistrukturerade och utgått från innan förutbestämda intervjufrågor.

    I resultatdelen lägger jag fram de intervjusvar jag fick och som är relevanta för frågeställningarna. Av resultaten framgår att svensklärarna känner osäkerhet inför hur de kan arbeta med digitala verktyg när det gäller litteraturundervisning, bortsett från powerpoint-presentationer och bildstöd. Det framgår också att lärarna arbetar med digitala verktyg inom litteraturundervisningen för att det kan underlätta undervisningen, vara ett stöd till den analoga undervisningen, samt som ett hjälpmedel för elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter.

  • Rosén, Lovis
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Svenskundervisning genom utomhuspedagogik: En kvalitativ studie om hur lärare i årskurs F-3 använder sig av utomhuspedagogik i sin svenskundervisning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna empiriska studie syftar till att lyfta fram och undersöka utomhuspedagogik som undervisningsmetod inom svenskämnet i förskoleklass till årskurs 3. Centralt i studien har varit att ta reda på vilka delar av kursplanen för svenska i läroplanen som kan beröras genom svenskundervisning utomhus. Fokus under intervjuerna har varit att lyfta fram hur man kan lyckas med sin svenskundervisning genom utomhuspedagogik. Fördelar och svårigheter sätts i relation till det centrala innehåll och förmågor som lärarna arbetar med. Fem utbildade lärare och en naturskolepedagog har intervjuats.

    Resultatet av studien visar bland annat att fortbildning är en viktig byggsten till att utomhuspedagogiken ska användas frekvent och framgångsrikt inom svenskämnet. De största fördelarna som lyfts fram ur resultatet är att samarbetet, kommunikationen och interaktionen eleverna emellan ökar. Utomhuspedagogik anses också vara ett tillfälle för eleverna att visa andra kunskaper och förmågor inom svenskämnet än vad de visar genom undervisning som sker i klassrummet. Utomhuspedagogik som undervisningsmetod inom svenskämnet anses också kunna erbjuda eleverna daglig fysisk aktivitet, vilket lyfts fram som en fördel för inlärningen. Det framkommer också att lärmiljön som eleverna befinner sig i spelar stor roll för språkinlärningen, den miljö som erbjuds genom utomhuspedagogik anses inspirera och avstressa eleverna till skillnad från det traditionella klassrummet. Resultatet visar att den övervägande delen ur det centrala innehållet för svenska berörs genom lärarnas utomhusundervisning i svenskämnet. Lärarna lyfter fram tre av fem förmågor som de anser att eleverna får förutsättningar att utveckla genom utomhuspedagogik. Kommunikation och talet lyfts fram som centrala delar i svenskundervisning som sker genom utomhuspedagogik. Resultatet visar också att skrivandet får för lite utrymme genom utomhuspedagogik och att detta kan leda till svårighet i att utveckla elevernas skrivande. Utomhuspedagogik inom svenskämnet lyfts fram som en positiv variationsfaktor, men det framgår också tydligt att lärarna anser att undervisningsmetoden bör ses som ett komplement till den mer traditionella klassrumsundervisningen.

  • Millberg, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Skålberg, Katarina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnad av smärtdrabbade personer med demenssjukdom – en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia is an incurable disease that lowers the cognitive ability of the person. Due to the reduced cognitive ability, people with dementia have difficulty expressing their pain. Assessment tools are a resource for the nurse to interpret and assess pain in person with dementia.

    Aim: The aim is to describe how the nurse can identify, assess and relieve pain in people with dementia.

    Methods: A literature review compiled from eight qualitative and seven quantitative article.

    Results: In order to alleviate and interpret pain, nurses used observations on behavioral changes in person with dementia. To consult relatives and getting to know the person with dementia were important foundations for interpreting and assessing pain. Assessment tools were considered to be a good supplementary aid for the nurse but were rarely used.

    Conclusions: Communication difficulties in people with dementia make it difficult to interpret and assess pain. Nurses observe, speak with relatives and get to know the people with dementia to assess their pain. Nursing measures to alleviate pain are rare and are not often used in people with dementia.

  • Eriksson, Leif
    et al.
    Nga, Nguyen T
    Hoa, Dinh T Phuong
    Duc, Duong M
    Bergström, Anna
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Ewald, Uwe
    Huy, Tran Q
    Selling, Katarina Ekholm
    Secular trend, seasonality and effects of a community-based intervention on neonatal mortality: follow-up of a cluster-randomised trial in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam.2018In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little is know about whether the effects of community engagement interventions for child survival in low-income and middle-income settings are sustained. Seasonal variation and secular trend may blur the data. Neonatal mortality was reduced in a cluster-randomised trial in Vietnam where laywomen facilitated groups composed of local stakeholders employing a problem-solving approach for 3 years. In this analysis, we aim at disentangling the secular trend, the seasonal variation and the effect of the intervention on neonatal mortality during and after the trial.

    METHODS: In Quang Ninh province, 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Births and neonatal deaths were assessed in a baseline survey in 2005, monitored during the trial in 2008-2011 and followed up by a survey in 2014. Time series analyses were performed on monthly neonatal mortality data.

    RESULTS: There were 30 187 live births and 480 neonatal deaths. The intervention reduced the neonatal mortality from 19.1 to 11.6 per 1000 live births. The reduction was sustained 3 years after the trial. The control areas reached a similar level at the time of follow-up. Time series decomposition analysis revealed a downward trend in the intervention areas during the trial that was not found in the control areas. Neonatal mortality peaked in the hot and wet summers.

