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  • Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Verification of a method for measuring Parkinson's disease related temporal irregularity in spiral drawings2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, E2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

  • Public defence: 2017-11-10 13:00 Clas Ohlson, Borlänge
    Thomas, Ilias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Optimizing levodopa dosing routines for Parkinson’s disease2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis in the field of microdata analysis aims to introduce dose optimizing algorithms for the pharmacological management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenerative disease that mostly affects the motor functions of the patients and it is characterized as a movement disorder. The core symptoms of PD are: bradykinesia, postural instability, rigidity, and tremor. There is no cure for PD and the use of levodopa to manage the core symptoms is considered the gold standard. However, long term use of levodopa causes reduced medication efficacy, and side effects, such as dyskinesia, which can also be attributed to overmedication. When that happens precise individualized dosing schedules are required. The goal of this thesis is to examine if algorithmic methods can be used to find dosing schedules that treat PD symptoms and minimize manifestation of side effects. Data from three different sources were used for that purpose: data from a clinical study in Uppsala University hospital in 2015, patient admission chart data from Uppsala University hospital during 2011-2015, and data from a clinical study in Gothenburg University during 2016-2017. The data were used to develop the methods and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.The first algorithm that was developed was a sensor-based method that derives objective measurements (ratings) of PD motor states. The construction of the sensor index was based on subjective ratings of patients’ motor functions made by three movement disorder experts. This sensor-based method was used when deriving algorithmic dosing schedules. Afterwards, a method that uses medication information and ratings of the patients’ motor states to fit individual patient models was developed. This method uses mathematical optimization to individualize specific parameters of dose-effects models for levodopa intake, through minimizing the distance between motor state ratings and dose-effect curves. Finally, two different dose optimization algorithms were developed and evaluated, that had as input the individual patient models. The first algorithm was specific to continuous infusion of levodopa treatment, where the patient’s state was set to a specific target value and the algorithm made dosing adjustments to keep that patients motor functions on that state. The second algorithm concerned oral administration of microtables of levodopa. The ambition with this algorithm was that the suggested doses would find the right balance between treating the core symptoms of PD and, at the same time, minimizing the side effects of long term levodopa use, mainly dyskinesia. Motor state ratings for this study were obtained through the sensor index. Both algorithms followed a principle of deriving a morning dose and a maintenance dose for the patients, with maintenance dose being an infusion rate for the first algorithm, and oral administration doses at specific time points for the second algorithm.The results showed that the sensor-based index had good test-retest reliability, sensitivity to levodopa treatment, and ability to make predictions in unseen parts of the dataset. The dosing algorithm for continuous infusion of levodopa had a good ability to suggest an optimal infusion rating for the patients, but consistently suggested lower morning dose than what the treating personnel prescribed. The dosing algorithm for oral administration of levodopa showed great agreement with the treating personnel’s prescriptions, both in terms of morning and maintenance dose. Moreover, when evaluating the oral medication algorithm, it was clear that the sensor index ratings could be used for building patient specific models.

  • Kristoffersson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Föräldrars uppfattning kring vad som bedöms iämnet idrott och hälsa: - en enkätundersökning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this essay is to examine the knowledge among parents to students, from grade 9

    of upper level lower secondary school, about what is assessed in the school subject physical

    education. This is done by distributing a postal questionnaire to 89 parents. 42 of them chose

    to take part in the survey and the results show that parents are having different opinions about

    assessment and what the base is for assessment in the school subject physical education.

    When looking at the result of the study from a gender perspective it shows that the women

    rate their knowledge about the base for assessment higher than the men. The parents were also

    asked to rank what they think is the most essential part when it comes to assessment. The

    result shows that both women and men think it is the active participation of the pupil during

    lessons. When the parents rank which element of the school subject physical education is

    most and least important, when it comes to assessment, the result shows that dance is seen as

    one of the less important elements. The results of the study can overall be seen as quite

    fragmented. One explanation concerning the fragmented results could be the question about

    what knowledge really is in the school subject physical education.

  • Lindell, Viktor
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Bahceci, Özgur
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utvärdering av kravhanteringsmetod: Täcker Stjärnan viktiga delar av kravhanteringsprocessen i ensystemarkitektonisk kontext ?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's IT operations, procurement of a new IT platform is a way of developing a business and its

    business. Platforms can be purchased or built by the company itself. If the company decides to buy a

    standard system, there’s a huge range of standardized platforms to choose from. However, many

    standard systems do not provide desired results for the business or remain unused in some cases.It is

    therefore important to carry out a task in which you correctly identify and describe an activity's needs to

    avoid the procurement of a standard system that does not produce results.

    By using methodologies, companies get a kind of framework they can work from and in this age there

    are many different requirements such as Rational Unified Process (RUP) or ISO / IEC 25000 called

    System and Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE).

    One of these requirements is Stjärnan, which is a popular method of use in Sweden.

    Stjärnan is initially based on the internationally recognized method RUP. Stjärnan has taken parts of

    RUP and scaled it down to create a method adapted to Swedish operations. Stjärnan is generally used to

    capture and structure the work of crafts in a system development project.

