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  • Israelsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mickelsson, Therese
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelser av att bära på multiresistenta bakterier - en litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multi-resistant bacteria (MRB) occur worldwide and are classified as a global public health problem. Knowledge of multi-resistant bacteria is low in both patients and healthcare professionals. To reduce the risk of spreading, more knowledge and the importance of adherence to basic hygiene routines are needed. Excessive use of antibiotics is a contributing cause of the increased antibiotic resistance in the world. Healthcare professionals experience difficulties in caring for patients with MRB and lack of knowledge can be seen as a contributing factor. Avoiding the spread of infection is a major part of how patients should be managed in healthcare situations.  Aim: To compile patients' experiences of living with multi-resistant bacteria such as Multiresistant staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-resistant enteroccal and Extended-spectrum betalactamase  Method: The study has been conducted as a literature review based on 15 scientific articles.  The articles are of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method. Databases used in the search  are CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus.  Results: The results are presented in four different categories: Experiences of multi-resistant bacteria in everyday life, Experiences of lack of information, Experiences of treatment from healthcare professionals and Experiences of stigmatization. Conclusion: Stigmatization, anxiety and concern permeated the results of this literature review. The care of healthcare personnel plays an important role in how the patient handles being diagnosed with and then living with multidrug resistant bacteria. Unskilled healthcare  professionals caused increased suffering for patients.

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  • Brunk, Angelina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Jennifer
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som relaterar till sjuksköterskors attityder till psykisk ohälsa hos vuxna– en litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental illness is a growing problem, both nationally and internationally. In Sweden, mental illness has increased significantly over the past 20 years. The consequence of this will be an increased workload and long healthcare que. Despite the increased prevalence, the stigma surrounding the concept has not diminished. Stigma can be explained by a deviation from the normal which can be explained by ignorance, negative prejudice and discrimination against individuals in the society with mental illness. Aim: The purpose of the literature review is to describe nurses' attitudes to mental illness in adults as well as factors related to these attitudes. Method: The study is a literature review based on 16 scientific articles. The articles on which the result is based on were of quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. The articles were collected from the databases Cinahl, PubMed and PsycINFO. Results: The results are presented through five categories; Negative prejudices and preconceived opinions, attitudes related to the type of mental ill health, sense of responsibility and empathy, attitudes related to knowledge and experience, socio-cultural factors and differences between male and female nurses. Conclusion: The nurse's attitude towards mental illness was seen to be varied and influenced by various factors. The negative attitudes that were highlighted were distancing, isolation and special treatment, while the positive attitudes that emerged were based on goodwill and empathy. A correlation with increased understanding through theoretical or experience-based knowledge and positive attitudes was demonstrated at the same time as a correlation between ethnicity, religion and gender in relation to negative attitudes was highlighted.

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  • Gagge Lif, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Jansson, Krister
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fysisk aktivitet som omvårdnadsåtgärd för personer med övervikt och fetma – en litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity is a globally growing problem associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary is also associated with an increased risk for lack of health. Nurses has a task to promote health and prevent lack of health. A strong sense of coherence leads to healthier behaviours and leads to a reduced mortality. Aim: The aim is to describe nursing measures that the nurse can use to promote physical activity in adults with overweight and obesity.  Method: The design of this thesis is a literature review containing 15 original articles. The articles have been searched in the databases CINAHL and PubMed. The articles thereafter wore valuates according to review templates. The included studies were analysed and then structured by the nursing measures into different categories in the result. The included articles were of quantitative approach and had been approved by an ethical committee or had received permission from the participants of the study to participate in the research. Result: The analysis of the studies resulted in six categories for the result. The categories were: Motivation interweaving in various care contexts, Follow-up and feedback of physical activity, Education, counselling and information, Physical activity on prescription, Support tools via technology and Combined nursing measures. Conclusion: The results indicates that compliance to physical activity often fails as people with overweight and obesity lacked motivation to pursue physical activity.  As a nurse it is therefore important to help individuals with motivation to successfully promote compliance to physical activity. A combination of nursing measures including motivation, feedback or follow-up may be required to achieve compliance to physical activity.

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  • Persson, Karin Kristina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Saulnier, Nadine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans beskrivelse av att vårda patient med annan kultur -En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With increased globalization, nurses will meet people with a different cultural background than her own. Statistics have shown that many immigrating people born outside Europe experience reduced mental well-being. A problem arises when awareness of cultural differences is low. With the help of knowledge generated in current research, it is needed to make the nurse's expectation and way of meeting people with a different cultural background positive, as it is in the nurses behaviors that this can be changed. Aim: The purpose was to shed light on how the nurse described caring for patient with different cultural / ethnic background in health care. Methods: A litteratur review with a qualitative design, based om 15 scientific articles found on PubMed and CINALH.  Result: The nurses described communication barriers and difficulties with cultural differences in the care of patients with different cultural backgrounds than their own. The communication barriers were described as time-consuming and led to healthrelated challenges. The difficulties with cultural differences described reflected different views on death, male and female gender and relatives. Conclusion: High workload and little understanding of cultural differences mean that patients with different cultural backgrounds do not receive equal care on equal terms.

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  • Backius, Linn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nordström, Matilda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att vårda en närstående med cancersjukdom: Anhörigvårdares upplevelse av palliativ hemsjukvård – en litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As more patients wish to end their lives at home, greater demands are also placed on family members to be able to care for their loved ones. In order to provide the best possible care, the relatives needs and prerequisites have to be elucidated. Aim: The aim of the literature review is to explore family caregivers experience of palliative home care when caring for a loved one with cancer.  Method: The study was conducted as a literature review. Scientific articles were searched through the databases Cinahl, Summon and PubMed. The searches resulted in 20 qualitative articles that corresponded to the aim and were then reviewed and compiled.  Result: The compliation of the articles provided three main themes: Information about the care, Emotional stress and Caring together with palliative home care team. The three main themes further provided eight subthemes. A feeling of alination and isolation arose from the caregivers as a result of having to adapt to the patient´s daily rhythm and condition. The feeling of liability and the weight of responsibility eased for the caregivers as they felt that their needs were also listen to and taken into consideration. Having access to palliative home care teams 24-hour a day increased the feeling of security for the caregivers.  Conclusion: In order to increase the well-being of the family members who is caring for a loved one with cancer in the home, the nurse needs to pay attention and meet their need for support and help.