    CONCLUSIONS: A community engagement intervention resulted in a lower neonatal mortality rate that was sustained but not further reduced after the end of the trial. When decomposing time series of neonatal mortality, a clear downward trend was demonstrated in intervention but not in control areas.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN44599712, Post-results.

  • Eriksson, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Formativ bedömning i årskurs 3-6: En kvalitativ studie om lärares beskrivning av den formativa bedömningens roll i att stödja elevers lärande och främja deras intresse inom den naturorienterande undervisningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur formativ bedömning kan stödja elevers lärande och intresseutveckling i den naturorienterande undervisningen. Hur beskriver lärare den formativa bedömningens roll för att stödja elevers lärande i och intresse för de naturorienterande ämnena? Hur använder lärare medierande redskap för att genom formativ bedömning stödja elever i den naturorienterande undervisningen? Studien har en kvalitativ ansats och metoden utgörs av intervjuer och observationer. Resultatet visar att formativ bedömning kan stödja elevers lärande genom att aktivera dem i deras individuella inlärningsprocess och främja utvecklingen av deras självbedömningsförmåga. Studien visar också att lärarna blir stimulerade till att utforma en varierande undervisning som inkluderar samtliga elever och ger dem möjligheten att bli stöttade i sin proximala utvecklingszon av andra mer kompetenta personer i klassrummet. Studien antyder att formativ bedömning kan stödja elevernas intresseutveckling för de naturorienterande ämnena, men resultatet är inte övertygande. Samtliga observerade lärare stödjer eleverna formativt i den naturorienterande undervisningen genom medierande redskap. Språkliga redskap tillämpas för att aktivera eleverna i inlärningsprocessen och för att aktivera dem som resurser för andra elever i undervisningen, medan artefakter främst används för att synliggöra lämpliga strategier i arbetsprocesser samt låta eleverna uppvisa förmågor. Avslutningsvis visar denna studie också att formativ bedömning kan stödja elevernas lärande i naturvetenskap eftersom den formativa bedömningskulturen i kombination med ett tillåtande klassrumsklimat tillåter att eleverna använder varandra som resurser i inlärningsprocessen.

  • Lundkvist, Pernilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Lärares frågor. En avgörande faktor för det samtalande matematiska klassrummet.: En studie inspirerad av learning study om lärares medvetenhet angående variationen av frågor i matematikundervisningen gällande likhetstecknets betydelse2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur lärares frågor kan påverka

    elever till utforskande samtal vid undervisning av likhetstecknets betydelse. Då en

    lärare valdes ut för en djupare granskning valdes en kvalitativ metod där en

    fallstudie ansågs lämplig. Studiens utformning influeras av learning study som

    skolutvecklingsmodell. Sammanställningen av resultatet visar att lärarens

    medvetenhet av frågor i undervisningen av likhetstecknets betydelse har stor

    påverkan för om ett utforskande samtal ska ta fart bland eleverna. Studiens slutsats

    är att matematikundervisningen i skolan bör genomgå en viktig förändring för att

    elever i större utsträckning ska inspireras till utforskande samtal. Detta eftersom en

    stark läromedelstyrd undervisning medför svårigheter för samtal och reflektioner i

    klassrummet.

  • Eklund, Emelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Jackson, Stina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som påverkar livskvaliteten hos personermed hjärtsvikt: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    : Heart failure is viewed as a public health issue which costs many

    people their life every year. Of those who are affected, approximately a 50 percent

    mortality is estimated. Living with heart failure imply suffering from inconvenient

    physical symptoms, but also having to extensively adapt ones lifestyle.

    Aim

    :

    To examine different factors that affects the perception of quality of life in

    people with heart failure.

    Method

    :

    A literature review has been done where 16 scientific articles were

    included.

    Results

    :

    Reduced mental health showed a greater influence on the percepted

    quality of life than reduced physical ability. An explicit correlation between

    mental health and quality of life was found, as well as the fact that quality of life

    being more important than a long lifetime. Having a close relationship with family

    and relatives was of great importance to feel comfort. However, the meaning of

    receiving information was shown to have less influence than expected.

    Conclusion

    :

    Heart failure leads to reduced physical-, as well as mental function

    and intrudes on the persons social wellbeing, which therefore also comes to affect

    their quality of life. This review presents the importance of an early addressing of

    persons with reduced mental health to enhance their well-being and quality of life.

  • Nederberg, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Elevers uppfattningar om matematik: En studie om vilka uppfattningar som finns och vad motiverareleverna att lära matematik2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa empiriska studie handlar om vilka uppfattningar om matematik elever i årskurs 2 respektive 5 har. Vidare undersöker den vad som motiverar eleverna och vad som påverkar dem. Olika statliga undersökningar som Skolverket genomför indikerar att elever i allt yngre åldrar uttrycker sig negativt om matematik och trenden bland äldre elever är att flertalet uttrycker sig negativt om matematik. I denna studie framkommer det att både elever i årskurs 2 respektive 5 har negativa uppfattningar och upplevelse om matematik, men att det även finns positiva saker om matematik att lyfta fram. Något som visar sig i denna studie är att det finns kritiska röster till all bokräkning som sker på övervägande del av matematiklektionerna och att detta kan vara värt att fundera över om man kan förändra undervisningen på något sätt. Alla eleverna som intervjuades i föreliggande studie anser att räkna matematik på datorn eller plattan är ett roligare sätt. Att undervisningens uppbyggnad påverkar elevernas uppfattning om matematik och när under dagen som lektionen är. Eleverna i denna studie är medvetna om att matematik är ett viktigt ämne och att de kommer att behöva det i framtiden men de är väldigt osäkra på när, var och hur.