    We have evaluated Stjärnan in a system architectural context to see how well adapted it is to Swedish

    operations. We have produced a requirement specification in our process, which is a practical part of the

    evaluation we carry out.

    In our evaluation we have used an evaluation model we chose to call the Bass model. This model

    measures how well a method meets criteria within the process.

    The empirical report is based on interviews and mail correspondence as well as document collection.

    This has been done to answer our question "Does Stjärnan cover key parts of the requirements

    management process in a system architectural context?"

    The result of our report shows that Stjärnan covers important parts of the requirement management

    process in a system architectural context. This result emerges from our analysis, where we show through

    a matrix whether the star meets the criteria the Bass model demands

  • Jansson, Peter M.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    An Explorative Integration of Factors Causing Men's Violence against Women2017In: Journal of Psychology and Clinical Psychiatry, ISSN 2373-6445, Vol. 8, no 2, 2-11 p.Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the great progress in individual disciplines studying men’s physical violence against women, the various disciplines have developed much different approaches that by themselves are insufficient for understanding the processes that lead to men’s violence against women. Moreover, they also tend to neglect the equally important issue of understanding why some men are not violent toward women. The aim of this work is to integrate former research on socially modifiable factors and therefore does not include theories relating genetics and neurochemistry that may also play an important role. It shows how the psychological approach within criminology can be integrated with the feminist masculinity perspective. The work illustrates that it is both theoretically and methodologically possible, through an integration of previous research, to make hypotheses about under which conditions men are likely to be violent against women, as well as make hypotheses about under what conditions men are unlikely to be violent against women. This study also emphasizes methodologically important non-dichotomous forms where both enabling and reactive conditions are mixed at various levels. Despite the methodological problems, an integrated perspective on men’s violence against women is the most promising way forward today.

  • Jansson, Peter M.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Emotioners betydelse för psykisk hälsa och ohälsa2017In: Mind: för psykisk hälsa, ISSN 2002-4282, Vol. 58, no 3, 30-35 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen visar entydigt att personer som utsatts för våld, kränkningar, övergrepp och förnedringar i barndomen är mer skambenägna än andra. Känsligheten är störst för händelser i vuxenlivet som påminner personen om att denne varit oälskad som barn.

  • Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Protolanguage possibilities in a construction grammar framework2016In: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference (EVOLANG XI) / [ed] S.G. Roberts, C. Cuskley, L. McCrohon, L. Barceló-Coblijn, O. Fehér & T. Verhoef, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying possible stages of protolanguage critically depends on the underlying nature of language. Theories of language differ in evolvability, and in whether they permit protolanguage stages. In this presentation, I will study the protolanguage potential and evolva­bility of Construction Grammar. Postulating that CG is a biologically real description of language, its evolvability through a sequence of intermediate protolanguages is investigated.

  • Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated. Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Did language evolve incommunicado?2014In: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference (EVOLANG 10) / [ed] Cartmill et al, Singapore: World Scientific, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly assumed in evolutionary linguistics that language evolved for communication.But much recent work in biolinguistics, e.g. Chomsky (2010), proposes instead that languageevolved for purely internal use, as a cognitive tool, with no externalization until at a later stagein language evolution.How well supported is really our general assumption of communicative language origins? Doesit make sense to have instead an early stage with internal language only? I will review the argumentsinvoked in favor of the incommunicado hypothesis, and critically evaluate their strength.

  • Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    The Cathedral of Physics1997In: Vetenskapens ansikten / [ed] Hans-Albin Larsson, Jönköping: Jönköping University Press , 1997Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Wide, Sverre
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Causation and reason: R.G. Collingwood and causal analysis as the essence of social thinking2017In: Distinktion Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory, ISSN 1600-910X, E-ISSN 2159-9149, Vol. 18, no 2, 173-195 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How are we to understand causal relations and analysis in socialscience? This paper takes R. G. Collingwood’s writing aboutcausation as its point of departure for the answering of thisquestion. Two different kinds of causal relations are distinguishedfrom pseudo-causality; of the former, one is directly connected toreason, the other to our ability to manipulate the world. Theirinterconnection and significance are discussed and theconclusions are drawn that (a) causality belongs to the realm ofhuman praxis and that (b) causal analysis proper is well suited forthe social sciences. It is further showed that some importantexplanations are not causal in any of the above-mentionedsenses. These explanations could conceivably be calledinterpretative descriptions, but it is suggested that perhaps theycan be understood as examples of causa sui, of something selfcaused.