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  • Hellberg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Edman Törnborg, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Personcentrerad vård för personer med demenssjukdomar utifrån sjuksköterskans erfarenheter: en litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Every day, nurses face many disruptions in care, why it is important that every individual gets the right care based on their needs, a person-centered care. One vulnerable group is people with dementia due to the fact that their illness usually leads to communication difficulties. Therefore, it is important that nurses have the right education in both dementia and personcentered care. Everyone should receive equal care on equal terms despite a reduced cognitive ability. Aim The purpose of the literature review was to describe nurses' experiences of person-centered care for people with dementia. Method The literature review consists of 15 qualitative articles from different countries, the articles were published between 2010–2019. Databases used to search the articles were CINAHL and PubMed. Result The result is presented in four major main themes with subcategories. These main categories highlights (1)the nurse's experience of getting to know the person with dementia, (2) communication with the patient, (3) time for the patient and (4) the importance of training for the staff in person-centered care and dementia. Conclusion Nurses experience with education in dementia and PCV, was that it is more difficult to care for people with dementia without the right education. According to studies, it has emerged that the attitudes of newly graduated nurses are inferior to people with dementia due to a reduced competence and uncertainty about how a person with dementia should be treated. This can result in a lack of response from newly graduated nurses and that they avoid creating a dialogue and relationship with the person with dementia.

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  • Jansson, Oscar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Petersson, Emelie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Rakhyvelsförpackningar och genus: En studie om könsneutral förpackningsdesign2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Razors are a product that basically has the same function for both men and women, but whose packaging is gender coded to attract the different gender categories. The following study aims to investigate how razor packages differ depending on whether they target men or women. Furthermore, the study intends to investigate how a razor package can be designed to be perceived as gender neutral. In this study, gender-neutral is defined as something that does not target a specific gender. The study is limited to examining the color, typography, graphic elements and shape of the packaging. To answer the purpose, a survey and Design and creation have been applied as strategies. A literature study and visual content analysis were used as data collection methods within the survey strategy. The literature study was conducted for a deeper understanding of the topic and provided basic guidelines for designing a own design proposal. The content analysis was conducted to determine how the design of today's razor packages differs depending on whether they are aimed at men or women. Within the strategy Design and creation, Sless' working model was used for designing our own design proposal. Two surveys were conducted to test and evaluate the design proposal of the target group. The content analysis found that there is a strong polarization in the design and expression of razor packages. The conclusion determined differences in appearance depending on whether the packaging was aimed at women or men. The study also provides answers on how a razor package can be designed to be perceived as gender neutral. This is presented as two design proposals and a number of guidelines for how a gender-neutral razor package can be designed.

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  • Grundén, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education. Linnaeus University.
    Planning in mathematics teaching: a varied, emotional process influenced by others2020In: LUMAT: Luonnontieteiden, matematiikan ja teknologian opetuksen tutkimus ja käytäntö, ISSN 2323-7104, E-ISSN 2323-7112, LUMAT: International Journal on Math, Science and Tecnology Education, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 67-88Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • Rudervall, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Oenigheten mellan fans och kritiker: The Last Jedi: En innehållsanalys av de kritiska positionerna kring Star Wars Episode VIII: The Last Jedi.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en kvalitativ innehållsanalys av de kritiska positionerna kring den kontroversiella filmen Star Wars Episode VIII: The Last Jedi. Den innehåller en omfattande överblick om hur Star Wars kritiserats förr och nu för att sätta perspektiv på ämnet, samt information om hur fans och så kallade ”fandoms” ibland fungerar som ett ”hivemind” när det kommer till tyckande och organisering på nätets sajter och forum.

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  • Hammarling, Ted
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Hur rättvis rättskipning gestaltas genom dialog i Batman v Superman (2016) och Captain America: Civil war (2016)2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker superhjältefilmers syn på rättskipning, lag och rätt och därigenom representation av relationen mellan legalitet, legitimitet och etik. De två superhjältefilmerna jag utgår från är Batman v Superman och Captain America: Civil War. Båda filmerna är väldigt lika varandra, till exempel genom att båda har uttryck för krig och att slåss mot varandra i filmtitlar. Metoden som har använts i uppsatsen är en tematisk analys av dialogerna i båda filmerna. Dialogerna som tagits upp i uppsatsen handlar om brott, rättvisa och ansvar. Det finns intressanta aspekter på rättvisa som också redovisas genom karaktärerna runt om hjälten också. Sådana karaktärer kan vara journalister, författare, flickvänner, betjänter, till och med skurkar. Alla dessa karaktärer har var sin åsikt om hur hjälten ska handla och det är slående hur de skapar en diskussion som visar hur komplexa filmerna gör frågorna som tas upp.

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  • Strandell, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    En filmseries förbannelse: En analys om franchiseutveckling i Pirates of the Caribbean2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker förändringar som sker inom filmserien Pirates of the Caribbean med fokus på hur de tre inriktningarna: Klass, genus och frihet utvecklar sig genom filmerna. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur de tre ideologiska samhällsstrukturerna utvecklas genom filmserien för att förhoppningsvis kunna dra en slutsats gällande kopplingen mellan strukturernas utveckling och filmseriens fallande betyg på Rotten Tomatoes. I analysen har filmerna noggrant analyserats utifrån de tre ideologiska inriktningarna för att se hur de utvecklat sig i seriens uppföljare. Resultatet gav tydliga tendenser av att var film i serien tappat kontakt med någon av de strukturer som tidigare presenterats. Vissa strukturer utvecklas genom filmens handling medan andra försvinner utan förklaring. Utan att kunna dra en säker slutsats misstänker uppsatsförfattaren att diskontinuitet som skapats vid osammanhängande utveckling av samhällsstrukturerna i filmen kan vara en bidragande orsak till att filmerna fått ett lägre omdöme för var film som släppts i serien.