  • Fix Olsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ågren, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalens upplevelser av attvårda patienter med multiresistenta bakterier: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Multiresistant bacteria is a global problem and a threat to public

    health. Infection prevention such as basic hygiene routines are a key part of

    preventive work against multiresistant bacteria. Patients who is a carrier of a

    multiresistant bacteria can experience feelings of insecurity and shame, therefore it

    is important that all healthcare professionals apply a person-centered care.

    Aim:

    To study the healthcare professionals' experience of caring for patients with

    multiresistant bacteria.

    Method:

    The study has been conducted as a literature review based on 15 articles.

    The articles were of both qualitative and quantitative method as well as mixed

    method with combined qualitative and quantitative method. Databases used in the

    search are PubMed and CINAHL. The analysis resulted in three themes.

    Result:

    The results are presented in three different themes: Experiences of fear

    and insecurity, experienced lack of knowledge and need for education and

    experiences of obstacles to the performance of infection prevention measures.

    Conclusion:

    Fear and insecurity in healthcare staff clearly emerged and led to

    shortcomings in the performance of nursing care. The result also showed an

    experienced ignorance of multiresistant bacteria and a need for education was

    requested. Knowledge through education would result in a greater understanding

    of multiresistant bacteria and reduce the fear among healthcare professionals

    ’.

  • Arvidsson, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Jansson, Susanne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Stress hos sjuksköterskor och utövandet av personcentrerad vård: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working person-centered is an important part of the profession as a nurse, not least because the nurse's ethical rules suggest that, but also because every person is unique, and that care should therefore be adapted to each individual. As part of this degree project, the person-centered care and the work environment in hospitals has been overlooked for how the person centered care is affected by the nurse's experience of stress.

    Aim: The aim is to describe how stress in the nurse's work environment affects the personcentered care of patients in hospitals.

    Methods: The degree project was conducted as a literature review based on 17 scientific articles with publication between 2009 and 2018. The database used was Cinahl.

    Results: The results show that despite a stressful working environment for the nurse, the emotional part does not affect the patient's care. However practical care may cause damage, which in turn can affect patient safety. The result also shows that management has a major responsibility in setting up guidelines for person-centered care, as well as preventing burnout of the nurse and patient safety.

    Conclusion: There is a clear link between the working environment and the psychologist's nurse, despite this, the nurses do not receive the opportunity to participate in decisions made by the management. More studies need to be done about the work environment and the impact on the nurse in terms of stress and burnout. The concept of person-centered care is wide and extensive, therefore, clear guidelines for the practice of person-centered care need to be made in practice to ensure the results of how the work environment affects person-centered care.

  • Grahn, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Omerbasic, Sabina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Vårdmiljöns påverkan på personer med demenssjukdom: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    : Dementia often affects older people and involves loss of cognitive abilities and causes great care needs. An ageing population leads to an increased need for nursing accommodation. Care should be person-centered and physical as well as psychosocial care environment are important elements that can affect the person's wellbeing and behaviors.

    Aim

    : To describe how the care environment affects people with dementia.

    Method

    : A literature review based on qualitative (n =7), mixed (n =2) and quantitative (n =8) studies. The analysis focused on similarities and differences in their results related to the physical and psychosocial environment affecting people with dementia. As a step in the analysis, two themes and five subthemes were created to clearly present key findings in the research material.

    Results:

    The results show that the physical and psychosocial care environment affects people with dementia. Architecture, interior design, sensory elements, common care philosophy and meaningfulness are all important for the possibility of autonomy and self-determination.

    Conclusion:

    Dementia is not a disease that affects everyone in exactly the same way but leads to many different kinds of symptoms and limitations. The cognitive reduction affects the possibility of autonomy, integrity and self-determination. Since people with dementia are individually affected by the physical and psychosocial care environment, a person-centered approach is a prerequisite for achieving good care with a maintained quality of life.

  • Frank, Kristofer
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nordgren, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors syn på att vårda patienter med övervikt och fetma – en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity, increases throughout the world and is a major cause of death and burden for society. In society we meet with health campaigns that affect us. This consciously or unconsciously affects our view of what the norm is about weight. In hospital care, the equipment is not always adapted to patients with obesity, which may adversely affect the patient's experience negative.

    Purpose: The purpose is to illuminate the nurse attitudes / stigmatization of patients with obesity and how it can affect the patient's care.

    Method: Literature study. Pubmed, Chinahl, Psycinfo. 13 articles have been selected to answer the purpose of the literature review.

    Results: The results were divided into six categories. Nurses are not unaffected by these attitudes but can take part in the care of patients with overweight and obesity. Nurses perceived that they can not provide care of the same quality to patients with overweight and obesity as to other patients. Fear of injury during the work of the patient group occurs with the nurse in the care of patients with overweight and obesity. Nurses perceived that they can not provide care of the same quality to patients with overweight and obesity as to other patients and that the care of overweight and obese patients is time consuming

    Conclusion: Nurses have different views on obesity as a whole, as well as different experiences and perceptions about caring for overweight and obesity patients.

  • Staffan, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Tucan Oldgren, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Effekter av att använda musik som omvårdnadsåtgärd för personer med demenssjukdom – En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People are growing older and dementia is expected to become an increasing problem. There is no available cure, but symptoms can be inhibited by pharmacological treatments, often with side effects. People with dementia often develop behavioral changes that are difficult to respond to for caregivers. With the nature of the disease and the different symptoms occuring, a person-centered care is preferable to promote participation and integrity. Aim: To conclude current research on the effects of music in the nursing care of people with dementia. Method: A literature review based on (n=18) articles from ten countries. Quantitative (n=12), qualitative (n=5) and mixed method (n=1) articles were used from CINAHL, Pubmed and Web of Science. After the analysis, differences and similarities in the articles created themes and subthemes. Results: Music interventions proved to have positive effects, regarding BPSD, cognitive functions and psychopharmacological treatment. Music could contribute to increased association between caregivers and people with dementia. The caregivers and family members' perceptions of the effects of music were mixed, however, the views were consistent that music should be used as a nursing measure. Conclusion: Music has a positive impact on people with dementia and BPSD by acting as a person-centered nursing measure and should be implemented more.

