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  • Nascimento Josefsson, Nadia Pricilla
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    La intertextualidad como recurso de seducción: Un análisis de la relación Molina/Valentín en El beso de la mujer araña, de Manuel Puig2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En el presente estudio se analiza la utilización de la intertextualidad como recurso de seducción por parte del personaje Luis Molina hacia el personaje Valentín Arregui en dos de las películas citadas en

    El beso de la mujer araña, de Manuel Puig. Se parte del concepto de dialogismo de Mijaíl Bajtín y del término intertextualidad, propuesto por Julia Kristeva. A través de la utilización de la hermenéutica, el estudio hace un análisis que es centrado en torno a ideas analíticas y que hacen una conexión entre las películas La mujer pantera y Yo anduve con un zombie y sus respectivas versiones narradas por el personaje Molina. Como resultado del análisis, se concluye que Molina utiliza la narración de las películas con el objetivo de seducir a su compañero de celda.

  • Farah, Amina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Motivation in learning English as a foreign language: A study on motivation and classroom experience in adult students learning English2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines whether a group of adult students of upper secondary school level are instrumentally and/or integratively motivated to learn English as a foreign language. The study also examines if there are any similarities/differences between the students in the different motivation categories classroom experience. This essay is based on a quantitative questionnaire. The questionnaire was answered by adult students who were studying English 5 at upper secondary level in Sweden.

    The results show that some of the students were instrumentally motivated by factors such as their desire to enter university or get a good job. They were also motivated by the notion that the English language is useful when working abroad. Furthermore, some of the students were integratively motivated by factors such as their desire to develop their language skills so they would be able to use them abroad when travelling. Some of the students, however, were both instrumentally and integratively motivated and the key factors which motivated them were combinations of instrumental and integrative elements. The instrumentally and the integratively motivated students’ classroom experiences were overall positive where the teachers were described in a positive light. The students who were both instrumentally and integratively motivated, however, were less positive than the other students regarding their classroom experiences and their descriptions of their teachers.

  • Bader, Katarina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Tillämpning av genreskolans pedagogik i skrivundervisningen: Ett sätt att utveckla elevens språk, text- och skrivarbete ur ett lärarperspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har utgångspunkten i mitt eget examensarbete 1, en genomförd litteraturstudie med titeln Att arbeta praktiskt utifrån teoretiska skrivdiskurser i skrivundervisningen (2018). l detta arbete kartläggs processkrivning och genrepedagogik. I litteraturstudien framkom vilka för- och nackdelar det finns i teorin när de används i undervisningen, hur lärare kan använda sig av skrivprocesser som verktyg, samt vilka effekter de bidrar till i elevernas textproduktion och vilka följder de kan ge om man som lärare inte har djupa förkunskaper i resp. diskurs.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna empiriska studie är att undersöka i vilket omfång ett fåtal svensklärare i gymnasieskolan har kunskaper om den teoretiska bakgrunden till genrepedagogiken, hur lärarna genomför sin undervisning med hjälp av denna metod och om metoden är deras didaktiska val. Syftet belyser om svårigheten att tolka och använda genre i undervisningen. Ambitionen är att ta reda på om svensklärare ser denna skrivmetod som ett verktyg för att gynna och avancera elevernas skrivutveckling genom att samla in data som talar om vilka delar av genrepedagogiken som svensklärare använder sig av, varifrån de inhämtar kunskap om genrepedagogik och hur de ser på begreppet genre i undervisningen. I den teoretiska genomgången klarläggs nationell och internationell forskning utifrån Sydneyskolans genrepedagogik. Studien är baserad på kvalitativ metod och datainsamlingen har genomförts genom intervjuer i skolors grupprum eller via högskolans Connect-plattform. Det som framkommer i resultatet är att en majoritet av informanterna uttalar sig positivt om skrivmetoder och att hälften av dem är beredda att skaffa sig mer kunskap om genrepedagogik. De som använder sig av genrepedagogiken, ser fördelar i metodens tydliga strukturer och modeller, men uttalar sig om vissa nackdelar att bruka denna skrivmetod. Svårigheter har visat sig vara tidsbristen att genomföra alla faser, stora och heterogena gruppsammansättningar som beror på elevernas olika kunskapsnivåer och grundkunskaper. Två förslag är att utveckla genrepedagogiken ytterligare för att förbättra möjligheterna för elever i stora och heterogena grupper och att informera svensklärare att fördjupa sig i genrekunskap och genreskolans pedagogik för att kunna effektivisera skrivundervisningen.

  • Stagnebo, Pernilla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Reklam på sociala medier – personlig eller integritetskränkande?: En studie om användares syn på individ anpassad reklam2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today many companies focus their advertising on social media. Based on the

    users behaviour they can design individual advertisement for the user. There are 2.2

    billion active users on Facebook world wide which makes it a gratefull place for

    advertisement. Facebook have the right to collect data about you and your behavior on the

    website and on other websites connecting with Facebook. As a Facebook user you have

    accepted these terms of service. You get more interesting advertisement in your

    Facebook-feed but it might also make you feel that ”big brother is watching you”.

    The purpose of this study is to describe how comfortable users in social media are with

    organisations collecting data to make individualized advertisement. A questionnaire was

    sent to 100 Facebook users including eight different scenarios on data collecting. The

    respondents answered how comfortable they were with each scenario. Results showed that

    the majority of the respondents where uncomfortable with all scenarios. The most

    uncomfortable scenario would be if a cellphone eavesdropped into a private conversation

    and then showed an ad about the product the people were talking about. Another sensitive

    subject was collecting data for individual advertisement from political parties. Some

    respondents also thought that there were too much advertisement on Facebook. However,

    the majority of the respondents said no to the idea of paying for Facebook in order to

    avoid advertisement.

    Finally, it was argued that the respondents wasn’t sure on what type of data Facebook

    were collecting. The answer can be found in the terms of service. A discussion about a

    simplification on user agreements were made.

  • Juin, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, German.
    Wunderland von Tom Tirabosco: eine Graphic Novel im schwedischen Deutschunterricht2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [de]

    Diese Arbeit untersucht, wie man mit einer Graphic Novel im schwedischen Deutschunterricht arbeiten kann. Heute beschäftigen sich Kinder und Jugendliche in ihrer Freizeit mit einer Vielzahl von verschiedenen Medien aus Wort und Bild. Dieses Interesse und Können der Schüler kann man im Klassenzimmer nutzen.

    Die Arbeit beschreibt, wie Wort und Bild in Graphic Novels zusammenwirken und geht näher auf das Werk Wunderland von Tom Tirabosco ein. Außerdem wird Literatur über Lernprozesse im Fremdsprachenunterricht untersucht, um anschließend Unterrichtsentwürfe zu entwickeln.

  • Korhonen, Jannina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    A Corpus Study of Signalling Nouns in L2 English Essays by Swedish Students2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the structure of the noun phrases used with with signalling nouns, which are abstract nouns that are hard to understand without a context. The inspiration for the study comes from work by John Flowerdew. The aim is to investigate in what type of noun phrases (NP) the signalling nouns are used by L2 English students and if the structures of these NPs tell us something about the meaning of the nouns. The material of the study is from the pioneering learner corpus the

    International Corpus of Learner’s English (ICLE). In general, it was found that the chosen signalling nouns thing, argument, possibility, chapter, kind and fact, are frequently used in complex NPs. There were some differences in the distribution of nouns, with thing, kind and fact having rather high frequencies in comparison to the other nouns. For this reason, samples of these nouns were selected for the analysis. The findings indicate that these signalling nouns rarely appear alone but are most often used in complex NPs. Furthermore, the results also show that a large proportion of these nouns is used in fixed phrases.