  • Joly, M.
    et al.
    Ruiz, G.
    Mauthner, F.
    Bourdoukan, P.
    Emery, M.
    Andersen, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    A methodology to integrate solar thermal energy in district heating networks confronted with a Swedish real case study2017In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 122, 865-870 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Oikonomou, Christos
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Pejryd, Lars
    In-situ Micro-tensile Testing of Additive Manufactured Maraging Steels in the SEM: Influence of Build Orientation, Thickness and Roughness on the Resulting Mechanical Properties2017In: Euro PM2017 Congress Proceedings: Session 30: Mechanical Behaviour of AM Materials, 2017, Session 30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is frequently used additive manufacturing technique capable of producing various complex parts including thin-wall sections. However the surface roughness is a limiting factor in thin sections produced by SLM process when strength is the main criterion. In this study, the influence of build orientation, thickness and roughness on the resulting mechanical properties of as-built test samples was investigated. Various thin sheets of EN 1.2709 maraging steel built in horizontal and vertical orientations produced by SLM were investigated using in-situ micro-tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope. The mechanical strength and deformation mechanisms were analyzed and explained based on thickness and build orientation. Increased ductility was observed in thicker samples as well as in the horizontal build samples. The results illustrate the potential of the in-situ test technique and aspects important to consider in design guidelines for thin AM structures.

  • Petrovich, Ingrid
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La interacción oral y las TIC en el aula de ELE: Un estudio sobre el uso de las nuevas tecnologías como herramienta didáctica2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Las nuevas tecnologías forman hoy en día parte de la vida cotidiana de la sociedad en general. Estas herramientas utilizadas como recurso educativo nos ofrecen una multitud de posibilidades para fomentar la interacción oral de los alumnos de español como lengua extranjera.

    Los resultados presentados en este estudio indican el potencial de los entornos digitales, que acompañados de propuestas didácticas apropiadas, pueden contribuir a la motivación y el desarrollo de los alumnos en el proceso de aprendizaje.

    Algunos recursos digitales gratuitos como

    Skype o Voxopop son algunos ejemplos de plataformas que pueden utilizarse en el aula de ELE y que pueden contribuir al desarrollo de la comunicación entre estudiantes de cualquier parte del mundo y mejorar las competencias comunicativas. Otros recursos útiles y significativos pueden ser también Youtube o Kahoot discussion para crear actividades colectivas e iniciar temas de conversación en el aula.

  • Bergman, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan stödja nutritionsintaget för personer med demens – en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    In Sweden, around 160,000 people live with a dementia diagnosis, which is a neurological condition where brain tissue has faded. This will lead to a decrease in physiological and cognitive abilities. Nursing interventions related to a person with dementia focus on relieving symptoms and providing assistance towards the functional decrease. These interventions can be applied to nutritional intake since meal situations can be a complex task for people with dementia. To accommodate the individual, these actions can be performed from a person-centered spectra.


    The aim of the literature review was to explore person-centered nursing measures that a nurse can apply for various factors to optimize nutrition intake in people with dementia.


    An overview compiled of 11 scientific articles.


    Five interventions that benefited the nutritional intake for people with dementia were listen to music during the meal, receive personal assistance to aid food intake, verbal prompting as support, how the food was presented, training programs at mealtime.


    From this overview, interventions have been identified that are beneficial to the person with dementia in connection with nutritional intake. When no interventions are applied to meals, the condition of the person with dementia could be worsened dramatically through, for example, disease and immobility, resulting in deterioration in quality of life.

    The interactions presented could be provided by caregivers and relatives through simple approaches.

  • Sunesson, Måns
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Professionella idrottares kommunikation via sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most professional athletes have understood how important social media have become to build a strong brand image for their personal brand. However, few athletes know how to succeed in doing this. The purpose of this study is to try to describe how athletes can build and improve their personal brand image on social media by examining on which social media platforms fans prefer to follow athletes and what kind of content they prefer the athlete to publish. To study this, a customer survey has been conducted. The results of the survey showed that female fans prefer to follow professional athletes through image-based social media while men to a greater extent prefer text-based or a combination of image and text. The most appreciated content among the fans was motivating and / or inspiring content closely followed by content linked directly or indirectly to the athlete's professional role as an athlete. However, the subject proved to be more complex than the what was assumed at the starting point of this study. When this studys result was analyzed with the theoretical reference frame as background, it appears that more parties have major interests in the professional athletes social media communication than what was assumed. Conclusions from this study are that it is important that the athlete puts hers / his fans and followers at the center of hers / his social media strategies to successfully be able to build a strong personal brand image on social media. It also seems to be important that the athlete interacts with and has a personal communication with the fans to build their personal brand. Further studies on the subject would be needed to draw conclusions about how the parties different interests affect each other and how conflicts of interests can be avoided.

  • Tegelberg, Linda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Kallo, Juliana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Neuromarketing: En kvalitativ studie, där svenska marknadsföringsexperters förhållningssätt till neuromarketing behandlas.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a society where information inundates consumers, marketers have been forced to find new ways to spread their message. One way to do this, is by the new subject neuromarketing which is a combination of neuroscience and marketing. Neuromarketing boarded the world at 2002.

    Neuromarketing consist of three big frontiers: neuroscience, behavioral economics and social psychology. By uniting these three areas it is now possible to study the brains and bodies of consumers to find out why they act and react like they do.

    The developments in technology force marketers to find new ways to communicate with the world and though Sweden is placed as number three among countries who is digitalized, neuromarketing is unknown in Sweden. How can it be? Why are there not any Swedish studies about neuromarketing?