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  • Strömberg, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    En partiledare i mobilen: En studie om hur svenska partiledare anpassar bild och text i kombination som strategi.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Som politiker vill man synas och kunna kommunicera med människor. Världen har utvecklats på ett sätt som har gjort att människor tittar ofta i sina telefoner, därför måste politiker förstå hur de ska kommunicera med mottagarna via en mer digital länk istället. Denna uppsats behandlar ämnet politisk kommunikation på sociala medier, där fokuseringen ligger på den sociala plattformen Instagram. Syftet är att undersöka hur svenska politiker baserar sin kommunikation på Instagram som skapar en attraktion av innehållet till mottagarna. Uppsatsen analyserar hur tre svenska politiker bygger upp en strategi som ska leder till attraktion till innehållet. Uppsatsen fokuserar på tematisering, attraktion och strategi av Instagram-inläggen. De tre svenska partiledarna är Ulf Kristersson, Ebba Busch Thor och Jimmie Åkesson. Slutsatsen och slutdiskussion visar hur man arbetar med dessa tre element så de samverkar och bildar verktyg som gör att attraktion till innehåll bildas.

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  • Rydberg, Pontus
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Storytelling inom reklamfilm: Narrativ berättarstruktur och karaktärsutveckling inom reklamfilmer2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag får det allt svårare att nå ut till sin målgrupp via reklamfilmer i dag, men ett effektivt sätt att göra detta på är storytelling. I denna analys kommer författaren att undersöka hur två reklamfilmer med en tydlig storytelling använder sig av berättarstrukturer och karaktärsutveckling för att bygga upp och producera en reklamfilm som skapar mervärde och knyter positiva relationer till konsumenterna. Resultatet av analysen visar att båda reklamfilmerna följer en tydlig berättarstruktur och karaktärsutveckling som medieproducenter kan lära sig av.

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  • Nowak, Christoph
    et al.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Ostgren, Carl Johan
    Nystrom, Fredrik H.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm Feldreich, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Sundstrom, Johan
    Carrero, Juan-Jesus
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Multiplex proteomics for prediction of major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes2018In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 1748-1757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Multiplex proteomics could improve understanding and risk prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in type 2 diabetes. This study assessed 80 cardiovascular and inflammatory proteins for biomarker discovery and prediction of MACE in type 2 diabetes. Methods We combined data from six prospective epidemiological studies of 30-77-year-old individuals with type 2 diabetes in whom 80 circulating proteins were measured by proximity extension assay. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used in a discovery/replication design to identify biomarkers for incident MACE. We used gradient-boosted machine learning and lasso regularised Cox regression in a random 75% training subsample to assess whether adding proteins to risk factors included in the Swedish National Diabetes Register risk model would improve the prediction of MACE in the separate 25% test subsample. Results Of 1211 adults with type 2 diabetes (32% women), 211 experienced a MACE over a mean (+/- SD) of 6.4 +/- 2.3 years. We replicated associations (< 5% false discovery rate) between risk of MACE and eight proteins: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, IL-27 subunit alpha (IL-27a), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, protein S100-A12, TNF receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R)2. Addition of the 80-protein assay to established risk factors improved discrimination in the separate test sample from 0.686 (95% CI 0.682, 0.689) to 0.748 (95% CI 0.746, 0.751). A sparse model of 20 added proteins achieved a C statistic of 0.747 (95% CI 0.653, 0.842) in the test sample. Conclusions/interpretation We identified eight protein biomarkers, four of which are novel, for risk of MACE in community residents with type 2 diabetes, and found improved risk prediction by combining multiplex proteomics with an established risk model. Multiprotein arrays could be useful in identifying individuals with type 2 diabetes who are at highest risk of a cardiovascular event.

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  • Lysén, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Ett postsekulärt Sverige?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The visibility of religion in a global world and demands for political influence are subject to debate and research. One of the fields of research is the revision of the theory of secularism which has opened to the de-privatization of religion in civil society, where it can constitute a counterforce against totalitarian movements, criticism of capitalism downsides to consumerism and an in-depth discussion of existential issues. In Sweden, Joel Halldorf - Liberal columnist, academic scientist and Christian - is an advocate of post-secularistic approach to religious diversification based on migration. The survey focuses on how Halldorf based on his different roles argue for religion increased influence in society. A basis for Halldorf's argumentation is a functional definition of religion that allows Halldorf to emphasize the ability of religions to fellowship and organization in associations. Halldorf's thoughts have met resistance from parts of the liberal press why this resistance will be correlated to Halldorf's different roles.

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  • Clay, Joshua
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Interkulturell Branding: En kulturell jämförelse mellan reklamfilmer och metoderna till att marknadsföra med hjälp av reklamfilm hos olika nationaliteter2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att etablera ett varumärke bland människor behövs marknadsföring. Men hur man ska marknadsföra är en komplicerad process, då det är många delar som behövs struktureras upp för att skapa en sammanfattande kommunikation. Målet med en marknadsföring är givetvis att nå ut till så stor mängd av konsumenter som är möjligt, men en bredare målgrupp gör det mer komplicerat då det innebär fler skilda sinnen och tankesätt bland människorna. Volvo och Samsung är två bra exempel på välkända varumärken som har lyckats att marknadsföra sig och etablerat sig bland människor runt om i världen. Uppsatsen syftar därför till att undersöka hur Volvo och Samsung lyckats med att marknadsföra sig bland många olika människor och deras kulturer. Det som har trätt fram är skillnader bland användandet av semiotiska resurser. Men den stora likheten har varit en sammanhängande kommunikation i reklamfilmerna, som har bjudit in till en relaterbar gemenskap.

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  • Funk, Minéa
    et al.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Representations of industrial heritage in tourism marketing materials: Analysing androcentric discourse in textual and visual content2020In: Dos Algarves: a Multidisciplinary e-journal, ISSN 2182-5580, Vol. 36, p. 41-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a post-feminist lens to examine destination-marketing material connected to three sites in Bergslagen, an area located in the central part of Sweden famous for centuries of mining activity. This region continues to have ongoing mining operations, but has also worked at developing cultural and industrial heritage interpretations of its industrial past. A rich history of development based on mines, quarries and smelting huts has created a foundation for possible reinterpretations of history for tourism and became a ground for representation of metanarratives. In this study we analyse three sites located in the area of Bergslagen ˗ Långban, Axmar Bruk (Axmar mill) and Engelsberg Bruk (Engelsberg mill). On-line textual and visual marketing materials used by these destinations allowed for the analysis of representations of the industrial heritage. Using post-feminist theory, we analysed representations of the industrial heritage in the marketing textual and visual materials of these chosen attractions. Our goal was to find the dominant representations as well as to explore what representations were missing from the stories told to the visitors. Our results show that both images and textual material continue to rely heavily on the representations of patriarchal system of Bergslagen and its industrial heritage, whereas the role of female and ‘other’ alternative narratives continue to be excluded. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of how marketing materials remain as facilitators in upholding male and female stereotypes connected to industrial heritage and the conclusions highlight the continued polarisation of gender through contemporary channels of communication.