  • Tęcza, Karolina Katarzyna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Pronoun Usage in the State of the Union Address and Weekly Addresses by Donald Trump: A Critical Discourse Analysis and Corpus Linguistics Approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the modern world of politics, convincing the audience is the key to democratically gain power in society—and the amount of power politicians gain depends on how convincing they are. In this competitive domain, elites use discourse not only to persuade the audience, but also to manipulate the audience. According to van Dijk (2006), persuasion is a legitimate and ethical way to influence the audience, while manipulation is an illegitimate and unethical way of influencing the audience. The present study examines pronoun usage in the political discourse of Donald Trump; it examines the State of the Union Speech and 37 Weekly Addresses. The quantitative approach to the data was taken by incorporating corpus linguistic methods, namely frequency counts, concordances, word list tools, and downsampling. The qualitative approach was taken by using methods from rhetoric and Critical Discourse Analysis. To analyse the examined phenomenon, the Aristotelian persuasion framework, Fairclough’s theory on the pronouns

    we and you, van Dijk’s triangulation framework with its focus on manipulation, and Wieczorek’s taxonomy of speakers were used. The study concluded that in both the State of the Union Address and the Weekly Addresses, Donald Trump frequently and interchangeably uses the pronouns we and our to refer to two groups with unequal power relations to one another. The identified patterns placed within the societal context of the examined text persuade the recipients. Pronouns such as we, our, I, and they play a key role in the elements of ethos and pathos. Furthermore, the identified patterns placed within the societal context of the examined text also showed that Donald Trump uses discourse structure to use short term memory and long term memory properties to manipulate the audience.

  • Menthon, Maxence
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Van Migom, Léa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Reducing energy consumption of refrigerators byusing the outside temperature2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, many electrical appliances are used daily. The refrigerator is one of them.

    Consequently, by affecting the energy used by the refrigerator, a huge amount of energy,

    greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and money can be saved. It is what this thesis tries to do

    by applying a concept: using the cold from outside. Indeed, this report exposes the process to

    answer the following question:

    How much energy, GHG emissions and money can be saved by using the cold from

    outside on the refrigerating appliances?

    To do so, measurements have been done on a refrigerator placed in a climate chamber. The

    experiment procedure is inspired by the Swedish standard of energy consumption testing in

    order to have the most relevant results as possible. The results of the measures were then used

    to create a mathematical modelling. And finally, by applying the modelling at different

    climate of the world represented by chosen cities, calculations were made to estimate the

    energy, GHG emissions and money savings which can be done thanks to this concept.

  • Boberg, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Grannas, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnad av patienter med kognitiv svårighet som ADHD: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly common diagnosis among adults. Nurses need to have the ability to be able to meet this patient groups needs.

    Aim: The purpose is to describe nurses’ experience in care of patients with cognitive difficulties with focus on ADHD.

    Method: The design is a literature review of 9 qualitative and quantitative articles. The collection of data has been done via the databases Cinahl, Psycinfo and PubMed.

    Result: The review of the articles resulted in two main themes: Conditions and limitations in nursing care in patients with cognitive difficulties as ADHD with three subtopics Time, Treatment and Attitudes and Communication between nurse and patient and care units with two subtopics; Communication between nurse and patient and Communication between care units. The results show that conditions and limitations for example time, attitudes and relationships affected nursing in care of patients with cognitive difficulties as ADHD. There could be negative attitudes among healthcare professionals. However, a therapeutic relationship and communication between a nurse and a patient was found to benefit nursing patients with cognitive difficulties such as ADHD.

    Conclusion: Communication was an important factor in the care of patient with ADHD and the nurse had an important role in this. Time and the patient’s conditions could affect the nurses’ potential of communication.

  • Wilhelmsson, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Undersökning av GDPR och NIS samt dess betydelse för enkla hemsidor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbetet har det genomförts två undersökningar. Den ena undersökningen handlar om GDPR och den andra om NIS. Dessa två regelverk är skapade av EU för att säkra upp när det gäller cyberattacker och att styrka individers möjlighet att hantera sina personuppgifter. Det har även skapats en enkel hemsida i arbetet. Denna hemsidan är ett experiment för att ta reda på vad någon som äger eller tillhandahåller en enkel hemsida bör tänka på när det kommer till GDPR och NIS. Hemsidan i sig är tänkt att ge möjlighet för människor att träffa andra med samma intresse eller träffa de som befinner sig i liknande livssituationer. GDPR är en förnyelse av Sveriges tidigare lag PUL. GDPR är en förordning från EU vilket innebär att den måste följas mer noggrant än PUL. PUL var ett direktiv från EU. Ett direktiv väger inte lika tungt som en förordning. GDPR ger EU:s medlemsländers medborgare starkare rättigheter till deras personuppgifter. Det innebär att de har rätt att veta vad och varför personuppgifter hanteras. De har även rätt till radering vilket innebär att en organisation måste radera personuppgifter om de inte längre har någon anledning att fortsätta behandla dem. Det kan handla om rättslig påverkan eller en intresseavvägning om en personuppgift får behandlas vidare eller inte. NIS är som sagt skapat av EU, detta är ett direktiv som beskrivit lite tidigare i detta stycke vad det innebär. Här har EU:S medlemsländer lite friare händer. Det finns mål som skall uppfyllas men medlemsländerna får själva bestämma hur målen skall uppnås. NIS handlar om cybersäkerheten inom EU. Det gäller att stärka den lägstanivå som finns. Jobba med att vara bättre förberedd om en incident skulle inträffa och på så sätt ge ett bättre grundskydd mot cyberattacker. Vad gäller en enkel hemsida så har GDPR en del att säga till om. Om man sparar data i en databas så skall de som personuppgifterna tillhör veta om det och samtycka till det. Det skall även kunna gå att få fram informationen som är sparad om personerna och även radering av personuppgifter om så önskas. En registrerad skall kunna få information om personuppgifter som sparas hos en personuppgiftsbehandlare utan att betala för det. När det gäller NIS och enkla hemsidor så är det i regel inget som rör den som tillhandahåller hemsidan eller hemsidans ägare. Det krävs i så fall att det är större företag med stor omsättning och som har huvudkontor i Sverige.

  • Berg, Leonhard
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Montelius, Olle
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Barnsäkring av Smartphones2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the ability to create a prototype for a throughout secure and childproof system for Android is shown. This is done by combining already available products combined with some own code. Internet traffic is being pushed through a VPN tunnel to an already existing LAN in the own home. This mitigates the risks of eavesdropping attacks and other threats, and by using DNS Filtering, unwanted web pages can be blocked beforehand.

    The mobile unit can be used for calls (and with further development SMS) but incoming calls from unknown numbers, and SMS, will be blocked. With the addition of Applocker, a sort of locking mechanism for software access, the use of unwanted application will be restricted. By adding a custom App-Launcer, this restriction can be even more firm.

    The complete solution brings a system where the Smartphone preferably can be handled by a child and where chosen functions can be used in their regular manner but where, predetermined, functions has been eliminated from the unit – or is only accessible by the administrator. What is needed for this prototype, besides of a Smartphone, is a working LAN in the home, and an always-on computer that acts like a server, preferably a Raspberry Pi.

  • Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bo i Byn: Utformning av seniorbostad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What happens when an elderly person wants to sell the property and move on to something

    that is easier to handle? Are there opportunities for older people to live in the same city as

    before? What opportunities are there for elderly people who want to move to a smaller

    residence? Can a concept be drawn up just for this assignment?

    This degree project will address the problem of how elderly people face a challenge to get to

    a simpler accommodation that is more suited to the elderly for functional and maintenance

    purposes. The thesis is based on an ongoing project that takes place in Norr Amsberg, a small

    town three kilometer north of Borlänge.

    In this degree project, a qualitative method will be used which means no calculations is

    needed. Thus, facts will be gathered from interviews, research articles and statistics.

    Six people have been interviewed during this project. Those who have been interviewed are

    two scientists who are stationed in Falun, three older people who have passed sixty-five years

    of ages and finally the enthusiast who started whole project in Norr Amsberg. This provides a

    broad ground for the conclusions drawn in the report.

    A concept house has been drawn up during this time, taking account of the wishes of the

    interviewees as appearance, functional requirements and location. The house has all

    accessibility requirements that a modern home will have. The building that is produced is a

    concept and not the finished product.