    The purpose with this study is to contribute with knowledge about the subject neuromarketing, by emphasize the views of Swedish experts towards neuromarketing. The empirics was gathered by interviews with Swedish marketing experts. The result of this study shows that Swedish experts disagree with the studies that claims neuromarketing to be something new and revolutionary. Instead, Swedish experts claim that marketers always been studying consumers behaviors, feelings and reactions. Swedish experts also says that the technology behind neuromarketing is inadequate and comes with a lot of restrictions. There is technology more important than the one who measure brain activity and eye movements.

    The subject neuromarketing also comes with ethical aspects and Swedish experts does not think that consumers want to be supervised in a commercial intention.

  • Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Framing the Gaze: (Audio-) Visual Design Intentions and Perceptual Considerations in Film Editing2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme for this doctoral thesis focuses on how a film editor strives actively to perceptually frame and direct the film viewer’s gaze across film edits. The editor’s (audio-)visual intentions concerning the film viewing correspond to perceptual considerations that the editor makes during film editing.

    Film editing in this thesis is considered as a kind of design work, foremost motivated by the possibilities of many new approaches, questions, and answers that a design perspective brings, stretching well beyond what previously adopted perspectives have done.

    The research questions asked, as well as the presented results, are discussed with regard to design theory, established film production field knowledge, and perception research. Apart from considering audiovisual perception in a film editing context, film editing is also discussed as audiovisual design, and tentative implications for the role of perception in other kinds of design work are pointed out.

    The results of my analyses are that there is reason to consider parts of film production as design work; that properties of an audiovisual material affect the creative space; that perceptual considerations are a significant part of the film editor’s treatment of the audiovisual material; that film viewers’ response to film edits varies with the shape of the edits; and that this variation is possible to link with the film editor’s intention regarding the edits, as well as to the degree of fulfillment of the intention.

    I conclude that perceptual precision at the edit point is decisive for attaining a desired film-viewing decoding of a film sequence, and that when the perceptual precision is low, it is likely that the perceived continuity of the film fails.

    The contribution of this doctoral thesis is that it drives the investigation of actual appliance of perception as audiovisual knowledge in film editing. Hence, it also adds to the more general discussion on perception as part of audiovisual thinking, and how audiovisual knowledge is formed.

    The thesis contributes to the area of Innovation and Design through its mix of methods, since the main study considers the creation of new artefacts, the thinking going on during that process, as well as human responses to the artefacts. Conclusively, the thesis provides a thorough example of how a design research perspective can add to the understanding of film production, and its trades and activities.

  • Recensioner1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 105-114 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Svallfors, Stefan
    Umeå universitet.
    Debatt: Inkonsistenta flyktingvänner eller inkompetent forskning? Kommentar till José Alberto Diaz1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 101-104 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Klintman, Mikael
    Lunds universitet.
    Miljöhandlingars socialpsykologiska förutsättningar och hinder - ett teoretisk tperspektiv1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 82-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social-psychological conditions and obstacles to environmentally responsible agency - a theoretical perspective

    The aim in this article has been to go beyond the individual level in theoretically analyzing the preconditions for people to adopt a more environmentally responsible behavior within daily activities. In the first part, I have examined some overlapping social characteristics of modernity. The chief concepts here have been risk, time-space distanciation, disembeddedness and reflexivity. Anthony Giddens (1990) and Ulrich Beck (1986/1992) are referred to in this part. These modem characteristics have been put in relation to the motivational factors of behavior change offered in modem urban society. In the second part, the question of environmentally related agency has been placed into three social-psychological contexts: the public, the private, and the parochial realms of social life. I have argued that the different realms to various extents are affected by the modem characteristics, and that the different realms, therefore, offer different conditions for the environmentally responsible behavior to be supported by socially, ethically and, practically motivating factors. Emphasis has been given upon motivating factors within the local realm, mainly within neighborhoods. In neighborhoods, I have claimed, social ties, trust between neighbors, and a shared interest for the neighborhood may be used as an intermediate variable between the leading institutions of society and the individual lifestyle in solving environmental problems. This is true both when the environmental goals of the leading institutions, are communicated to the parochial sphere and vice versa. I have also suggested further theoretical analyses as well as possible empirical applications to the theoretical framework of the article.

  • Lindquist, Per
    Lunds universitet.
    Samhällsvetenskapen och miljöproblemens sociala ekologi1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 64-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of the problems of the natural environment, presently taking a central part of the societal agenda, reveals a situation in which social science in general, and sociology in particular, is confronted with two major questions: the first one concerns how environmental problems are to be conceptualized from a strict social scientific, as distinguished from a natural scientific point of view; the second one has to do with the normative relation of social science to the political problematization of environmental concerns. Taking a communication theoretical point of departure, mainly following the ideas of Niklas Luhmann and Ulrich Beck, it is argued in this article that the environmental problem may be conceptualized in terms of the internal, social, as opposed to the external, natural ecology of the functionally differentiated modem society. As sociologists we are returned to the original intention of the discipline, namely, that social facts can be explained only by social facts. In this context the notion of risk - conceived of as the problem of decision-making in the face of a spatially and temporally contingent and uncertain environment - will be of central importance. The perspective presented here suggests a sociological reconceptualization meant to grasping the idea of a societal system no longer having the achievement of security as its primary goal, but rather the exploitation of uncertainty and contingency itself: scientifically, ethically and politically.