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  • Sundin, Alicia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Klubbdöden: Klubbdödens konsekvenser för arrangörer och musiker i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nedläggningen av musikklubbar i Sverige har under de senaste åren diskuterats i både musikbranschen och media. Denna undersökning ämnar ge en djupare förståelse för klubbdöden som fenomen och lyfta fram de problem som uppstår. Med hjälp av en enkät undersöktes i vilken utsträckning musiker och arrangörer blir påverkade av klubbdöden. Majoriteten av svaren beskrev liknande upplevelser; det har blivit svårare att få spelningar, det är svårt att leva på musiken för både arrangörer och musiker samt att boende i närheten klagar på “oljud” från verksamheter som arrangerar musikevenemang.

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  • Runnsäter Söderkvist, Henrik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Hur skildras medeltiden i olika läroböcker?: En kvalitativ studie av olika läroböcker inom ämnet Historia för åk 4–6.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att granska tre olika läroböcker inom historieämnet för åk 4–6 där alla anser sig följa styrdokumentet Lgr11. Som en del av min analys kommer det att visas huruvida läroböckerna uppfyller de kunskapskrav som finns för historia åk 4–6 i rådande styrdokument och som de själva anger. I denna studie fokuserar jag på att granska ett och samma område inom alla böcker, medeltiden. Detta för att kunna göra en djupgranskning av: vilka begrepp som används, hur texterna är skrivna, hur framställs området, vilka och hur mycket bilder som används. Metoden som används är inspirerad av hermeneutisk teori, brukstextanalys och interaktionen mellan bild och text. I resultatdelen ställs de olika läromedlen mot varandra och mot de specifika kunskapskraven i ämnesområdet inom historia som det är framställt idag i Lgr 11. Slutsatsen är att….. Således kan denna studie vara både intressant och behjälplig vid val av läroböcker i mellanstadieskolor.

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  • Nordman, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Åländska svensklärares digitala återkoppling i samband med skrivundervisning sett ur ett relationellt perspektiv2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med digitaliseringsprocessen av skolan blir lärarna tvungna att utveckla sitt arbete med skrivundervisningen i svenska. Lärarnas relationer med elever ändras då de använder digitala verktyg. För att upprätthålla relationen till eleverna krävs det att lärarna kan hantera digitala verktyg. Syftet med den här studien är att ur ett relationellt perspektiv genom Aspelins relationella kompetenser kartlägga åländska grundskolelärares användning av digitala verktyg för återkoppling i samband med skrivundervisning. En kvalitativ studie har gjorts med hjälp av åtta intervjuer, insamling av elevtexter med lärares återkoppling samt en enkät. Resultatet visar att digitaliseringen har ändrat arbetet med skrivprocessen genom att olika moment inte används på samma sätt som tidigare. Slutsatsen i studien är att synliggöra speciellt fyra aspekter av svensklärares digitala återkoppling i samband med elevers skrivprocesser. Det rör sig om betydelsen av tid, teknisk utrustning, lärares digitala kompetens och engagemang samt asynkron och synkron kommunikation.

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  • Kjellin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Kompetens 2.0: Förskoleanställdas vägar till informellt lärande på Facebook2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att med avstamp i tanken om det livslånga lärandet, via teorier om situerat lärande, vilka utvecklats av Jean Lave och Etienne Wenger och i kombination med teorier om informellt lärande och lärande gemenskaper, undersöka hur aktivt deltagande i en facebookgrupp för förskoleanställda kan förstås som bidragande till dessas kompetensutveckling. Mina två frågeställningar fokuserar på vilka kategorier av pedagogisk kompetens som väcker störst engagemang samt vilka språkhandlingar deltagarna nyttjar för att skapa förutsättningar för lärande i diskussionerna. Genom att besvara dessa frågor kan jag visa att en majoritet av diskussionerna går att placera i någon av Lee S. Shulmans kategorier för pedagogisk kompetens (PCK) och därmed kan beskrivas som praxisrelaterade. Jag kan också beskriva de språkhandlingar som tydligast skildrar en lärande ambition hos deltagarna som varande rådgivning respektive tips. Med hjälp av dessa språkhandlingar kan deltagarna tränga in i de pedagogiska frågeställningarna och skapa förutsättningar för ny eller utvidgad kunskap under diskussionens gång. Studiens resultat visar att facebookgruppen dessa diskussioner äger rum i kan beskrivas som en lärande gemenskap. Här ägnar sig deltagarna åt ett frivilligt, demokratiserat, informellt lärande i syfte att utveckla den egna pedagogiska kompetensen eller verksamheten. Av resultatet har jag kunnat göra ytterligare observationer: Med utgångspunkt i hur diskussionerna i den dominerande kategorin (KEC) präglades av att vara mer praktik- än praxisnära resonerar jag i diskussionsdelen angående hur detta kan vara ett tecken på att de anställdas förutsättningar att utöva sitt uppdrag även påverkar deras förutsättningar för fortsatt lärande och utveckling – så kallad ”beprövad erfarenhet” – kring detta uppdrag. Jag ser också hur informellt lärande har både styrkor och svagheter som tjänar på att utforskas ytterligare. Kanske, reflekterar jag, ligger det informella lärandets egentliga värde i dess förmåga att komplettera och – om det tillåts – transcendera det formella? Sammanfattningsvis kan studien på en övergripande nivå förstås som en slags hyllning till det informella lärandet. Frågan är inte hur, utan i hur hög grad och på vilket sätt deltagandet i dessa lärande gemenskaper utvecklar deltagarnas kompetens och i förlängningen även praxis.

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  • Talls, Susanne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Françoise Sagan: Ecrivaine Iibre malgré la critique2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to refute the criticism against the works of Françoise Sagan. To do so, first we make an examination of her autobiographical writings: Toxique and Les bleus à l’âme in order to prove that Sagan was indeed a passionate and engaged writer. Secondly a sociological analysis is made of some of her severely judged female heroes. It will show that it is quite the opposite, as Françoise Sagan exposes the limits of the French post-war society for women. The conclusion of this essay is that Sagan’s works should have a position in the French literary canon.