    Important conclusions that have been made during this study are how important the housing

    design is and how it affects the elderly significantly more than is generally believed and that

    the need will increase significantly in terms of custom housing in the future. The importance

    of housing design and how it affects older people are some major key factors that all

    municipalities learn to address when planning a type of "senior housing" for elderly people.

  • Bergkvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Strandberg, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    En pedagogisk byggnad för hållbar utveckling: Utformning av en programhandling för ett kretsloppshus med fokus på social och ekologisk hållbarhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to establish a functional program for an eco-cycle building where people can be

    reached with knowledge of sustainable development. The background to this is that the municipality of

    Borlänge approved a plan program with the vision of creating a new, climate neutral district and thereby

    become a precursor for sustainable construction in the region. For instance, the functional program is meant

    to investigate the background and the prerequisites that existed. In the municipality’s plan program, the

    building is described to have an educational function for the district and for Borlänge; a place which focuses

    on practical demonstrations and education for students and residents in recycling issues for energy, water

    and waste/material in a comprehensible and compelling way. The eco-cycle building is planned to be

    established near the new school, with classes from 6 to 9, to make a cooperation possible.

    Requests from the municipality is that the eco-cycle building can work like a hub in the new district, but

    also become a new place of interest and put Borlänge on the map for sustainable construction. Sustainable

    construction includes resource management, minimized energy use and renewable energy sources, but also

    that resources like energy, waste and water circulate in an eco-cycle. Theory has been obtained from

    literature focusing on how we should build our houses and cities if we want to join and create a sustainable

    society.

    Part of the purpose of this thesis was to explore how to disseminate information on environmental and

    circular issues in an educational way. The theoretical part of the thesis is therefore focusing on selected parts

    of education obtained from previous research in children and youth learning for sustainable development,

    since studies show that it is important that children learn about these issues early in life. Education for

    Sustainable Development is an important prerequisite for achieving the sustainability goals set by the UN

    until 2030. Upcoming generations must learn a sustainable way of life right from the start while the existing

    population must drastically change their lifestyle.

    In order to gather empiricism, interviews were held with people who have been involved in the planning

    work with the new district. It turned out that there were former driving spirits who introduced the idea of the

    eco-cycle building, but that it doesn’t currently are the major priority in the ongoing work with the new

    school and housing.

    Engaging the users at an early stage provides better conditions for achieving a result that is effective and

    satisfying for all parties. The theory of design dialogues has therefore been studied to demonstrate the

    importance of a good dialogue to quickly identify needs and develop ideas in design work.

    The result of the thesis, the functional program, can be seen as a draft on conceptual level with features and

    expressions that can be applied to a building of this kind, and an inspiration for continued work. In the

    functional program, our interpretations form how the eco-cycle building would meet the requests and

    functions that’s been requested in the plan program, in order to benefit as much as possible in the

    municipality's future work with the building.

    Conclusions are that there are no precursors of the eco-cycle building as a concept. Despite a large number

    of sources of inspiration from various aspects, no example was found that combines all the aspects we have

    the ambition to develop for this building. The eco-cycle building as a concept could play an important role

    for how to handle sustainable issues in a district or in a whole city. However, further work is required to

    investigate how the building should be run and managed, as well as more extensive studies of which

    technical solutions to apply. Further work is also required to optimize the building for the future location,

    and the size of the building that are appropriate. There is a great interest in the building from various

    participants in Borlänge, but to implement the idea of the eco-cycle building, one or more people need to

    embrace the project with the commitment that previously existed in the organization.

  • Reivant Olausson, Torbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Satire in Service of Postcolonialism: An Analysis of Hanif Kureishi’s The Buddha of Suburbia and Trevor Noah’s Born a Crime: Stories of a South African Childhood 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Tirus, Nicklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    En jämförelse mellan två öppna ramverk för objektigenkänning: En undersökning gällande noggrannhet och tidsåtgång vidträning och test2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research in this thesis is conducted with the partners aim to construct a new train detection system that uses image recognition and artificial intelligence. Detectors like these that exists today are expensive, so the construction is going to be based around the use of consumer electronics to lower the cost and simplify installation and maintenance. Several frameworks for object detection are available, but they use different approaches and methods. This thesis is therefore carried out as a case study that compares two widely used frameworks for image recognition tasks. The purpose is to identify advantages and disadvantages regarding training and testing when using these frameworks. Also highlighted is different challenges encountered in the process. The summary of the results is used to form ideas and a discussion about how to implement a framework in the new detection system. The frameworks compared in this study are OpenCV and Google TensorFlow. These frameworks use different methods for object detection, mainly cascade classifiers and convolutional neural nets. The frameworks were tested using a dataset of 400 images on different trains where the wheel-axles were used as the object of interest. The results were analyzed based on criteria regarding precision, total training time and also complexity regarding configuration and usage. The results showed that OpenCV had a faster training process but had low precision and more complex configuration. TensorFlow had a much longer training process but had better precision and less complex configuration. The conclusion of the study is that TensorFlow overall showed the best result and has a better potential for implementation in the new detection system. This is based on the results from the study, but also that the framework is developed with a more modern approach using convolutional neural nets for bject detection.

  • Chapman, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Öyen, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Kvinnors karriärmöjligheter inom detaljhandeln: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnors upplevelser att nå ledningspositioner2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the retail sector is the gender balance of employees considered equal, but when management positions are examined, it appears that men dominate these positions. Despite legislation to support an equal labor market and the fact that a change in the gender balance has taken place over the past ten years, it still appears that an underrepresentation of women in management positions remains. It also shows that women's working conditions include gender stereotypes regarding their leadership skills and ambition level, which in the long term can obstruct their career prospects and opportunities to achieve management positions.

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to understand women's experiences of reaching management positions that is traditionally occupied by men and the factors that affect women's career opportunities. Five interviews with women at the CEO's position in five retail companies in Sweden have been conducted in a qualitative study. The empirical data shows that these women raise their personalities and attributes as the main reasons for reaching their leadership positions. The result shows a gap between the theory that highlights the importance of networking to make women's careers possible, and empirical evidence that these women do not consider it an important factor. Theory and empirical evidence correspond when it comes to the relationship between the lack of female role models and the underrepresentation of women in management positions. The conclusion of this paper is that the women interviewed have not encountered any obstacles on their way to management positions in retail, but that there is awareness that gender stereotypes and prejudices affect women's career opportunities in retail.

  • Lindahl, Emilia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Actitudes de profesores de español en Suecia hacia siete variedades de la lengua española.: Un estudio sociolingüístico realizado en Suecia a profesores de español como lengua extranjera.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En este estudio se analizan las actitudes lingüísticas de cinco profesores que enseñan español como lengua extranjera en Lidköping, Suecia, hacia siete variedades estándares de la lengua española. Cuatro de los profesores tienen español como lengua materna y uno de ellos no. El estudio está dividido en dos partes: la primera parte es una entrevista directa donde se obtienen datos como: variedad con la cual se identifican los participantes, contacto con otras variedades, gusto por las variedades entre otras; en la segunda parte, los participantes escucharon las siete variedades y contestaron unas preguntas a través del método

    verbal guise y mediante un cuestionario se analizaron las actitudes de las dimensiones de estatus y de solidaridad. Los resultados obtenidos fueron que los profesores que tienen el español como lengua materna se identificaron con la variedad de sus países, pero el profesor cuya lengua materna es el sueco se identificó con la variedad mexicana. Las variedades que recibieron actitudes positivas fueron la mexicana, la argentina, la peruana y la variedad española (castellana). Esta última recibió actitudes positivas dentro de la dimensión de estatus, pero no en la dimensión de solidaridad.

  • Pettersson, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Vad kännetecknar en effektiv webbplats inom B2B-företag?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It’s difficult to say how a B2B web site should be designed to create efficiency,

    but this thesis investigates which guidelines exist as to what content can make a

    website more effective. There are many differences between B2C and B2B

    companies, and one of them is B2B companies' pursuit of a strong and longterm

    relationship with their customers. Using content marketing to create

    content that the company's customers find interesting therefore becomes

    important and effective for B2B companies.