  • Sungqvist, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Risk och kärnavfall - en studie av det moderna samhällets experter1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 37-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk and nuclear waste - a study of the experts in modern society

    Modem societies are characterized by their extensive expert systems, which penetrate all aspects of social life. The point of departure in this article is Anthony Giddens’ theory of expert systems. The theory is criticized and said to be both wide and vague, and depend too much on the notion of trust. It is in the article argued that there are life worlds outside the expert systems, with their own rationalities, which possibly can work as counter forces and sometimes also are able to change the expert systems. Giddens’ theory, based on the notions of trust and weak inductive knowledge, ignores the independent cognitive capacities among the laymen. Supplementing Giddens’ theory with some results from the sociology of science it is argued that both the experts’ and the laymen’s relations to the expert systems should be understood as alternating between trust and a cognitive attitude. The theory of expert systems is illustrated by the history of nuclear waste management in Sweden, which is an activity highly dependent on trust and legitimacy among the general public. The opposition to nuclear waste among lay persons during the last decades have in some respect changed the expert systems involved.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    Högskolan i Örebro.
    Mellan sociologi och ekologi? Om det sociologiska studiet av miljöfrågan1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 7-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociology, as it came to be constructed from the late 19th century onwards, deliberately concentrated on human societies, giving little attention to the natural world which constitutes the very condition of its existence and development. Today, some sociologists claim that the environmental problems of today constitute a challenge to this classical sociological understanding. By critically discussing environmental sociologists’ claim for the necessity to include biophysical facts in sociological analysis, this article seeks to elaborate a sociological perspective on environmental problems. From the point of view of epistemology and the sociology of knowledge, the article contrasts naive realism with social constructivism. It is here stated that even though social constructivism seems to be more in line with sociological thought a realistic standpoint regarding the environmental threat seem to be a necessity. By way of conclusion it is stated that a proper sociological understanding has to take into account nature’s constructedness as well as realistic side. Thus nature cannot be understood outside of society or society outside of nature.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    Högskolan i Örebro.
    Miljö och risk: en kort introduktion1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 5-6 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Från redaktionen1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 2, 2-3 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1995:21995Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Lindh, Anne-Sophie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Historiemedvetande i läromedel för åk 7-92017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har gjort en läromedelsstudie med syfte att analysera relativt nyproducerade läroböcker i historia utifrån frågor om de har potential att utveckla elevers historiemedvetande.

    När jag analyserar de tre läroböckerna i historia för åk 7-9 som jag har valt så studerar jag texter, bilder och arbetsuppgifter utifrån några av de perspektiv som svenska historiedidaktiker anser har störst möjlighet att påverka elevers historiemedvetande.

    Jag fokuserar på aspekterna som rör reflekterande berättelser, identitets och värdeskapande innehåll. En central fråga är om innehållet är multikronologiskt och visar eleverna att vi är både skapade av och skapare av historia.

    Läroböckerna har innehåll som bör kunna hjälpa till att utveckla elevernas historiemedvetanden, men inte i tillräckligt stor utsträckning. Jag anser utifrån min studie att alla tre böckerna har brister. De motsvarar inte på egen hand historieundervisningens behov utifrån kunskapskraven i Lgr11.

  • Racine, Sylvain
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Analyse thématique de L’hiver de force : Déterminisme social et invectives2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The novel studied in this literary analysis is

    L’hiver de force written by Réjean Ducharme and published by Gallimard in 1973. The objective of this work was to reach an understanding as for why the main characters André and Nicole, two clever and educated malcontents, chose to live a life leading to basically nothing, all this while insulting just about everyone and everything. Furthermore, we suggest an answer, in the narrative context, to the question « why does the winter begin a 21st of June? » In order to realise this study, we looked into the invectif, a literary theory developed by Marie-Hélène Larochelle, as well as the notion of social determinism.

  • Sociologförbundet har ordet. Sociologidagarna 2018: Sociology in a polarized world2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 267-268 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Recensioner2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 245-265 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Heidegran, Carl-Göran
    Lunds universitet.
    An interview with Hans Joas2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 233-243 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An interview with Hans Joas

    This interview took place at Lund University on January 18, 2017. In the interview Joas talks about the continuities and orientations of his own work, explains some of his key conceptual and theoretical insights, and comments on the state of sociology today.