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  • Hauksson-Tresch, Nathalie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Visual Rhetoric of the Truth in the Dreyfus Affair: A Semiotic Approach.2019In: International Journal for the Semiotics of Law, ISSN 0952-8059, E-ISSN 1572-8722Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • Olsmats, Carl
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Utbildning, forskning och samverkan: hur kan vi skapa kompletta miljöer?2020In: Organisation & Samhälle, ISSN 2001-9114, E-ISSN 2002-0287, no 1, p. 78-79Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • Hermansson, Ellen
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    ”Asså, läsning är ju ändå rätt så kul”: En studie om högstadieelevers inställning till den skönlitterära läsningen i svenskämnet2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mycket av den forskning som finns idag visar att läsmotivationen hos skolungdomar sjunker. I denna studie undersöks högstadieelevers attityder till skönlitterär läsning i skolan samt undersöks hur det går att förändra de attityder som finns. Frågeställningarna som användes i studien var: • Vad tycker eleverna om skönlitterär läsning i skolan? • Vad motiverar eleverna till att läsa skönlitteratur i skolan? • Hur tycker eleverna att litteraturundervisningen borde gå till i skolan?  Denna studie har en kvalitativ ansats och utgår ifrån semistrukturerade intervjuer och sju stycken respondenter intervjuades en och en.   Studiens resultat är att attityden till skönlitterär läsning i skolan är både positiv och negativ, men att respondenterna också poängterar flera aspekter att ta hänsyn till för att höja läsmotivationen hos dem. De aspekter som främst lyfts fram vid intervjuerna är variation i undervisningen, lärarens attityder samt igenkänningsfaktor i boken. Många av respondenterna använder i sina svar även ordet ”spännande” för att beskriva hur en bra bok skulle vara.

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  • Hermansson, Ellen
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Social Anthropology.
    Vilka faktorer motiverar högstadieelever till skönlitterär läsning i skolämnet svenska?: En studie utifrån högstadieelevers perspektiv om läsmotivation inom skönlitterär läsning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att läsförståelsen hos de svenska skolbarnen ökar, men ändå talas det om att vi som lärare måste hjälpas åt att försöka motivera elever till att läsa mer, då läsmotivationen saknas. Denna systematiska litteraturstudie syftar till att undersöka vad den svenskämnesdidaktiska forskningen säger om läsmotivationen hos högstadieungdomar i skönlitterär läsning. Genom att även undersöka elevers förhållningssätt till läsningen vill jag veta vilka faktorer som är betydande för motivation till läsning av skönlitteratur. Frågeställningarna som användes i studien var:  • Hur ser högstadieelevers läsmotivation ut idag enligt den ämnesdidaktiska forskningen? • Vilka faktorer visar den ämnesdidaktiska forskningen är viktiga för att öka elevers läsmotivation enligt högstadieelever?  Resultaten visade att attityden till läsning var både positiv och negativ, men att det fanns flera aspekter att ta hänsyn till för motivationshöjning hos eleverna. De aspekter som det främst talades om var en bra läsmiljö – både hemma och i skolan, bokval samt igenkänningsfaktor i boken. Sociala faktorer spelade också in och slutligen spelade även belöningar och mål in.

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  • Alm, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Vem berättar för mig?: - grundläggande litteracitet hos ensamkommande unga på flykt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines early experiences of literacy described by unaccompanied minors from Afghanistan who are now following a general program of studies at a college of further education (folkhögskola) in Sweden. Their studies are conducted at a secondary and upper secondary school level. All of the participants are subject to the Swedish legislation applying to residence permission and participation in upper secondary education The experiences of literacy taken up here are reader biografies comprising picture collage and short text passages. The analysis is based on the biografies of 12 participants, illustrating various activities experienced during their respective childhoods, some of which are related to literacy, others not. The activities are presented in the form of illustrations and text along a timeline.  In the results section, the experiences described in the reader biografies are presented in terms of four categories: literacy and education, multimodal literacy and literacy mediating related to the theoretical background of this study.

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  • Christenson, Linus
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    I faktakunskapens tidevarv: Hur läsning av skönlitteraturen kan brygga utbildning och bildning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar att undersöka om arbete med skönlitteratur och skilda läsarter i religionskunskapsundervisningen kan uppfylla både utbildnings- som bildningsmål. Genom textanalys har tre textbidrag undersökts och tolkats. Maria Kuchens Den stora skogen och Kerstin Ekmans Gud och Ginko från antologi Boken om oss alla- Tretton röster om Bibeln och Tatjana Brandt´s inledning och essä Överhettad känsla och ambivalent kunskap- En essä om Frances Burney i boken Fängslad- Essäer om lusten till litteraturen och läsningens plats i livet. Ur en antydan om spänning mellan ämnesplanens olika delar och ställt i ljuset av utbildningsvetenskapliga perspektiv, ställs en ökad fokus på faktakunskaper mot ett kunskapsförslag bestående av tolkning, dialog och förståelse. Slutsatser är att tolkningen av de analyserade författarnas texter ger uttryck för både fiktiv som faktiv läsart, samt kan förstås uppfylla både utbildnings- och bildningsmål.  Förslagsvis beskrivs även de två läsarterna fiktiv och faktiv med tillhörande tolkningsgemenskaper kunna uppfylla olika roller i ett undervisningssammanhang och återställa balansen mellan ämnesplanens olika delar.