    To investigate what B2B companies websites contain, a small visual content

    analysis was conducted. The survey showed that today's B2B companies need

    to be better at using content marketing that is interesting to their customers

    rather than sharing information about the company's own products and services.

    Good content can be created using case studies, social media and a wellthought-

    out language. It also showed that B2B companies can benefit from

    more personal communication with their customers by for example writing

    topics that the company cares about which create engagement with the

    recipient.

  • Wilson, Nicole
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Ruling Bodies in Feminist Speculative Fiction: Body Politics and Reproductive Rights in The Handmaid’s Tale and The Carhullan Army2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Quesnel, Marine
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Once Upon a Time, There Was Subjectivity: A Lacanian Reading of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nilsson, Christoffer
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    Att skapa mening genom konst: En litteraturstudie om motivation i ett bilddidaktiskt sammanhang2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte var att öka kunskapen om hur bilddidaktisk forskning belyser motivation inom bildämnet. Metoden för denna undersökning var en litteraturstudie av kvalitativ form. Motivationsteorier och didaktikrelaterade KASAM-begrepp har använts som teoretisk utgångspunkt. Internationell forskning har granskats för att nå fram till det resultat som studien presenterar. Resultatet är uppdelat efter de frågeställningar studien ämnade att besvara. Utöver den bilddidaktiska forskningen som använts har även utvärderingar från Skolverket varit till hjälp. Resultatet visar att motivation är ett komplext begrepp som påverkar elever och lärare på flera olika sätt. Motivation kan med fördel delas upp i tre kategorier, inre motivation vilken kommer från en individs egna intressen. Yttre motivation som kommer utifrån, t.ex. betyg eller bestämda uppgifter, samt amotivation vilket är avsaknad av motivation. Forskningen visar att en alltför strikt och styrd undervisning kan skapa för mycket fokus på yttre motivationsfaktorer, vilket kan skapa en känsla av meningslöshet. Vidare om undervisningen blir för öppen kan det också skapa problem på grund av det känns ostrukturerat. Den studerade forskningen är överens om att en balans mellan inre och yttre motivationsfaktorer skapar det mest gynnsamma inlärningsklimatet.

  • Augustsson, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    Det självständiga bildämnet?: En bilddidaktisk litteraturstudie om bild ämnets möjligheter att vara ett autonomt ämne i skolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det självständiga bildämnet? – En bilddidaktisk litteraturstudie om bildämnets möjligheter att vara ett autonomt ämne i skolan: syftar till att undersöka, skapa kunskap om samt diskutera bildämnets plats, roll och funktion inom skolans värld. Vidare att öka förståelsen för bildämnets betydelse för elevers lärande och utveckling. Föreliggande studie har haft fokus mot gymnasieskolan och undersökningen är genomförd genom en systematisk litteraturstudie med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys som analysverktyg. Resultatanalysen är uppdelad efter frågeställningarna; Vilka argument lyfts fram för att legitimera bildämnet i skolan? Vilken betydelse har bildämnet för elevers lärande och utveckling? Vilka eventuella konsekvenser finns när bildämnet marginaliseras? Forskningen belyser flera argument för att legitimera bildämnet - exempelvis genom det mediespecifika argumentet, livsvärldsargumentet, demokrati- och yttrandefrihets-argumentet, tillväxtargumentet samt om bildämnet som kommunikatör vilket syftar till att konsten har en inverkan på kommunikation, ekonomi och teknik. Forskningen redogör för, gällande elevers lärande och utveckling, att bildundervisning har förmåga att konstruera betydelse och utveckla för ett öppet och kritiskt tänkande. Forskningen pekar mot att behövs nya perspektiv i bildundervisningen, annars riskerar undervisningen och estetiken att bli kraftlös och irrelevant.

  • Gjörwell, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    Samtidskonstens roll och betydelse inom bildundervisningen: En litteraturstudie av forskning som behandlar samtidskonst och undervisning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker de faktorer som kan påverka samtidskonstens roll och betydelse i dagens bildundervisning genom att titta på resultat från tidigare studier relaterade till ämnet. Studien är en systematiskt littereraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats, baserad på hermeneutisk metod. Resultatanalysen består av två delar där den första delen utgörs av en begreppsanalys vilken i sig är uppdelad i en semantisk analys och en diskriminationsanalys. Begreppsanalysen har som syfte att definiera de för litteraturstudien centrala begreppen konst samt samtida konst. Litteraturstudiens andra del består av en analys av tidigare forskning. Två frågor ställdes i syfte att förstå vilka faktorer som påverkar samtidskonstens vara eller icke vara i bildundervisningen, varav den första undersöker vilka påverkansfaktorer forskningen finner gällande samtidskonstens roll, betydelse och omfattning i bildundervisningen och den andra vilka perspektiv forskningen ger på hur samtidskonstundervisning bedrivs. Forskningen visar att samtidskonsten ses som ett avvikande innehåll som främst behandlas utanför en skolkontext i ett formen av ett extramuralt lärande. Samtidskonsten som innehåll riskerar således att endast behandlas på samtidskonstens egna premisser av lärare som har ett genuint intresse för ämnet. När samtidskonsten inkluderas i undervisningen öppnar det upp för samtal och diskussioner om dagsaktuella ämnen som relaterar till elevers livsvärld. Samtidskonstundervisningen för även med sig viss problematik som försvårar implementeringen i bildämnet. Begreppsförståelse, ämneskonception, svårigheter vid bedömning och en radikalt annorlunda syn på bilden som uttryck jämfört med traditionell undervisning nämns i forskningen som faktorer som påverkar samtidskonstens vara eller icke vara i bildundervisningen

  • Hassan, Amina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Ak, Ronhi
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Hälsan hos asylsökande.: En studie om asylsökandes känsla av sammanhang och upplevda hälsa under asyltiden.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Author: Amina Hassan & Ronhi Ak

    Title: Impact of asylum on asylum seekers

    Supervisor: Gunilla Carstensen

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of asylum seekers and understanding the asylum process and the perceived illness during the asylum process. The study also aims to map stigmatization in the concept of illness among asylum seekers. The theoretical basis of the essay is the theory of Antonovsky salutogenesis about the sense of context and Elias & Scotsons stigma theory. Qualitative interviews have been conducted with four people, all of whom have undergone an asylum process where the analysis was conducted using a thematic method of analysis. The result of the study shows that it is a psychologically and emotionally stressful process to apply for asylum, which affects the health. The uncertainty of not knowing whether to stay in the country in combination with the severe trauma from their country of origin give the interviewees an impression that the asylum process is stressful and places great mental demands on people. The main cause has been understanding of the asylum process, all interviewees showed a low sense of comprehension and it could be a contributing factor to the deterioration of health among asylum seekers. This results in their health deteriorating and they are likely to suffer from stress, depression and PTSD for the trauma they have experienced. As regards stigmatization, the results show that asylum seekers tend to avoid seeking help because of the fear of being isolated and stamped as a deviation of their own ethnic group.

  • Sundin, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Perception and effects of implementing Kotlin in existing projects: A case study about language adoption2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Kotlin programming language has seen an increase of adoption since its launch in 2011. In late 2017 Google announced first-class support for Kotlin on the Android platform which further popularized the language. With this increase in popularity we felt it was interesting to investigate how Kotlin affects the developer experience. We performed a case study to see how Java developers perceive the Kotlin language, and how it meets the requirements of these developers. To gather the developer requirements and their perception of Kotlin we performed two sets of interviews and rewrote parts of their codebase. The first set of interviews identified developer requirements and the second set of interviews showcased the Kotlin language and its potential use in their codebase. The results show that Kotlin can meet most of the developer requirements and that the perception of Kotlin is positive. Kotlin’s ability to be incrementally adopted was a prominent feature which reduced the inherent risks of technology adoption while providing them the ability to further evaluate the language. The expressiveness of a programming language has previously been found to be a prominent factor of language adoption. In this study, we identified the expressive nature of Kotlin as a major factor of its adoption potential.