  • Westerstrand, Jenny
    Kontextualiseringens svåra konst: Kunskap, kön och förbindelselinjer i en förundersökningom ”hedersvåld”2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 209-232 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contextualizing Violence: Knowledge, gender and lines of connection in apreliminary investigation on “honour violence”

    I discuss some practical and theoretical problems related to the feminist project of re-contextualizing law in order to acknowledge women’s experiences. Nicola Lacey warns us that re-contextualization might result in existing misogynist presumptions being re-inscribed in “new” lines of thoughts, making the problem of gender inequality even harder to address. In this article my analytical focus is set on two cultural contexts constructed as different – a “Swedish gender equal context” and a “non-Swedish honour related context” – and the attempts made by the prosecutor and the police “to contextualize” the latter. I highlight, in the light of Lacey’s warnings, the need for a careful and grounded analysis of the issues being “contextualized” as well as a careful analysis of the norms that are supposed to guide the process of contextualization. I take my point of departure in the example of a police investigation of suspected honor related violence, committed in the context of a compulsory school.

  • Lindblom, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Qaderi, Josef
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Massmedias hantering av vetenskaplig kritik mot Ritalin, Concerta och Strattera: Ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv på psykofarmaka2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 181-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass media’s handling of scientific critique of Ritalin, Concerta and Strattera: a social constructionist perspective on psychotropic agents

    This article aims to examine how scientific critique of pharmacological treatment with Ritalin, Concerta and Strattera for ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is handled in eight of the largest newspapers in Sweden, 2002–2015 (n=183 articles). The media study explores the terminology used; the depiction of long-term harmful effects; the actors given space to express their views; the attention displayed to alternative treatments; the representation of pharmaceutical studies; the role of news and debate articles; the significance of conflicts of interest; and whether ADHD is portrayed as a medical condition. The results show that mass media, in numerous ways, neglects or undermines the critique of pharmacological interventions for ADHD put forward in the scientific literature. In the article a social constructionist approach to psychotropic agents is developed, highlighting the significance of what the authors call “psychopharmacological elasticity.” The concept illustrates that the boundary between medicines and harmful agents, such as drugs, is flexible from a scientific standpoint and depends on collective definitional processes in society.

  • Lydahl, Doris
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Visible persons, invisible work?: Exploring articulation work in the implementation of person-centred care on a hospital ward2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 163-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visible persons, invisible work? Exploring articulation work in the implementation of person-centred care on a hospital ward

    Recently, many initiatives promoting a holistic view of the patient have been developed. In the last 20 years, different models and frameworks have been advanced to operationalize these different forms of holistic care. This article focuses on one specific case of holistic person-centred care, using the sociological theories of articulation work and invisible work to investigate the efforts involved in sustaining its realization. The article builds on a small ethnographic study conducted at a ward in a Swedish hospital implementing person-centred care. Following a nurse, and her patient, through a ‘person-centred’ admission process and its subsequent procedures, it is argued that person-centred care depends on nurses performing many new tasks which are rarely recognized and appreciated. Secondly, it is argued that nurses are continually asked to do what Anselm Strauss defined as articulation work, coordinating between these different new tasks and established duties. Thirdly, the article discusses the tensions arising when implementing a formalized model of care, which builds on a critique of standardization and objectification, and the work that is excluded and invisible in such routinized operationalization. Finally, it is concluded that while the successful implementation of person-centred care is often argued to rely on the willingness of nurses to surrender old habits, it seems rather to hinge on the skilled inventiveness of these nurses and their ability to overcome the practical difficulties they encounter.

  • Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, Sara
    Lunds universitet.
    Redaktörerna har ordet: Lundaredaktionen har tagit över2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 3, 161-162 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, SaraLunds universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2017:32017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Maria, Ingels Lindqvist
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Josephine, Stengård
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Matchad förvärvsgrad i Dalarna och Sverige: Påverkar könsfördelningen i en utbildningsgrupp kvinnors och mäns möjligheter att få ett relevant jobb?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at examining the matched employment rate for women and men, in Dalarna and Sweden, as well as explaining possible differences. If a group of individuals within a education group with a graduate degree are employed in a different field of employment than the education provided competence (than the education is meant for), the matched employment rate within the education group is low. The data is obtained from Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) and is studied through a multiple linear regression analysis.

    Both women and men with university/college education affect the matched degree of employment more comparatively with upper secondary education. The result also shows that if the proportion of women in the education group increases, the proportion of employees with matching gives positive results for women and negative for men; the reverse relationship also applies; the matched male employment rate increases as the proportion of men in the education group increases. This shows that gender discrimination prevails in the Swedish labor market.

  • Olsson, Amber
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Att undervisa unga elever i engelska - arbetsmetoder för en andraspråksinlärning: En litteraturstudie om framgångsrik undervisning i engelska som andraspråk för årskurserna 1–32017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Engelskundervisningen idag i årskurserna 1-3 är enligt min åsikt och erfarenhet, inte tillräckligt prioriterat. Många av eleverna kan redan vid skolstarten ha engelskkunskaper med sig och de måste nationellt ges möjligheten till att utveckla dessa. Läraren kan ha stor betydelse i barnens andraspråks- och språkinlärning. Det är av vikt att läraren har kompetens, skapar en trygg miljö och har en varierad undervisning. Andra aspekter som är avgörande för elevernas förståelse är som tidigare sagt miljö och även engagemang från eleverna. Detta examensarbete är en litteraturstudie och innebär att sökningar har gjorts och litteratur har sammanställts inom ett valt område. Syftet med den här litteraturstudien är att undersöka om arbetsmetoder mot yngre barn samt vad tidigare forskning säger om andraspråks- och språkinlärning för barn. I resultatet upptäcktes att det är många faktorer som spelar in vid barns språkinlärning i de valda studierna. Det som gemensamt hittades bland studierna var vikten av repetition, imitation och kommunikation vid undervisning. Att börja med språkundervisning i årskurs 1 och att ta vara på elevernas egna inlärningsstrategier skapar de bästa förutsättningarna för språkinlärning. Ett förslag till vidare forskning är att undersöka hur lärare idag arbetar med engelska språkinlärning mot yngre barn.