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  • Edsenius, Henrik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Digital Storytelling - otydligt, men efterfrågat!: En kvalitativ studie i vad man inom den journalistiska branschen avser med Digital Storytelling, samt vilka kompetenser som anses viktiga för det digitala berättandet.2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet   med   denna   studie   är   att   skapa   en   bild   av   vad   man   inom   den   journalistiska   branschen  avser   med   digital   storytelling,   samt   vilka   egenskaper   och   kompetenser   som   värderas   och  anses   viktiga   för   att   kunna   jobba   med   digitalt   berättande   inom   denna   bransch.   Förhoppningen  med   undersökningen   är   att   generera   fördjupade   kunskaper   inom   området   som   kan   ligga   till  grund   för   vidare   utveckling   av   såväl   begreppet   digital   storytelling   som   förståelse   för   det  digitala   berättandet.   För   att   uppnå   detta   har   jag   utgått   från   följande   frågeställningar:  Hur   definierar   nyckelpersoner   inom   branschen   digital   storytelling   och   vad   omfattar  begreppet?   Vilken   typ   av   produktioner   förväntas   man   som   producent   av   denna   berättande  form   leverera?   På   vilka   sätt   skiljer   sig   berättarsättet   (de   dramaturgiska   greppen)   för   den   här  typen   av   produktioner   från   mer   traditionellt   berättande?   Vilka   kunskaper   och   egenskaper  anses   viktiga   för   att,   professionellt,   kunna   leverera   produktioner   inom   området   digital  storytelling?   Hur   ser   man   på   framtiden   för   journalistens   roll   i   en   värld   av   konvergens   och  förändring   i   förhållande   till   digital   storytelling?   Kärnan   i   arbetet   ligger   inom   området   för   den  kvalitativa   forskningen   i   vilken   empiri   har   samlats   in   via   intervjuer   med   semistrukturerade  öppna   frågor,   för   att   därefter   analyseras   genom   meningskoncentration.   Ett   flertal   teoretiska  synsätt   och   begrepp   har   använts   för   att   få   ett   ramverk   till   digital   storytelling   i   arbetet   med  analysen.   Teorier   såsom   Bourdius   -   sociala   sammanhang,   Jenkins   -   konvergenskultur   och  Goldhabers   -   uppmärksamhetsekonomi.   I   resultatet   av   studien   framkommer   det   att   digital  storytelling   består   av   ett   audiovisuellt   uttryck   skapat   för   digitala   plattformar   med   hjälp   av  olika   media.   Ett   berättande   i   vilket   publiken   ges   valmöjligheter   för   hur   man   kan   konsumera  berättelsen.   Samtidigt   som   undersökningens   resultat   poängterar   vikten   av   audiovisuell  kompetens,   belyser   den   även   de   sociala   aspekterna   av   det   digitala   berättandet   i   vilket  interaktivitet   av   olika   form   är   av   vikt. 

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  • Stjernström, Olof
    et al.
    Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Avango, Dag
    Luleå University.
    Contrasting views on co-management of indigenous natural and cultural heritage: Case of Laponia World Heritage site, Sweden2020In: Polar Record, ISSN 0032-2474, E-ISSN 1475-3057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the evaluation of the management of the Laponia World Heritage site (Laponia WHS) in northern Sweden. After inscription on the World Heritage list in 1996, difficulties emerged in establishing a common understanding about the involvement of various stakeholders into the site’s management model, the key point of contention being the influence of the representatives from indigenous Sami people and how that should be organised. In 2011, the management organisation led by Laponiatjuottjudus (the Sami name for the Laponia WHS management organisation) was established and implemented. This organisation gave Sami representatives a majority in the Laponia steering board and the position as chairperson in the board. This marked a remarkable shift in the Swedish national management system of land in not only handing over a state decision-making power to the local level but also to representatives of the indigenous population. The evaluation of the management model presented by Laponiatjuottjudus resulted in a number of responses from several stakeholders participating in a consultation process. These responses, from stakeholders with conflicting positions in relation to the issue described above, are the subject of this study. The analysis of these data collected reveals the existence of four major approaches or narratives to the Laponia WHS, with narratives connected to nature, the indigenous population and local governance, the economic effects of the existing system, and lastly the local community narrative. The study concludes that present management of Laponia WHS, the Laponiatjuottjudus, is a unique attempt to widen the management and planning process that partly interferes with the existing national planning model. At the same time, the analysis reveals that the Sami demands for influence over land management in the north still faces major challenges connected to its colonial legacy.

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  • Smeds, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Undervisning i källkritisk informationssökning: Lärares förhållningssätt till källkritisk undervisning i digitala medier för årskurs 1 – 32020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har som syfte att undersöka hur lärare i årskurs ett till tre beskriver att de förhåller sig till undervisningen i källkritisk informationssökning i digitala miljöer. Lärarnas inställning till undervisning i källkritisk informationssökning har undersökts genom semistrukturerade intervjuer som sedan analyserats ur ett sociokulturellt teoretiskt perspektiv. Studien är viktig då forskningen på området visar att barn i allt yngre åldrar idag har tillgång till ett enormt informationsflöde genom internet. Samtidigt som informationsmängden ökar så ökar kraven på informationskonsumenten. Forskningen visar att undervisningen om digital källkritik idag är bristfällig samt att elever många gånger har svårigheter att bedöma källors trovärdighet. Elevers digitala källkritiska nivå varierar kraftigt. Samtidigt visar forskningen att elevens förmåga att förhålla sig till digital text korrelerar med elevens läsförståelse. Resultaten visar att lärarna har en mycket samstämmig inställning till både vad källkritik är samt vad de vill uppnå med undervisningen. Då elever många gånger har bristande läs- och skrivkunskaper i de tidiga årskurserna så startar flera av lärarna undervisningen under lågstadiets senare del. Lärarnas målsättning är att eleverna utvecklar en förståelse för vikten av ett källkritiskt förhållningssätt och ett kontinuerligt reflekterande.

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  • Lind, Bettina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Östlund, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Mekanismerna bakom en mans våld: En fallstudie av mordet på en ung kvinna2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att försöka förstå en mans dödliga våld mot en kvinna för att öka kunskapen kring mekanismerna bakom mäns dödliga våld mot kvinnor och på sätt kunna förhindra våld. I denna kvalitativa fallstudie användes tematisk analys med en deduktiv ansats där teorier kring strukturella-, terapeutiska- samt socialpsykologiska perspektiv användes i samspel med tidigare forskning om reaktiv- och proaktiv aggression samt utåtagerande våldsmönster. Resultatet från studien påvisade hur man i det enskilda fallet till stor del kunde förklara våldets orsaker, motiv och tillvägagångssätt. Man fann bakomliggande mekanismer till våldsutövandet genom kategorin “sociala problem och våld”, medan våldsmönstret speglades bäst i Johnsons typologi Coercive Controlling Violence. Gärningsmannens aggressiva drivkraft bedömdes i denna studie vara proaktiv.