  • Hathout, Ahmed
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    A Comprehensive PV Systems Installation Guide and Designing a Roof-Based PV System as a Demonstration System for Troubleshooting Errors in PV systems Installations2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to make a comprehensive guide for PV systems installers and engineers, using the best practices and following the applicable regulations and standards for the mechanical and electrical installations of PV systems. The guide includes all the different aspects of a PV system installation including different types of roofs and mounting structures, fire safety, height safety and fall protection, installation precautions, electrical and mechanical installations, safety gears and finally system commissioning.

    The guide was developed by reviewing the various standards and best practices deployed in various countries that are pioneers in PV installations as Germany, UK and the US in the period from 2006-2018.

     

    A troubleshooting errors scheme was conducted to help installers track down operational faults in a PV system. Installers will be able to identify problems of old or newly installed PV systems according to few procedures to resolve operational problems.

     

    In addition, a PV system was designed on the rooftop of Högskolan Dalarna in Sweden. The system will be used as a learning platform for installers in a course that will be introduced on the University’s campus, aimed at educating installers on PV systems installations. The designed system mainly focuses on flat and pitched roofs installations.

    The system was designed with the main priority to benefit installers working on and installing the system. Performance ratio and energy yield of the system were not emphasized when designing the system. It was specifically designed to match the objectives of the university’s installer’s course to be conducted on the campus. The designed system consists of two sub-arrays with two different mounting structures. The first one was a pitched roof mounting structure installed on a small hut on the university’s rooftop, and the second sub-array was a ballast mounting system directly situated on the roof surface with no penetrations to its surface. The system was designed on Sketchup software as a 3D model, simulated in PVsyst for energy yield forecast and losses evaluations, drawn as a single line electrical diagram on AutoCAD and lastly, a bill of materials was conducted with all the necessary components and parts to install the system on the rooftop.

     

    Results from the simulated system shows a steep drop in energy yield during the winter months, energy losses due to shading effects of approximately 5 % and minimal other system and cables losses were recorded.

     

    A study visit for a pitched roof PV system installation to be carried out by a group of six Swedish students was conducted. A discussion about the installation procedure, major mistakes and lack of practical knowledge by the engineering students were analyzed.

    Possessing knowledge of PV systems installations is of great importance not only to installers, but to solar design engineers. It is a necessity that engineers poses the fundamentals of installing a PV system and follow the applicable standards and best practices during systems design and execution.

  • Milosevic, Stefan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hedman, Jesper
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Stress i arbetslivet: Arbetsrelaterad stress på träningsanläggning samt kontorsmiljöer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the work-related stress among trainers and office workers through a survey that was constructed to address the research questions. Short-term stress can be explained as a primary physiological change in the body in form of secretion of adrenaline and norepinephrine, which enhances performances. There is also good evidence that physical activity can promote physical and mental health. If the body is exposed to short-term stress over a longer period, it has the opposite effect both mentally and physically. This study was built on a mixed method approach, with a mix of both quantitative and qualitative questions, which of most were quantitative. The survey was distributed to three different companies, with various work duties. Surveys were collected during two different times, with a significant amount the last time. It was thereby analyzed and coded into the program Excel (2016). Only considerable data was later presented to match the research questions. To conclude the results, 82 percent felt work-related stress, while 18 percent didn’t feel work-related stress. Many study participants often feel work-related stress, and more than half of the participants in the study do not know how to handle their work-related stress. The minority of participants however, feels a positive change in terms of achievement and well-being, which is the research area studied less between the negative and positive impact that stress may have. Work-related stress can further reflect today’s approach on stress and scientist have identified a need for further research on “eustress” (positive stress).

  • d’ Souza, David
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Experimental Characterisation and Modelling of a Membrane Distillation Module Coupled to aFlat Plate Solar Collector Field2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental characterisation of a pre-commercial spiral wound permeate gap membrane distillation module was carried out to test its performance at different operating conditions for the purpose of seawater desalination. The experimental setup consisted of a flat plate solar collector field indirectly coupled to the permeate gap membrane distillation module via an inertia tank. The operating parameters varied were the condenser inlet temperature (from 20 °C to 30 °C), evaporator inlet temperature (from 60 °C to 80 °C) and seawater feed flow rate (from 200 l/h to 400 l/h). Within this operational boundary, it was found that the maximum permeate/distillate flux was 4.135 l/(h∙m2) which equates to a distillate production/flow rate of close to 21.3 l/h. The maximum potential distillate production rate is expected to be significantly higher than this value though as the maximum manufacturer specified feed flow rate is 700 l/h and the maximum evaporator inlet temperature is rated at 90 °C. Both these parameters are positively related to the distillate production rate. The minimum specific thermal energy consumption was found to be 180 kWh/m3.

    A mathematical model of the overall system was developed, and experimentally validated, to mathematically describe the coupling of the membrane distillation module with a solar collector field. The effectiveness of internal heat recovery of the membrane distillation module was found to be an accurate and simple tool to evaluate the thermal energy demand of the distillation process at a given set of operation parameters. The mathematical model was used to further investigate the experimental findings and provide insights into the operational dynamics of the membrane distillation module. It was also used to determine some external conditions required for steady state operation, at a given distillation operating point, such as the minimum solar irradiation required for operation and the auxiliary cooling required in the solar collector loop for maintaining steady state conditions.

    Finally, general guidelines are provided toward better operational practices to improve the coupling of a solar thermal collector unit/field with a membrane distillation system using a storage tank or inertia tank.

     

  • Pande, Sohum
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Different Photovoltaic Penetration Rates for the Planned Area of Jakobsgardarna in Borlange, Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality of Borlange is planning to build a new modern, social and an ecologically sustainable district due to an increase in the city’s population. Over 1200 homes shall be built for people from all sections of the society. Due to such high levels of migration into the city, it is of utmost importance for the society to ensure that all the new constructions would be energy efficient and focused towards the goal of creating a sustainable society. The main objective of this study is to understand the importance of planning for Photovoltaics (PV) in new areas and performing a series of simulations for different scenarios with varying degrees of PV penetration for the planned residential area of Jakobsgardarna in Borlänge, Sweden.

     

    This was achieved by determining the load profiles for all buildings by thorough investigation over the previous works in the analysis of household demand loads and calculating the available roof area in several orientations with the help of model maps drawn to scale. Due to varied types of roofs and their structures, it was assumed that all buildings have a similar roof structure i.e. tilted roofs having a tilt of 30°. Batch simulation was performed in PVSyst for a base case scenario which provides the reference point for determining the total PV power and the total PV output in all orientations.

     

    The PV penetration is measured in terms of energy by dividing the total PV output with the annual demand load. Various scenarios of PV penetration are created based on the available roof areas at particular roof orientations. It can be observed that the level of PV penetration is highly dependent on the orientation of roofs. A 17% of PV penetration is observed when PV is installed only on South-facing roofs while the PV penetration reduces drastically to 9% when PV is installed only on East-West facing roofs even though there isn’t a linear reduction in the available roof area.

     

  • ElSherif, Khaled
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Solar Powered Smart Street Post2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work aimed to develop solar Photovoltaic (PV) powered smart street post. The post was set to serve on highways for wild animals’ detection and warn vehicles of possible crossings. The main aim was to design reliable standalone PV system via PVSyst software and experimenting four different PV technologies including a bifacial module under. Another aim was to select and develop the hardware and software terms of the smart street pot. Radar sensor and analog to digital (A/D) data acquisition (DAQ) card were set to be used for the motion detection. RF wireless communication module was used for communicating with nearby posts to send data and trigger warning light emitting diodes (LED) sign. A Raspberry Pi microcontroller was programmed to control the operation of the street post through processing the signal from radar sensor and communicating with nearby posts.