  • Flodberg, Veronica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Hur kan uttal läras ut i klassrummet?: En litteraturstudie om uttalsinlärning hos elever i årskurs F-32017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sägs att barn har lätt att lära språk då de tycks uppskatta att lära sig nya ord och är nyfikna på språk. Jämfört med många andra länder påbörjas språkinlärningen i Sverige relativt sent. I den här litteraturstudien undersöks viktiga förutsättningar för inlärning vid en tidig språkstart samt hur elever i årskurserna F-3 lär sig uttal i engelska som andraspråk. Som grund för analysen av studiernas resultat används Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH), Krashens teorier om andraspråksinlärning samt Piagets teorier om barns utveckling. Fem studier har analyserats. Resultatet av litteraturstudien påvisar nyttan av tidig språk- och uttalsinlärning men att det är i hög grad beroende av lärarnas kompetens. Vidare visar resultatet att uttalsinlärning gynnas mest av metoder som innehåller direkt respons på elevernas uttal men även att passiva inlärningsmetoder (t.ex. lyssna på sång) gynnar inlärning av uttal som ligger nära modersmålet. När det gäller barns språk- och uttalsinlärning är det viktigt att ha rätt kompetensen hos lärarna och att flera metoder (direkt och indirekta) kan gynna inlärningen.

  • Luck Renberg, Teresa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Approaches to Critical Literacy Instruction in the Middle School ESL/EFL classroom2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature review is to compare some critical reading comprehension classroom practices globally, with particular focus on the teaching of reading comprehension in Sweden, where student well being and equity are issues of importance. Critical literacy used is a term that encompasses many aspects of power related issues in language. The Swedish curriculum is explicit in naming these issues of student identity and democratic agency which it shares with critical pedagogical practices.

    The result of the review is a presentation and discussion of the different studies, using a structure based on one used for critical discourse analysis instruction with students. The evidence suggests that higher level comprehension is a skill that takes time to train and should be done explicitly by pointing out the aspects of language which convey meaning. Learning to search the text for evidence of the underlying meaning gave verystrong effect sizes on standardized tests for reading comprehension. The reading comprehension results of minority/ESL students on standardized tests improved when space was made to discuss very different experiences within the same culture in language classrooms.

  • Författarpresentation1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 3, 110- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Recensioner1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 3, 93-109 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Diaz, Jose Alberto
    Uppsala universitet.
    Debatt1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 3, 89-92 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Jönhill, Jan Inge
    Lunds universitet.
    Människan som individ i sociala systems omvärld. Om individ och person i Niklas Luhmanns systemteori1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 3, 61-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Man as individual in the environment of social systems. On individual and person in Niklas Luhmann's systems theory

    The relation between man and society is an old and central problem in the modem social sciences. Traditionally, man has been seen as a part of society. Luhmann’s main thesis, contrary to the sociological tradition, is that man as individual always belongs to an environment of social systems. The intention of this article is to present Luhmann’s analysis, and at the same time to discuss it in relation to the sociological theoretical tradition and to show its actuality. Luhmann’s analysis follows four main lines: First, the difference between social and psychic systems is clarified as distinctions; secondly, the obvious connections between these systems has to be defined. This is done through the concept of structural coupling and specified in terms of interpenetration, socialization, inclusion and exclusion, a third way of analysis focuses on the concept of person. Only as person is man part of a social system, and as such takes on and breaks roles and other social relations. Finally, the modem individuality is focused upon. Humanistic philosophy, which has strongly influenced the social sciences, signifies the modem individual as a subject. This subject, on the one hand, complains of alienation, on the other hand, demands emancipation. Consequently, the subject is confrontedwith the paradox of too much and, at the same time, too little solidarity. From the point of view of social systems problems of individualization are problems of the environment of society and therefore not questions of solidarity. As employee, man is included in the economy as a functional system; as citizen in a democracy, he or she is included in a political system, etc. Without a job citizenship, etc, the individual is excluded from functional systems. The current growing global problems of the individual, in terms of unemployment, of homelessness, deplacement, etc, must be understood as beeing closely connected with the functional differentiation of society. By placing the individual in the environment of social systems, these societal and social problems can be analysed in a new way, and it implies, paradoxically, a concept of society more adapted to man than the one proclaimed by humanistic philosophy.