  • Garnegård, Agnes
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Matsson, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientsäkerhet i förhållande till arbetsrelaterad stress för sjuksköterskor: - En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Work-related stress is a worldwide healthcare problem and may adversely affect the nurses’ performance and nursing work. There is an imbalance between the nurses' resources and the expectations from the healthcare organization, which causes concern among the nurses about the negative effects for quality of care and patient safety.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe how patient safety is affected by the nurses’ work-related stress in inpatient care.

    Method: The design of this study was a literature review with 16 included articles from different parts of the world from the databases PubMed and CINAHL.

    Result: Lack of communication, delayed or non-occurred nursing and care-related injuries, drug complications and nurses’ cognitive failure emerged as influencing factors for patient safety related to the nurses’ stressful work situation.

    Conclusion: The work-related stress has a generally negative impact on the quality and productivity of healthcare. The study's findings show that the stressful work situation of nurses affects patient safety and contributes to the inability to adequately care for patients from a holistic perspective.

  • Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Frid, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att möta patienter med självskadebeteende inom somatisk akutsjukvård: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deliberate self-harm is a symptom of mental illness that ever since the turn of the millennium has been increasingly highlighted. The first contact with healthcare a person with deliberate self-harm often takes place via the somatic emergency medical care. Patients testify to negative experiences in the meeting with these care instances. Therefore, it may be useful to investigate how nurses perceive the meeting with patients with deliberate self-harm. Aim: The aim of the literature review was to describe nurses’ experiences of meeting patients with deliberate self-harm in somatic emergency medical care. Method: The study was conducted as a literature review where 15 scientific articles were sought via the databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. The articles were quality-reviewed, analyzed and compiled into a result. Results: In the process of describing nurses’ experiences, three main categories emerged which were: The nurse's thoughts and feelings; Competence and knowledge; Factors that affect the meeting and care. Conclusion: The result showed that nurses in somatic emergency medical care had both positive and negative experiences in the meeting with patients with deliberate self-harm which evoked different feelings and thoughts among nurses. Common to the studies was that nurses stated that they had a lack of competence and knowledge about this patient group.

  • Götesdotter, Annica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Holmström, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienter smittade med MRSA och deras upplevelse av att vårdas på sjukhus – en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), is a

    multiresistant bacterium that grows extensively throughout the world. MRSA is one of healthcare's biggest hygiene-related problems that are increasing around the world. MRSA spreads through both direct and indirect contact. When caring for MRSA positive patients, there are specific guidelines on health care routines, which means that the patient is isolated from other patients and that contact with healthcare professionals is limited.

    Aim:

    The aim of this study is to describe how patients who are infected with MRSA experience hospital care.

    Methods:

    Twelve qualitative articles, one with mixed method and two quantitative articles, form the basis of this literature review.

    Results:

    Repeated experiences in patients were that they felt dirty and contagious. In connection with these feelings, there were also guilt and shame. In contact with care, patients experienced feelings of stigmatization and that healthcare professionals treated them as if they were infected with plague. Lack of information about MRSA and lack of knowledge and understanding of staff were also recurring experiences in patients.

    Conclusion:

    There are lack of knowledge of MRSA in both patients and healthcare

    professionals. Lack of knowledge in healthcare professionals can have effects on how patients are treated when they get medical care. This may affect the patient's mental mood.

  • Ericson, Jenny
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala universitet, Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falu lasarett.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Hoddinott, Pat
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Breastfeeding and risk for ceasing in mothers of preterm infants - long-term follow-up2018In: Maternal and Child Nutrition, ISSN 1740-8695, E-ISSN 1740-8709, article id e12618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breastfeeding is challenging for mothers of preterm infants. The aim of this paper is to describe risk factors for ceasing breastfeeding and methods of feeding until 12 months postnatal age in mothers who breastfed their preterm infants at discharge from neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The data come from a randomised controlled trial, which evaluated the effectiveness on exclusive breastfeeding at 8 weeks of proactive telephone support compared with reactive support offered to mothers of preterm infants following discharge from NICU. Six NICUs across Sweden randomised a total of 493 mothers. We used regression and survival analyses to assess the risk factors for ceasing breastfeeding and the long-term outcomes of the intervention. The results showed that 305 (64%) of the infants were breastfed at 6 months and 49 (21%) at 12 months. Partial breastfeeding at discharge, low maternal educational level, and longer length of stay in the NICU increased the risk for ceasing breastfeeding during the first 12 months. Furthermore, the Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the proportion of mothers who ceased breastfeeding did not differ between the intervention (n = 231) and controls (n = 262) during the first 12 months (log-rank test p = .68). No difference was found between groups on method of feeding. More than 85% of the infants were fed directly at the breast. These findings provide important insights for health professionals who are supporting mothers of preterm infants to breastfeed long term.

    Registered in www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01806480).