    The PV system design included generation of street post’s daily profile, sizing and selection of the components of the system including the module, battery, charge controller and power stage circuit. The later was designed to provide suitable voltage level and interface for the loads connected. PVSyst model was built and set to be located in Ulm, Germany. The design parameters were set, and different set of orientations were tested for each module.

    The simulation results showed bifacial module delivered a reliable PV system in case of south and south-east orientation and achieved better performance in other orientations in comparison to the other PV modules implemented. Due to limitations in PVSyst software the results provided had an overall uncertainty of 5%.

    The microcontroller was able to process the data from the radar sensor and DAQ card and perform fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, further processing of motion detection was complex to be included in the thesis work. The radar sensor and DAQ card provided signals with uncertainty of ± 3.4 mV. The RF wireless communication module transmitted signal over various ranges up to 150 m with time delay of 500 ms.

  • De Siati, Ester
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, African studies.
    The (Re)Creation of Second-Generation Eritreans’ Identity in Bologna, Italy2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is analysing the way in which second-generation Eritreans in Bologna re-construct their Eritrean identity. The originality of the thesis is the fact that this type of research has not been done in Bologna yet: Bologna is a multicultural city where its left-wing tradition has appreciated cultural differences differently from other cities in Italy, such as Milan.To reach the aim of the thesis I interviewed some second-generations Eritreans who were born and grew up in Italy. I also used some previous researches that have been conducted in Italy and abroad about the re-creation of second-generation Eritreans’ identity. The whole research is framed in a theoretical framework, which is composed by the definition of four concepts that are useful for the research; these concepts are: culture, identity, nation, and, diaspora.According to this study, there are many ways in which second-generation Eritreans shape their identity in Bologna. The main ways in which second-generation Eritreans shape their Eritrean identity in Bologna are: the encounter with other Eritreans, their parents’ roots, the language, and the holiday trips back to Eritrea.

  • Eriksson Asp, Tova
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Propagation of traditional media publications in social media: A network analysis approach2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is a vast, fluctuant domain that is difficult to grasp, overlook and explain. It is important in our daily lives as well as for organisations, such as traditional media. Traditional media is moving from analogue news propagation to propagating news online, where social media plays a significant role. This study contributes to the understanding of traditional media propagation in social media, through quantitative and network analysis of articles’ spread in social media. The study also contributes to refining social media network analysis methodology, from the perspective of traditional media propagation in social media. The study is conducted as a survey where web documents of social media posts were collected and analysed. The scope of the study were Swedish traditional media. Two analysis methods were used: a quantitative statistical analysis of the propagation of articles and a network analysis comparing the usefulness of two common network analysis metrics: indegree centrality and PageRank. The results show that an overall of 22,34% of traditional media articles in this study, were propagated in social media. The findings include what categories of articles are most propagated on different social media platforms. Different kinds of newspapers were also compared, and variances were found. Local press articles were more propagated on Facebook than on Twitter, in opposite to national press that were more propagated on Twitter than on Facebook. Indegree centrality was found to be the most useful metric for examining traditional media propagation amongst Swedish newspapers, when compared to PageRank. Lack of cross-platform research in social media is pointed at, since this study identifies a prominent need for evolving cross-platform social media research.

  • Ekman, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Hansson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Gratification by Gamification: Gamification som medel för att skapa en användbar applikation för synpunktshantering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is challenging to motivate usage of IT services provided by government or public administration since the usage of such services is based on voluntariness. One way to incentivize usage is by making such services fun to use, which can be done by using gamification. Gamification is game-like elements in an otherwise non-game like service. This study aims to describe how gamification, from a usability perspective, can be used in a citizen report application. The strategy used in this study is design and creation where we develop an IT artefact that constitute a prototype. Hence, the method prototyping is used. Furthermore, usability is considered while developing this prototype. The scientific contribution of this study is the prototype itself, and insights on how to use gamification as a vehicle for usability. Two versions of the prototype were developed before tested by five focus groups, which added up to a total of 37 respondents. The focus groups answered a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured group interview. The result of this was evaluated and used to improve the prototype and to find suggestions of how to implement gamification in the application. Our findings show that gamification can be implemented in the application and should be so by using a point system where the points can be cashed in for a reward of some sort. To counteract risks of vandalism the points should be handed out to the user after the suggestion in the report is considered and validated by the public administration providing the service. Gamification should be implemented to create satisfaction regarding usability. However, this study finds that accommodation of efficiency and effectiveness needs should be prioritized before satisfactory needs are implemented in the application.

  • Eriksson, René
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Prioriterade kriterier av redaktörer och utvecklare i ett content management system: En fallstudie om att välja content management system2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information management on the Internet is a growing phenomenon. One way for companies and organizations to get information on the internet is through websites. For content management and webpage development, you can use the content management system. Such systems simplify information management on the website's various web pages. There are a wealth of CMS and the CMS support different features.

    This study is conducted as a case study in which the case being studied are criteria for choosing CMS. Data has been collected through surveys and document studies. Criteria’s have been identified and prioritized using the MoSCoW prioritization method by editors and developers working with CMS. Priority criteria have been compiled and a selection of CMS tools has been evaluated against the criteria’s.

    Based on the collected data from questionnaires, a priority scheme was drawn up. It is clear that some criteria are more important than others for editors and developers. The document study also showed that the selection of CMS evaluated met the majority of criteria.

  • Taysun, Necirvan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Vennberg, Tony
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Öppen källkod GIS-ramverk för mobil fältinmätning offline: Analys av lämpliga GIS-ramverk för skogsindustrin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there’s no effective way for field data collection and its associated map objects when planning construction of new roads. The forest industry wishes to be able to do this with a mobile device with or without an internet connection, with the help of an open-source geographical information system-framework. We have therefore conducted a case study. We needed to know what the requirements were. The requirements needed was forwarded during an interview with one person from our partner organization that had contact with a forest company.

    We identified eight frameworks, whereas five were left after the screening. The screening was done by discarding the frameworks that didn’t fulfill the main requirements that we got from the interview. The five remaining frameworks were analyzed by identifying the pros and cons that were based on how well the frameworks fulfilled the evaluation criterias. The evaluation criterias were based on the requirements we got from the interview as well as the additional criterias that we considered important when working with open-source frameworks. E.g. the quality of the documentation, when the framework was last updated, the eventual cost etc.

    The framework we finally recommended was “Mapbox”. This framework did not have the highest coverage of requirements. However we decided that it was the most well-suited choice based on the open-source criteria’s we put forward.

  • Wigren, Maud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Hållbart ledarskap: En studie av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön hos chefer. Är det någon som tänker på chefernas psykosociala arbetsmiljö?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the right conditions for conducting sustainable leadership and investigating how the managers of current company look at their psychosocial work environment.

    To investigate the purpose, a qualitative method has been used, where interviews formed the material for data collection. The interviews were conducted using a semi structured interview guide; the material was then transcribed to ease the analysis work.

    What does it mean for leaders to work with sustainable leadership? Through the leadership´s influence on motivation, dedication and achievement, it is of great importance for sustainability development efforts. In addition to their daily duties, a manager must that the staff is in place, attend meetings, take responsibility for employees having a good working environment. The demands of today´s managers and leaders are increasing, but do they have the knowledge they need to run a sustainable leadership?

    The results show that the managers of the organization I have visited to some extent work in a sustainable way, without being aware of it. Problem areas identified by respondents, however, are time shortages, stress, high workload and burnout.

  • Lindberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Reyier, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utformningen av en utvärderingsmodell för utbildningsverktyg: Till hjälp för en tillämpning av Game Design Based Learning inom utbildning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital games in today's society are becoming more common and have in the past few years been used in education and teaching around the world. Using games and technology in an education has both positive and negative impact on the students as well as the school. The positive aspects of technology lead to increased motivation and commitment among the students, but at the same time can lead to more negative factors, such as social isolation, expensive costs or a distraction that may adversely affect other courses in education.