  • Gustafsson, Rolf Å
    Karolinska institutet.
    Valfrihet och konkurrens som medel att förbättra den offentliga sektom1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 3, 43-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competition and freedom of choice - a conceptual clarification and critique

    This article begins with an illustration of the rhetorical use of the concept of competition in the ongoing restructuring of the Swedish welfare state. It is shown that competition has two differing connotations: From the perspective of an ordinary citizen, the concept makes sense as a contest between two (or several) competing actors in which ”the best may win”. This everyday life interpretation functions as a legitimising force for market-oriented reforms by nurturing expectations that the customer/client may reap benefits from competition. Conceptualising competitive acts as instances of para-action (in contrast to social inter-action) highlights some important features of competition: Para-action concerning positional goods (Hirsch) has a tendency to run out of control. No one benefits, but at the same time the para-action continues to feed itself. This action-oriented interpretation of competition serves as a source of legitimation, only as long as the concept remains analytically vague and the possible social consequences of competitive acts are mystified. A fundamentally different meaning of the concept originates from neo-classic economics, where perfect competition is inherent to a stable state of the economic system. In mainstream analysis this means that no competitive acts are necessary or possible. This restricts the practical relevance of economic analysis, which is underscored by the fact that when it comes to the effects of real or imperfect competition economics is imprecise. Hirschman’s critique of the hope for a taut economy - envisioned by mainstream economics as a competitive market system with no organisational slacks - is also discussed. In conclusion there is little clear-cut scientific support for the implementation of competition into the institutional structures of the welfare state.

  • Alvesson, Mats
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska Institutionen i Lund och Göteborg.
    Kärreman, Dan
    Företagsekonomiska Institutionen i Lund och Göteborg.
    Att synliggöra organisation eller ”Arne Weise har fan inte sålt nånting”. Löpsedelsmöte på Aftonpressen1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 3, 3-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to illuminate certain cultural aspects of the work of an evening newspaper (working style, ways of thinking, assumptions about the business, its objectives, perceptions of the readership) as well as how communication in group situations contributes to the social construction of organizations in terms of objectives, meaning and style. The paper will also address the issues of play, emotions and pleasure on work. It is argued that a situational focus, when studying organizations and other social phenomena, provides a less constrained understanding of the object than predominant systemic approaches. The situation, as studied and discussed here, is a monthly meeting between managers and news bill editors of an evening newspaper where sales and the content of news bills are evaluated. It is concluded that, while the premise for the meeting (the casual relation between sales and news bill layout) guides the conversation, the meeting primarily operates as an emotional arena where excitement and pleasure are produced under game-like circumstances. This allows the participants to address, in a relaxed and friendly atmosphere, questions such as:

    Who are we? How do we look upon ourselves? Who are our customers? What ’needs’ shall we satisify? What is important and good? What is central? How do we work? How do we think about certain things?

    While some answers are provided and reinforced, the main outcome of the meeting is the possibility, however restricted, to pose these questions and play with them. Thus, the participants manage to establish a zone with considerable degrees of freedom; free from committments but not free from remainders of who they are or ought to be.

  • Från redaktionen1995In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, no 3, 2- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1995:31995Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Claesson, Urban
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History.
    Olof Ekman (1639–1713) – An Ordinary Swedish Pastor as a Pioneer for Pietism: Perspectives on Writing Ecclesiastical Biographies in the Tension Between Local and International Contexts2017In: Spiritual and Ecclesiastical Biographies: Research, Results, and Reading / [ed] Anders Jarlert, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets historie och antikvitets akademien , 2017, 1, 54-61 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Texten problematiserar hur man inom ämnet kyrkohistoria kan möta problem vad gäller en historisk aktörs kontextualisering. Särskilt fokus ligger på skillnaden mellan lokal och internationell kontextualisering.

  • Strömer, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Schludermann, Katarina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hur vill barnfamiljer ta emot reklam?: En kvantitativ studie om vilken/ vilka kommunikationskanaler som barnfamiljer föredrar att få attraktiva erbjudanden genom.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    In today's society, it becomes increasingly difficult for companies to reach their prospective customers. In order to reach their customers, companies can convey messages through communication channels that have varying characteristics. Communication channels can be divided into traditional and modern communication channels. Different characteristics of the communication channels are preferred by different individuals. Families with children constitutes a significant part of the consumption of food as they purchase fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) to a greater extent than the remaining family constellations. As a result, this target group becomes a key target for food retailers. In this regard, more thorough knowledge from the food store's perspective is required to apply the right communication channel to reach the target families with children, in a manner preferred by the target audience.


    To investigate which of the modern and/ or traditional communication channels, families with children prefer from a food store when an attractive message is conveyed.

    Reference Framework:

    The essay is based on theories such as the communication process, general differences for the modern and traditional communication channels and communication direction. Furthermore, the theoretical frame of reference is based on previously studied material from scientific articles.


    The methodological approach is based on a quantitative method and the empirical material has been collected through a quantitative questionnaire survey.


    The results of the survey show that the preferred communication channel for the target audience is e-mail. E-mail had a high percentage share compared to the remaining communication channels that were included in the survey. Furthermore, the results suggest that modern communication channels are preferred to traditional communication channels.