  • Torstensen, Tom Arild
    et al.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus J A
    Østerås, Håvard
    Heijne, Annette
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Äng, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    How does exercise dose affect patients with long-term osteoarthritis of the knee? A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial in Sweden and Norway: the SWENOR Study2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e018471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is characterised by knee pain, disability and degenerative changes, and places a burden on societies all over the world. Exercise therapy is an often-used modality, but there is little evidence of what type of exercise dose is the most effective, indicating a need for controlled studies of the effect of different dosages. Thus, the aim of the study described in this protocol is to evaluate the effects of high-dose versus low-dose medical exercise therapy (MET) in patients with knee OA.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre prospective randomised two-arm trial with blinded assessment and data analysis. We are planning to include 200 patients aged 45-85 years with symptomatic (pain and decreased functioning) and X-ray verified diagnosis of knee OA. Those eligible for participation will be randomly allocated to either high-dose (n=100) or low-dose (n=100) MET. All patients receive three supervised treatments each week for 12 weeks, giving a total of 36 MET sessions. The high-dose group exercises for 70-90 min compared with 20-30 min for the low-dose group. The high-dose group exercises for a longer time, and receives a greater number of exercises with more repetitions and sets. Background and outcome variables are recorded at inclusion, and outcome measures are collected after every sixth treatment, at the end of treatment, and at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. Primary outcome is self-rated knee functioning and pain using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). The primary end point is at the end of treatment after 3 months, and secondary end points are at 6 months and 12 months after the end of treatment.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This project has been approved by the Regional Research Ethics Committees in Stockholm, Sweden, and in Norway. Our results will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02024126; Pre-results.

  • Li, Yujiao
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Twitter Sentiment Analysis of New IKEA Stores Using Machine Learning2018In: International Conference on Computer and Applications, July 25th-26th, 2018, Beirut, Lebanon, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studied public emotion and opinion concerning the opening of new IKEA stores, specifically, how much attention are attracted, how much positive and negative emotion are aroused, what IKEA-related topics are talked due to this event. Emotion is difficult to measure in retail due to data availability and limited quantitative tools. Twitter texts, written by the public to express their opinion concerning this event, are used as a suitable data source to implement sentiment analysis. Around IKEA opening days, local people post IKEA related tweets to express their emotion and opinions on that. Such “IKEA” contained tweets are collected for opinion mining in this work. To compute sentiment polarity of tweets, lexiconbased approach is used for English tweets, and machine learning methods for Swedish tweets. The conclusion is new IKEA store are paid much attention indicated by significant increasing tweets frequency, most of them are positive emotions, and four studied cities have different topics and interests related IKEA. This paper extends knowledge of consumption emotion studies of prepurchase, provide empirical analysis of IKEA entry effect on emotion. Moreover, it develops a Swedish sentiment prediction model, elastic net method, to compute Swedish tweets’ sentiment polarity which has been rarely conducted.  

  • Masterson, Siobhán
    et al.
    Strömsöe, Anneli
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Cullinan, John
    Deasy, Conor
    Vellinga, Akke
    Apples to apples: can differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and outcomes between Sweden and Ireland be explained by core Utstein variables?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 26, no 1, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Variation in reported incidence and outcome based on aggregated data is a persistent feature of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) epidemiology.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which patient-level analysis using core 'Utstein' variables explains inter-country variation between Sweden and the Republic of Ireland.

    METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional comparative study was performed, including all Swedish and Irish OHCA cases attended by Emergency Medical Services (EMS-attended OHCA) where resuscitation was attempted from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2014. Incidence rates per 100,000 population were adjusted for age and gender. Two subgroups were extracted: (1) Utstein - adult patients, bystander-witnessed collapse, presumed medical aetiology, initial shockable rhythm and (2) Emergency Medical Service (EMS)-witnessed events. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of survival following multiple imputations of data.

    RESULTS: Five thousand eight hundred eighty six Irish and 15,303 Swedish patients were included. Swedish patients were older than Irish patients (median age 71 vs. 66 years respectively). Adjusted incidence was significantly higher in Sweden compared to the Republic of Ireland (52.9 vs. 43.1 per 100,000 population per year). Proportionate survival in Sweden was greater for both subgroups and all age categories. Regression analysis of the Utstein subgroup predicted approximately 17% of variation in outcome, but there was a large unexplained 'country effect' for survival in favour of Sweden (OR 4.40 (95% CI 2.55-7.56)).

    CONCLUSIONS: Using patient level data, a proportion of inter-country variation was explained, but substantial variation was not explained by the core Utstein variables. Researchers and policy makers should be aware of the potential for unmeasured differences when comparing OHCA incidence and outcomes between countries.

  • Söder, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Att välja eller inte välja: En intervjustudie om yrkeselevers motivation att läsa behörighetsgivande kurser på gymnasiet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker vilka faktorer som påverkar elevers motivation vid val av kurs.

    Syftet är att skapa kunskap om vad som motiverar gymnasiets yrkeselever att välja eller att inte välja kurser som ger behörighet till högre utbildning.

    Som

    teoretiskt ramverk ligger motivationsteori. En analysmodell, kallad motivationsmodellen, operationaliserad utifrån två olika motivationsteorier och utformad specifikt inom ramen för denna undersökning, används för att uppfylla syftet.

    Studien är

    etnologiskt inspirerad vilket bland annat innebär att utgångspunkten är elevernas och att intervjuer är studiens valda datainhämtningsmetod. Vid analys av intervjudata används två metoder: innehållsanalys och analys via Motivationsmodellen.

    Resultatet

    visar att det yrkeselever berättar om skälen till sina val visar att de är framtidsfokuserade och ofta pragmatiska i sina val. Resultatet visar även att de olika bakomliggande faktorer som motiverar elever vid deras val är många, och samverkande med varandra, vilket talar för att skolan bör arbeta på bred front med elevernas motivation.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-25 09:00 Föreläsningssal 5, Falun
    Larsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Resultatet av ett prov: Svensklärare om washbackeffekter av nationellt läsförståelseprov på gymnasiet2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the washback effects on teaching practices caused by the national test in the course Swedish 1 which was introduced in upper secondary school in 2011. The test consists of three parts; oral presentation, writing proficiency and reading comprehension. The focus of the study is on the washback effects of the reading comprehension test which is an entirely new type of test for upper secondary school in Sweden.