    This report aims to be a support in selecting educational tools to be used for Game Design Based Learning (GDBL). This support consists of an evaluation model that can be used, for example, by teachers who wish to apply GDBL in their education. The work has been carried out with the support of the research strategy design and creation, where the development and the production of an artefact has taken place. The evaluation model has been designed using the current research strategy. The data collection for the work has been done by searching for training tools, including the search engine Google Search, along with relevant terms for the work, such as drag & drop.

    When applying GDBL and the choice of training tools, it takes into account both the opportunities offered by GDBL, but also the negative risks that exist. The evaluation model has also been tested on five different training tools to validate the evaluation model. These five training tools are Scratch, Kodu Game Lab, Kahoot, Quizizz and Twine. Finally, we found that two of the training tools are the most suitable for educational purposes. These were Kahoot and Quizizz, which are simple quiz games, that is, they do not require education or programming to be used in a classroom. This was based on an established scenario, which was to find a training tool for a program that focuses on graphic design.

  • Conte, Francesca
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, African studies.
    From discovery to encounter: The new role of ethnographic museums.: The case study of the National Prehistoric and Ethnographic Museum‘L. Pigorini’.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since its creation, the ethnographic museums have aimed to represent the other cultures. The most recent trends in museology have encouraged the ethnographic museums to go beyond the discovery and to create a space of intercultural dialogue. This thesis analyses the impact of multiculturalism and postcolonialism on the temporary exhibitions organised at the National Prehistoric and Ethnographic

    Museum ‘L. Pigorini’. The study is conducted on the African heritage and in the selected period 1994-2014. The research is carried out pinpointing three main channels through which the two ideological orientations could penetrate in the museum practices. By the evaluation of the exhibitions, this study provides a new methodology for the understanding of the influences of the most recent trends in museology within the museum contexts.

  • Iacovelli, Gianpiero
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, African studies.
    The Ideology of Mental Illness in Ghana: A Discourse Analysis of Mental Health Laws (1972-2012)2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012, Ghanaian government promulgated a new mental health law aimed at setting up a community-based health care system in order to solve several problems that are affecting mental health facilities and people with mental disorders. The new law was also thought to overcome the limitations of the previous law, which was promulgated in 1972.

    This study provides an analysis of the mental health laws promulgated by the government of Ghana from 1972 to 2012. Through the methodological tools offered by Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), the aim of the thesis is to trace the ideological background of mental health laws and its changes over time. The analysis is particularly focused on themes such as the issue of public safety, the construction of the “mentally ill subject” and the conceptualisation of mental illness in the legal texts.

  • Cassano, Dora
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, African studies.
    The Biafra War: Cultural Memory in two novels of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie and Chinelo Okparanta2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently new novels about the Biafra war have appeared, proving the ongoing impact of the Nigerian civil war on writers’ interest, and the importance of memory in our life. For all these reasons, I decided to write the present thesis on how memory function in a literary work. The objective is to analyse the literary representation of the Biafra war, with a special focus on individual and collective memory production through two fictional novels: Half of a Yellow Sun, by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, and Under the Udala Trees, by Chinelo Okparanta.

    In analysing the literary representations of Biafra in the light of memory studies, I have identified two levels of memory: literary characters’ memory and writers’ memory. Focusing on the level of the memory of the characters, I explored what the characters remember about the Biafra war both when the war is over and when it is still in progress, and what strategies they use to remember or to forget painful memories of the war.  What emerged through this first level of analysis is how Adichie and Okparanta have offered narratives focused not only on accounts of the war, but also on feelings and emotions. Moreover, the strategies of remembering and of forgetting represent tools of survival, and they are not in a relationship of exclusion.

    Focusing on the level of writers’ memory, I explored the perspectives used by Adichie and Okparanta to narrate and remember the Biafra war: a perspective from below, focused on ordinary people and on their daily lives; a female perspective which represents a novelty in a literary landscape dominated by male writers; the danger of a single story and its risk to create hegemonic narratives; the fictional perspective as a way to enrich a historical event with suggestive details fruit of writers’ imagination; the Afropolitan perspective and the greater openness of mind of the new generation of African writers.

  • Mazraeh, Hifa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Abdullahi, Abdiaziz
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Värmeåtervinning ur spillvatten för flerbostadshus: Kornstigen 25 i Borlänge2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to compile knowledge of waste water recovery systems in multi-family houses from literature, previous studies and relevant actors on the subject area. The purpose is also to make temperature measurements in a multi-family house in Borlänge to calculate and analyze the energy saving potential of the Ekoflow heat exchanger from Isaksson Rostfria AB.

    Ekoflow is a waste water heat exchanger that recycles heat energy from wastewater. Through wastewater heat exchanger, the waste water flows from the drain and the cold water in the countercurrent direction. Ekoflow has been installed in some bath houses and hotels and showed good recovery rates in these areas.

    It is a little difficult to find a temperature meter on the market that can measure and store the measured values of a vertical drainage stream. Therefore, produced own temperature meter, which was used to collect measurement data for analysis and calculation of the results.

    Application of the technology in the reference building adds some problems. One problem is that both gray and black water pass through the same pipe which reduces the temperature of the waste water. The second problem is that the building does not have a common connection point to the municipal sewers, which means that a heat exchanger will be needed for each main line.

    Energy consumption in multi-family houses varies depending on the living space and number of residents in the house. The number of residents in the reference building is not known but the temperature and water flow and spill water temperature measurements showed that the building has high hot water consumption. Energy saving depends on several parameters such as incoming cold and waste water temperature to waste water heat exchanger and the length of heat exchanger. The energy savings for three different lengths of the Ekoflow heat exchanger were calculated and a 48-meter heat exchanger showed energy savings of approximately 40 MWh / year, which is profitable from the energy saving perspective.

  • Mucerenge, Sonia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    La condition de la femme dans le roman Kiffe kiffe demain2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the condition of women in Faïza Guène's first novel: Kiffe kiffe demain (2004). Our study pays particular attention to the narrator Doria and the other main characters all from the Maghreb living in the suburbs of Paris. The novel tells the story of Doria, a young French teenager, born of Maghrebi immigration. The narrator describes the difficult conditions of Maghrebi women in her city. She portrays a positive image of the city that is not of crime, prejudice and stereotypes. The theoretical framework is based on Gender Studies, but also on the situation of the Muslim population in France in general and the condition of the Maghrebian Muslim woman in France in particular. We chose five key themes for the analysis to understand the role of women in the novel: abandonment, family, marriage, racism and discrimination, and the Parisian suburbs. The study clarifies how identity is expressed through these five themes. We can say that the Guène’s novel Kiffe kiffe demain is feminist because the narrator is fights for the rights and freedoms of Maghrebi women living in France.

  • Vennström-Björk, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Anmälningsplikten: Pedagogers och andra skolverksamma yrkens förhållningssätt2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet handlar om hur pedagoger och andra skolverksamma yrken förhåller sig till och använder sig av anmälningsplikten. Utifrån tre fiktiva fall har informanterna resonerat högt med sig själva om hur de tolkar de fiktiva fallen och vad de tänker att de behöver göra enligt anmälningsplikten.

  • Diser, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    En studie av laborationsinstruktioner i fysik på gymnasiet: Finns ett samband mellan slutna och öppna laborationer och elevernas förutsättningar att utveckla förmågor?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att ta reda på till vilken grad skriftliga laborationsinstruktioner i fysik på gymnasiet är öppna eller slutna. Vidare undersöktes om det fanns ett samband mellan frihetsgrader för laborationerna och vilka förutsättningar eleverna gavs att utveckla förmågorna i kursplanen. Laborationsinstruktioner i fysik på gymnasiet samlades in från verksamma lärare i fysik under höstterminen 2017 för analys. Laborationsinstruktionernas frihetsgrader bestämdes samt deras möjlighet att ge förutsättningar att utveckla sex förmågor undersöktes. Förmågorna valdes från ämnets syfte i kursplanen och var analysera, svara, reflektera och värdera, planera, tolka och redovisa. Laborationsinstruktionerna tilldelades frihetsgrader 0–3, där 0 motsvarade en helt sluten laboration och 3 en helt öppen. Alla slutna laborationer i undersökningen hade frihetsgrad 1 och alla öppna laborationer hade frihetsgrad 2. Undersökningen kom även fram till att samtliga laborationer gav eleverna förutsättningar att utveckla förmågan att söka svar på ämnesrelaterade problem. I alla de öppna laborationerna som undersöktes fick eleverna även förutsättningar att planera experiment och observationer samt reflektera och värdera valda strategier, metoder och resultat. I analysen om korrelation mellan frihetsgrader och elevernas förutsättningar att utveckla förmågor visade undersökningen att elevernas förutsättningar att tolka och redovisa sina resultat var oberoende av om laborationen var öppen eller sluten.