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  • Vos, Theo
    et al.
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
    Abebo, Teshome Abuka
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, p. 1211-1259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57.6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40.8-75.9 million [7.2%, 6.0-8.3]), 45.1 million (29.0-62.8 million [5.6%, 4.0-7.2]), 36.3 million (25.3-50.9 million [4.5%, 3.8-5.3]), 34.7 million (23.0-49.6 million [4.3%, 3.5-5.2]), and 34.1 million (23.5-46.0 million [4.2%, 3.2-5.3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2.7% (95% UI 2.3-3.1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10.4% (95% UI 9.0-11.8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862-11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018-19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-todate information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

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  • Hay, Simon I.
    et al.
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
    Abebo, Teshome Abuka
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, p. 1260-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75.2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71.9-78.6) for females and 72.0 years (68.8-75.1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45.6 years [42.0-49.5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41.5 years [39.0-44.0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6.24 years (5.97-6.48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6.04 years (5.74-6.27) for males and 6.49 years (6.08-6.77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1.78 years (1.61-1.93) for males and 1.96 years (1.69-2.13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2.3% [-5.9 to 0.9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the five lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16.1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally. Interpretation At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs offset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention efforts, and development assistance for health, including financial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

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  • Tegern, Matthias
    et al.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Äng, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet; Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna - Uppsala University, Falun.
    Larsson, Helena
    Musculoskeletal disorders and their associations with health- and work-related factors: a cross-sectional comparison between Swedish air force personnel and army soldiers2020In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The high numbers of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among soldiers in the Swedish Armed Forces has led to the implementation of an effective prevention program, the musculoskeletal screening protocol (MSP), including questionnaires, physical tests and individual intervention of their MSD. A corresponding MSP for the Swedish Air Force is also needed due to earlier reported high prevalence of MSD. We therefore investigated the prevalence of MSD in Swedish Air Force personnel (AF) and compared this to Swedish Army deployed soldiers (DS). Individual, health- and work-related factors associated with MSD were also investigated.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study on 166 male AF and 185 DS. AF consisted of fighter pilots, helicopter pilots and rear crew from one Swedish air base.

    RESULTS: The one-year and point prevalence, respectively, of MSD were significantly higher for AF compared to DS with regard to both the upper quarter of the body (i.e. neck, shoulder and thoracic regions) (AF = 54.8 and 31.3%, DS = 26.1 and 13.6%, p = 0.01) and the lumbar region (AF = 38.0 and 18.7%, DS = 22.2 and 7.1%, p = 0.00). No significant differences were present between fighter pilots, helicopter pilots and rear crew regarding MSD prevalence. Factors significantly associated with having both upper quarter and lumbar regions MSD were group (i.e. greater odds for AF than DS) and self-reported physical health as less than excellent. Additionally, being older and taller were also factors associated with lumbar region MSD.

    DISCUSSION: Despite a generally healthy lifestyle, MSD were commonly reported by AF and DS, with generally higher prevalence in AF who mainly reported MSD in the upper quarter of the body. The results from this study indicate that the MSP can be a meaningful tool to prevent MSD in air force personnel and that questions regarding general health and MSD in specific body regions should be included in screening protocols. The development of the preventive program MSP is therefore recommended for the Swedish Air Force.

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  • Ericson, Jenny
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala University; Falu Hospital.
    Palmér, Lina
    University of Borås.
    Cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants: A mixed method study2020In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 5, article id e0233181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Many women cease breastfeeding earlier than desired. This study examined the cessation of breastfeeding among mothers of preterm infants. Thus, the aim was to describe the cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants up to 12 months after birth.

    METHOD: This mixed methods study used a convergent design with both qualitative data, consisting of written comments, and quantitative data, on breastfeeding status and breastfeeding satisfaction. The data were collected from questionnaires sent to the mothers at three points during the first year after birth. In total, 270 mothers of preterm infants who breastfed at the time of discharge from the neonatal unit provided data for the study. The quantitative and qualitative data were analysed separately with statistical tests and hermeneutical analysis, respectively and then together according to the convergent mixed methods design.

    RESULTS: Four themes of the meanings of the cessation of breastfeeding were identified in the qualitative analysis: "Desire to regain the mother's and the infant's well-being", "The mothers interpretation that the infants actively ceased breastfeeding", "The mother's body and/or the infants' signals showing the way" and "The mother's own will and perceived external obstacles". Mothers who did not breastfeed as long as they wanted were more likely to report less satisfaction with breastfeeding, a shorter breastfeeding period, and less activity when ceasing breastfeeding. In comparison, mothers who breastfed as long as they wanted were more satisfied with breastfeeding, breastfed for a longer period of time and were more active in decision making in breastfeeding cessation.

    CONCLUSION: Maternal passivity or activity influenced the cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants who breastfed at the time of discharge from the neonatal unit. Passive behaviour related to breastfeeding may result in early cessation of breastfeeding, and low breastfeeding satisfaction while active behaviour may increase breastfeeding length and satisfaction.

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  • Florén, Henrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Digital Storytelling to Document Learning in Higher Education: Examples from a Swedish Context2020Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • Gakidou, Emmanuela
    et al.
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, p. 1345-1422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Findings Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124.1 million DALYs [95% UI 111.2 million to 137.0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122.2 million DALYs [110.3 million to 133.3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83.0 million DALYs [78.3 million to 87.7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89.9 million DALYs [80.9 million to 98.2 million]), high body-mass index (64.8 million DALYs [44.4 million to 87.6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63.8 million DALYs [53.2 million to 76.3 million]). In 2016 in 113 countries, the leading risk factor in terms of attributable DALYs was a metabolic risk factor. Smoking remained among the leading five risk factors for DALYs for 109 countries, while low birthweight and short gestation was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 38 countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In terms of important drivers of change in trends of burden attributable to risk factors, between 2006 and 2016 exposure to risks explains an 9.3% (6.9-11.6) decline in deaths and a 10.8% (8.3-13.1) decrease in DALYs at the global level, while population ageing accounts for 14.9% (12.7-17.5) of deaths and 6.2% (3.9-8.7) of DALYs, and population growth for 12.4% (10.1-14.9) of deaths and 12.4% (10.1-14.9) of DALYs. The largest contribution of trends in risk exposure to disease burden is seen between ages 1 year and 4 years, where a decline of 27.3% (24.9-29.7) of the change in DALYs between 2006 and 2016 can be attributed to declines in exposure to risks. Interpretation Increasingly detailed understanding of the trends in risk exposure and the RRs for each risk-outcome pair provide insights into both the magnitude of health loss attributable to risks and how modification of risk exposure has contributed to health trends. Metabolic risks warrant particular policy attention, due to their large contribution to global disease burden, increasing trends, and variable patterns across countries at the same level of development. GBD 2016 findings show that, while it has huge potential to improve health, risk modification has played a relatively small part in the past decade. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