    The study draws on qualitative data from interviews with 18 teachers of Swedish in upper secondary school. The interviews were carried out in four focus groups and also in a series of four interviews with five individual teachers. The theoretical framework consists of Stephen Ball’s theory of policy enactment. In addition, theory about reading comprehension and an adaptation of Ivanič’s concept discourses of writing transferred into the context of reading are used in order to analyse data.

    The findings indicate that even though there seems to be substantial washback from the oral and the writing tests, the reading comprehension test does not seem to have affected reading instruction to any large extent. One reason seems to be that reading instruction already covers the contents of the test to a great extent. The teachers in the study also perceive that there is a discrepancy in the alignment between the results of the test and the assessment critera of the course, making it problematic to communicate the results to pupils and to relate them to the final grade. As the result of the test is not interpreted as being useful to the teachers they admit to paying little attention to the reading comprehension test.

    Furthermore, the teachers tend not to consider the test as an important indicator of pupils’ reading competence as they seem to oppose the notion that interpreting fiction is something that can be measured and objectively assessed according to preset standards. When talking about reading instruction the teachers seem to value most the type of reading which deals with basic values, gives new perspectives on what it means to be human and which encourages pupils to want to read more literature, a type of reading the test cannot offer.

    Findings also indicate that even though the teachers have adequate knowledge about the teaching of reading comprehension they seem to lack a metalanguage to talk about the different components it is made up of which affects how they perceive the national reading comprehension test.

  • Heier, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Energirenovering av småhus - en förstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The building stock in Sweden is in great need of renovation, not least our single family houses. The need for renovation does not only consist of maintenance of the buildings, but also increased energy efficiency in order to reach set targets. It is not enough to only make changes to the heating systems, something that is especially common among single family houses in the form of switching to a heat pump, but improvements to the building envelope are also required. Extensive and a broad range of activities have been made for multifamily buildings but for single family houses only smaller, more directed activities have been made. This can partly be due to the difficulty of reaching out to the approximately two million single family house owners in the country who form a much diversified group, with different motivations and wishes (even within the same household), economic conditions and interest for energy renovation.

     Dalarna University has previously performed a number of studies on energy renovation of single family houses from various perspectives, but no holistic study. This study aims to do a review of the knowledge in the field and also engage in a dialogue with chosen actors during seminars and workshops, in order to investigate how the development of energy renovation for single family houses can be moved forward on a national level.

     The study shows that there is a large potential for energy renovation in the single family house stock, but also many barriers that must be overcome. These barriers are to a smaller degree technical, but instead other problem areas dominate such as financing, lack of suitable policy instruments, lack of knowledge among involved actors, regulations etc.. The study has not been able to identify good examples of frameworks covering all the necessary aspects in order to encourage single family house owners to perform energy renovations of sufficient scale. Additionally, the large number of actors required to undertake an extensive energy renovation means that a high level of knowledge, a wide network of contacts and a large commitment are required; something found in few single family house owners. There is also no clear stakeholder willing to engage in this type of turnkey design and building contracting for single family houses.

     The overall assessment of the key actors involved in this pre study is that a broad commitment is required in order for the single family house sector significantly contributing to set targets for improved energy efficiency in buildings. The commitment must be long term as well as including multi- and interdisciplinary research and business development in order to lay the foundations for relevant and effective policy instruments and awareness increasing knowledge interventions.

  • Yvell, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Grehk, T. M.
    Hedström, P.
    Borgenstam, A.
    Engberg, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    EBSD analysis of surface and bulk microstructure evolution during interrupted tensile testing of a Fe-19Cr-12Ni alloy2018In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 141, p. 8-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The microstructure evolution in both surface and bulk grains in a pure Fe-19Cr-12Ni alloy has been analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction after tensile testing interrupted at different strains. Surface grains were studied during in situ tensile testing performed in a scanning electron microscope, whereas bulk grains were studied after conventional tensile testing. The evolution of the deformation structure in surface and bulk grains displays a strong resemblance but the strain needed to obtain a similar deformation structure is lower in the case of surface grains. Both slip and twinning are observed to be important deformation mechanisms, whereas deformation-induced martensite formation is of minor importance. Since the stacking fault energy (SFE) is low, 17mJ/m2, dynamic recovery by cross slip of un-dissociated dislocations is unfavorable. This reduces the annihilation of dislocations which in turn leads to a significant increase of low angle boundaries with increasing strain. The low SFE also favors formation of deformation twins which reduces the slip distance, leading to a hardening similar to the Hall-Petch relation. The combination of a low ability for cross-slip and a reduced slip distance caused by twinning is concluded to be the main reason for maintaining a high strain-hardening rate up to strains close to necking.

  • Carlsson, Axel C
    et al.
    Ruge, Toralph
    Kjøller, Erik
    Hilden, Jørgen
    Kolmos, Hans Jørn
    Sajadieh, Ahmad
    Kastrup, Jens
    Jensen, Gorm Boje
    Larsson, Anders
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    10-year associations between tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease: a CLARICOR (effect of clarithromycin on mortality and morbidity in patients with ischemic heart disease) trial substudy2018In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 7, no 9, article id e008299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the associations and predictive powers between the soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (TNFR1 and TNFR2) and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary heart disease.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: <0.001 for TNFR2). The associations were similar in the replication sample. The associations with the composite outcome were mainly driven by acute myocardial infarction, cardiovascular mortality, and noncardiovascular mortality. The addition of TNFR1 and TNFR2 to established cardiovascular risk factors improved prediction only modestly (<1%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Increased concentrations of circulating TNFR1 and TNFR2 were associated with increased risks of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Yet, the utility of measuring TNFR1 and TNFR2 to improve risk prediction in these patients appears limited.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00121550.