  • Güclü, Arda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Alexandersson, Oscar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Världens bästa arbete: Attraktivt arbete enligt generation Z2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Generation Z, is the next working generation that’s about to enter the labor market. What do they expect from today's corporations and business? What do they see as an attractive workplace and what motivates them? What do companies need to do to attract and keep them? These are some interesting questions we wanted to analyze and examine. To answer these questions, we carried out seven semi-structured interviews with students from the Stockholm School of Economics. We wanted to ask students from Generation Z to examine people with many options when it comes to choosing a work.

    In conclusion we could see that our participants want a workplace where the organization worked with social and environmental questions. The company needs to have good morals and values for the participants to be willing to work there. This was seen as a demand from our students from the study. Other things they evaluated was relations with colleagues and bosses. The salary needed to be equal to the effort put into the work. The workers don’t want to be underpaid. The work also need to be meaningful and interesting, where the students feel valuable for the company or that they contribute to the welfare of society or the world as a whole.

  • Erkers, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    ’’Samverkan är inte ett vi och ett dom, utan ett vi’’ En studie på kollektivt lärande i arbetsmiljöarbetet efter en gemensam utbildningsinsats2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on a systematic work environment education called Suntarbetsliv, which is a joint education for managers and safety representatives. The starting point for our study is that there is a need for more understanding of an educational initiative and its possibilities. The purpose of this study is to investigate how a manager and safety representative in a public organization works after a common work environment education and on education generated in collective learning.

    In the theory's theory we present the following key points: work environment, education and collective learning.

    The method in the study is based on a qualitative method. We have conducted semistructured interviews with three managers and three security representatives in a municipal in Dalarna, Sweden.

    As a result, a common base for managers and security representatives creates the prerequisite for collective learning on the organization's activities.

    The conclusions taken are based on the results analysis and are that the willingness to learn starts within ourselves, and therefore, organizational goals must be clear and concrete so that

  • Bäckström, Jonna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Lundberg, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Viktiga faktorer vid utveckling av affärsområdetservice: En kvalitativ fallstudie på ett svenskt tillverkande företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of industrial manufacturing companies have made the transition to

    offer solutions, that include both its products and services for their customers rather than

    the products itself. Service is considered a lasting source of competitive advantage due to

    the difficulty to imitate by competitors. Today the field Service is a part of the

    aftermarket as companies traditionally offer them as a complement to their product. It is

    regarded to be difficult to manage, a necessary evil and despite investing a large amount

    of resources into it there are few that fully grasps its potential. Failing to manage the

    aftermarket and service is not only an economic risk, but it also risks worsening the

    relationship between the company and its customers. One reason the aftermarket is so

    difficult to manage is due to customers value services differently, thus complicate the

    definition of value. The different characteristics of products and services are contributing

    factors to why companies have difficulties to interpret and supply value to its customers.

    The concept of Servitization is the transformation that traditional manufacturing

    companies undergo to offer solutions of products and services. It is crucial that the

    companies understand the challenge they face. Moving away from the todays productoriented

    approach to instead take on a holistic perspective where service has an equal

    central role as the product is necessary, but often complicated. To begin this

    transformation, a first step is to develop a business plan for service alone, where the core

    is the company’s value offer. Previous research on what factors are crucial when

    developing a new business model within Servitization, as well what is valued by both

    companies and customers is lacking, therefore was this study conducted.

    The case study is conducted at a Swedish industrial manufacturing company, which

    manufactures complex products. The purpose is to examine what factors that are

    important, both internally and externally, when developing a business model for service.

    From this study three primary factors have been identified. The first is the necessity to

    separate services from other fields, to avoid the prejudice of a product-focused

    organization. Second, develop distinct packages of services to aid the company to

    demonstrate the value that services generate for its customers. The third is to regard the

    field of service as a part of its core market and not as an aftermarket.

  • Vesterlund, Karolina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Cromsjö, My
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Bättre idag, sämre förr: En kvalitativ studie om avtalsformen förtroendearbetstid och desspåverkan på individen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of the Swedish contract form “förtroendearbetstid” on the

    individual's well-being and balance between private and working life. The study also examines

    if managers experience the contract form different from other employees. A qualitative

    approach has been applied to provide a deeper understanding of the individual's experience of

    the contract form.

    Six individuals were interviewed with the contract form “förtroendearbetstid” in this study,

    three of them were managers. The result shows that all respondents today are positive about

    the contract form and think it creates flexibility and benefits their balance between private and

    working life. On the other hand, the study shows that boundaries between the private and

    working life has not always been simple, which in earlier periods resulted in stress and reduced

    recovery. The result shows no bigger difference between the two selection groups, except that

    the managers has major opportunity to control their working hours.

    An analysis was made based on different theories, for instance the job demands, control and

    support model (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) and work Life Balance theory (Greenhaus, Collins

    & Shaw, 2003). Something that has emerged as important to the individual with the contract

    form is social support and also which expectations the organization and colleagues have on the

    individual. The person's characteristics, personality and experience of the contract form has

    prove to be of great relevance to how the person manages and is affected by the contract form.

  • Tynell, Rikard
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Delkropp- eller helkroppsarbete som återhämtningsstrategi efter upprepade högintensiva arbetsbelastningar på stakergometer hos svenska elitlängdskidåkare.: En kvantitativ studie om återhämtningsstrategier2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the difference between two recovery strategies, lower-body work (cycle) and whole-body work (roller skiing), regarding to power development in repeated maximum workout on double-poling ergometer. Moreover, the study also aims to investigating whether the heart rate and the blood-lactate concentration differ between the recovery strategies.

    Method: Seven elite-active male skiers at national level were recruited to the study where a crossover method was applied. A prologue and three heats with three minutes of high-intensity work were performed during each performance. Recovery strategies were carried out with 16 min work at a workload for ≈ 55% of VO2max. The collected test variables in this study were lactate concentration, effect development, and heart rate.

    Results: A significant difference was found in the lactate concentration after whole-body work as a recovery strategy. However, there was no difference between the strategies in power development during the heats. Furthermore, no difference in heartrates was detected before or during the heats.

    Conclusions: None of the investigated recovery strategies can be recommended above the other in order to optimize the sprint performance in cross-country skiing. However, whole-body work resulted in a lower blood-lactate concentration prior to next heat compared to lower-body work as recovery strategy.

  • Löfström, Håkan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Sambandet mellan svenska elitlängdskidåkares kroppsvikt och tävlingsprestation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose statement

    The purpose of the study is to examine if Swedish elite cross-country skiers body mass is

    correlated to the results on competitions.

    Method

    Twenty female and thirty male swedish elite cross-country skiers took part in the study. Body

    mass and body height were collected by a questionnaire which was sent to the skiers.

    Competition results was collected from a database. The swedish ski federation make capacity

    analysis from swedish FIS competitions and present them on the webpage www.skidtid.se.

    All data was analyzed to describe correlations between times and the individual body weight.

    Results

    Only weak correlation between swedish elite cross-country skiers bodyweight and race

    performance at finish, on flat course sections, downhill and uphill sections were found.

    Conclusions

    This study shows that elite cross-country skiers bodyweight is not the determinant factor for

    race performance.