  • Mosshäll Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Häll, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av kommunikation i mötet med nyanlända flyktingar och immigranter – En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Millions of people leave their homes for different reasons to settle in a new country. Adequate communication is the foundation when it comes to building good relationships, which is essential encountering newly arrived refugees and immigrants.

    Aim:

    To survey nurses experiences of communication meeting newly arrived refugees and immigrants in health care.

    Methods:

    The study was conducted as a literature review. The databases CINAHL and PubMed were used for data collection, which generated in 15 scientific articles.

    Results:

    Three main themes were identified, language barriers, interpretation and cultural differences. Commonly for most participating nurses was that they experienced difficulties in communicating with newly arrived refugees and immigrants because of language barriers. Several nurses preferred using bilingual staff and patient relatives rather then applying a interpreter. Cultural differences influenced the conception of symptoms and treatment, which affected the communication encountering newly arrived refugees and immigrants.

    Conclusions:

    An adequate communication is the foundation in building good relationships between human beings. Great responsibility lies on nurses’ personal competence in order to cross the language barrier and cultural differences. The nurses’ perceptions of situations involving different kinds of interpreters diverge depending on their personal experiences.

  • Morris, Maximilian
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Vad tycker egentligen högstadieelever om läsning?: Ett elevperspektiv på läsandet i skolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande kvalitativa studie är att belysa högstadieelevers perspektiv på läsandet i skolan för att se om och hur dessa skiljer sig från ett lärarperspektiv. Detta görs mot bakgrund av forskning kring ungdomars läsvanor, läsmotivationsforskning, aktuella styrdokument samt utifrån det sociokulturella perspektivet. För att besvara studiens syfte och frågeställningar genomfördes sex elevintervjuer i årskurs nio, två lärarintervjuer i svenskarbetslaget samt en intervju med skolbibliotekarien.

    Resultatet av intervjuerna visar att högstadieelevers attityd till läsandet i skolan är förhållandevis negativt, dock med positiv betoning på läsande som sker i sociala sammanhang. Den undersökta elevgruppen har, om än varierad motivation till läsning generellt, olika intressen och erfarenheter vilka återspeglas i de material de väljer att läsa. Resultatet pekar på att den undersöka elevgruppens läsintressen inte reflekteras i undervisningen, utan att läsandet i skolan förefaller distanserat från elevernas erfarenhetsvärld. Lärarnas perspektiv på läsandet i skolan uttrycks av de intervjuade lärarna vara alltför tidsbegränsat, så till vida att de inte hinner ta vara på elevernas intressen och erfarenheter. Denna lärarattityd motiveras av en plikt till läroplanen, vilken lärarna lutar sig mot när de tar fram uppgifter som inbegriper läsning, dock negligeras elevernas behov av ett elevinflytande i läsandet. Lärarnas och elevernas attityd till läsandet förefaller att skilja sig ur en kulturell aspekt, vilken kan förstås genom det sociokulturella perspektivet i den mån att lärarna inte har full insikt i elevernas närhet till det digitala samhället. Detta har resulterat i bristen av samtida, elevnära och populärkulturella texter i svenskundervisningen.

  • Åkerblom, Nina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Digitala verktyg i undervisningen för elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter: En intervjustudie med lärare i grundskolans tidigare år2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka hur lärare i lågstadiet uppfattar att de använder digitala verktyg i undervisningen för elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Mitt syfte har varit att ta reda på hur elevernas läs- och skrivutveckling kan stöttas genom användningen av digitala verktyg samt undersöka vilka positiva och negativa effekter lärarna lyfter fram som ett resultat av detta. En anledning till att den här studien handlar om digitala verktyg är för att läroplanen reviderades i år för att förtydliga skolans uppdrag angående att stärka elevernas digitala kompetens (Skolverket 2017, s. 2). För att genomföra den här studien har jag intervjuat sex lärare i årskurs 1–3 på tre skolor, där alla lärare har skilda erfarenheter av att arbeta med digitala verktyg. Resultatet i studien har visat att digitala verktyg är gynnsamt för så gott som samtliga elever. Det medför en ökad motivation och lust att arbeta. Eleverna kan skriva texter utan att finmotoriken blir ett hinder och lärandet kan göras på ett lustfyllt sätt. Digitala verktyg gör det även enklare att individanpassa undervisningen. En negativ aspekt som lyfts fram av lärarna är en oro att finmotoriken ska påverkas när de använder digitala verktyg i stor utsträckning. Lärarnas svar tycks bekräfta att digitala verktyg kan fungera som ett värdefullt medierande redskap i undervisningen, ett medel för scaffolding som gör det lättare att träffa den enskilda elevens proximala utvecklingszon.

  • Norrlén, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Lärares arbete med läs- och skrivundervisning i klassrummet: En observations- och intervjustudie med lärare i årskurs 1-32018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I skolans styrdokument står det skrivet under syftet i svenskämnet att eleverna ska inspireras till att vilja läsa och skriva. Eleverna ska genom undervisningen få utveckla sin förmåga att kommunicera genom tal och skrift. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka lärares arbete med att utveckla elevers läs- och skrivförmågor i årskurserna 1-3 i ämnet svenska. Jag vill genom denna studie få fördjupade kunskaper om vad lärare anser är utvecklande läs- och skrivundervisning samt hur lärare arbetar med läs- och skrivundervisning i klassrummet.

    För att få svar på studiens syfte och frågeställningar används metoderna observationsstudier och kvalitativa intervjuer, en så kallad metodtriangulering. Observationerna genomfördes i en årskurs 1 vid två tillfällen och i en årskurs 3 vid två tillfällen. Intervjuerna genomfördes efter de fyra observationstillfällena med respektive klasslärare som en fördjupning till studien. Det perspektiv som har valts ut för att kunna diskutera studiens resultat är det sociokulturella perspektivet.

    Studien har visat att lärarna anser sig arbeta med utvecklande arbete hela tiden. Motivationen och intresset för innehållet samt undervisningen, i kombination med uppmuntrande lärare, främjar elevernas utveckling. I det empiriska materialet framkom det även att det inte finns några specifika undervisningsmetoder som gynnar läs- och skrivutvecklingen, utan att varje lärare måste forma undervisningen efter den enskilde individen. Men även arbete i par eller grupp, kan gynna elevernas kunskaper samt läs- och skrivförmågor.

  • Gustafsson, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Elever i behov av särskilt stöd i sin läs- och skrivinlärning: Intervjustudie med lärare och specialpedagoger om metoder och arbetssätt vid läs- och skrivsvårigheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis handlar denna studie om orsaker till varför elever utvecklar läs- och skrivsvårigheter, förebyggande arbete, identifiering och kategorisering av svårigheter samt arbetssätt och metoder som används vid arbete med elever i behov av särskilt stöd i sin läs- och skrivinlärning.

    Studiens övergripande syfte är att via en empirisk undersökning samt tidigare forskning undersöka och redogöra för hur läs- och skrivsvårigheter identifieras samt vilka metoder och arbetssätt lärare och specialpedagoger använder i arbetet med elever som är i behov av särskilt stöd i sin läs- och skrivinlärning.

    Den första delen av arbetet består av bland annat en bakgrund som belyser grundläggande förutsättningar för läs- och skrivinlärning och specialpedagogik samt elever i behov av särskilt stöd. Arbetet lyfter dessutom vad tidigare forskning har kommit fram till gällande vad som kan orsaka att elever utvecklar svårigheter av olika slag samt hur identifiering och elevkategorisering enligt forskning görs.

    Slutligen består arbetet av en empirisk undersökning som svarar på frågorna hur läs- och skrivsvårigheter identifieras samt vilka arbetssätt och metoder som används på tre olika skolor. I denna del undersöks arbetet kring hur tre lärare och två specialpedagoger arbetar för att identifiera läs- och skrivsvårigheter samt vilka arbetssätt och metoder de utgår ifrån i sitt arbete via en intervjustudie.

    Studiens resultat visar att alla tre skolorna aktivt arbetar för att i ett tidigt skede upptäcka läs- och skrivsvårigheter och använder i detta arbete olika metoder som hjälper dem att avgöra vari svårigheterna ligger. Studien visar dessutom att de lärare och specialpedagoger som medverkar har god kunskap kring metoder och arbetssätt som de ständigt strävar efter att förbättra för att ge sina elever bästa möjliga förutsättningar i sitt lärande. Rätt stödinsatser och kommunikation är något de medverkande framhäver är av stor vikt i arbetet med elever som är i behov av särskilt stöd.

  • Magnusson, Lisa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Att utveckla elevers läsförmåga genom tyst läsning: Intervjustudie om hur lärare arbetar med tyst läsning för att utveckla elevers läsförmåga2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur lärare uppger att de arbetar med tyst läsning samt hur de uppfattar att deras arbetssätt påverkar elevers läsutveckling i årskurs 1-3. Syftet konkretiseras genom två frågeställningar: Hur uppger lärare att de arbetar med tyst läsning i klassrummet? Hur uppfattar lärare att deras arbetssätt påverkar elevers läsutveckling i årskurs 1-3? För att besvara syftet och frågeställningarna genomfördes en intervjustudie med sju lärare som är verksamma i årskurs 1-3. Det sociokulturella perspektivet användes som stöd vid analysen av det insamlade materialet.

    Den forskning som ligger till grund för studien visar att det framför allt är viktigt med undervisning i läsförståelsestrategier för eleverna och att de får samtala kring läsningen samt att de får stöd under hela arbetet.

    Studiens resultat visar att lärare tycker det är viktigt att eleverna tidigt utvecklar ett läsintresse och får många tillfällen till att läsa tyst. Lärarna arbetar med läsförståelsestrategier för att ge eleverna verktyg att tillämpa vid den tysta läsningen med målet att utveckla deras läsförståelse. Lärarna menar att det är viktigt med samtal kring läsning, dock är dessa samtal inte lika vanliga i samband med elevernas tysta läsning.

  • Fazakas, E.
    et al.
    Heczel, A.
    Molnar, David
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Varga, B.
    Zadorozhnyy, V.
    Vida, A.
    Comparative microstructural and corrosion development of VCrNiCoFeCu equiatomic multicomponent alloy produced by induction melting and spark plasma sintering2018In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, Vol. 329, no 1, article id 012016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on the corrosion behavior of a single-phase FCC high entropy alloy (VCrNiCoFeCu) casted by two different methods: induction melting and spark plasma sintering. The corrosion resistance has been evaluated using immersion tests in 3.5% NaCl solution, the potentiodynamic polarization measurements and the results are compared how is dependent the corrosion rate as a function of the production methods. Our results show that induction melted sample is stable in salty environment. On the other hand, based on the changes of polarization curves, there must be an evolution of oxide films on the SPSed sample until reaching the stable oxide layer.