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  • Naghavi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Aboyans, Victor
    Adetokunboh, Olatunji
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, p. 1151-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. Methods We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. Findings The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71.2-73.2) of deaths in 2016 with 19.3% (18.5-20.4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8.43% (8.00-8.67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006-16-age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1.80 million deaths (95% UI 1.59 million to 1.89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176-181) increase in deaths in ages 90-94 years and a 210% (208-212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL significantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2.89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1.59%) during the same interval. Globally, the five leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a finer level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. Interpretation The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and conflict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might reflect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which effective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

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  • Wang, Haidong
    et al.
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abera, Semaw Ferede
    Abraha, Haftom Niguse
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, p. 1084-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016. Methods We have evaluated how well civil registration systems captured deaths using a set of demographic methods called death distribution methods for adults and from consideration of survey and census data for children younger than 5 years. We generated an overall assessment of completeness of registration of deaths by dividing registered deaths in each location-year by our estimate of all-age deaths generated from our overall estimation process. For 163 locations, including subnational units in countries with a population greater than 200 million with complete vital registration (VR) systems, our estimates were largely driven by the observed data, with corrections for small fluctuations in numbers and estimation for recent years where there were lags in data reporting (lags were variable by location, generally between 1 year and 6 years). For other locations, we took advantage of different data sources available to measure under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) using complete birth histories, summary birth histories, and incomplete VR with adjustments; we measured adult mortality rate (the probability of death in individuals aged 15-60 years) using adjusted incomplete VR, sibling histories, and household death recall. We used the U5MR and adult mortality rate, together with crude death rate due to HIV in the GBD model life table system, to estimate age-specific and sex-specific death rates for each location-year. Using various international databases, we identified fatal discontinuities, which we defined as increases in the death rate of more than one death per million, resulting from conflict and terrorism, natural disasters, major transport or technological accidents, and a subset of epidemic infectious diseases; these were added to estimates in the relevant years. In 47 countries with an identified peak adult prevalence for HIV/AIDS of more than 0.5% and where VR systems were less than 65% complete, we informed our estimates of age-sex-specific mortality using the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP)-Spectrum model fitted to national HIV/AIDS prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance systems. We estimated stillbirths, early neonatal, late neonatal, and childhood mortality using both survey and VR data in spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression models. We estimated abridged life tables for all location-years using age-specific death rates. We grouped locations into development quintiles based on the Sociodemographic Index (SDI) and analysed mortality trends by quintile. Using spline regression, we estimated the expected mortality rate for each age-sex group as a function of SDI. We identified countries with higher life expectancy than expected by comparing observed life expectancy to anticipated life expectancy on the basis of development status alone. Findings Completeness in the registration of deaths increased from 28% in 1970 to a peak of 45% in 2013; completeness was lower after 2013 because of lags in reporting. Total deaths in children younger than 5 years decreased from 1970 to 2016, and slower decreases occurred at ages 5-24 years. By contrast, numbers of adult deaths increased in each 5-year age bracket above the age of 25 years. The distribution of annualised rates of change in age-specific mortality rate differed over the period 2000 to 2016 compared with earlier decades: increasing annualised rates of change were less frequent, although rising annualised rates of change still occurred in some locations, particularly for adolescent and younger adult age groups. Rates of stillbirths and under-5 mortality both decreased globally from 1970. Evidence for global convergence of death rates was mixed; although the absolute difference between age-standardised death rates narrowed between countries at the lowest and highest levels of SDI, the ratio of these death rates-a measure of relative inequality-increased slightly. There was a strong shift between 1970 and 2016 toward higher life expectancy, most noticeably at higher levels of SDI. Among countries with populations greater than 1 million in 2016, life expectancy at birth was highest for women in Japan, at 86.9 years (95% UI 86.7-87.2), and for men in Singapore, at 81.3 years (78.8-83.7) in 2016. Male life expectancy was generally lower than female life expectancy between 1970 and 2016, and the gap between male and female life expectancy increased with progression to higher levels of SDI. Some countries with exceptional health performance in 1990 in terms of the difference in observed to expected life expectancy at birth had slower progress on the same measure in 2016. Interpretation Globally, mortality rates have decreased across all age groups over the past five decades, with the largest improvements occurring among children younger than 5 years. However, at the national level, considerable heterogeneity remains in terms of both level and rate of changes in age-specific mortality; increases in mortality for certain age groups occurred in some locations. We found evidence that the absolute gap between countries in age-specific death rates has declined, although the relative gap for some age-sex groups increased. Countries that now lead in terms of having higher observed life expectancy than that expected on the basis of development alone, or locations that have either increased this advantage or rapidly decreased the deficit from expected levels, could provide insight into the means to accelerate progress in nations where progress has stalled. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

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  • Ringnér, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Gymnasieelevers syn på grannspråksundervisning: En kvalitativ intervjustudie inom svenskämnet2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Nyström, Nathalie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Tala kan även vara guld: Svensklärares undervisning i årskurs 1–3 för att stödja utveckling i att hålla muntliga presentationer2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att ge kunskap om hur några svensklärare i årskurs 1–3 bedriver undervisning för att stödja elevers utveckling av förmågan att genomföra muntliga presentationer. För att nå syftet har semistrukturerade intervjuer med sju lärare från fyra skolor gjorts. Data har analyserats med hjälp av innehållsanalys utifrån det sociokulturella perspektivet som teori.   Studiens resultat visar att de utvalda lärarna anser att elevernas tillämpning av grundläggande retoriska färdigheter samt goda kunskaper i den berörda presentationens ämnesinnehåll är viktigt för att nå hög måluppfyllelse. Samtidigt visar studiens resultat att lärarna uppger att explicit undervisning för att utveckla dessa färdigheter förekommer i liten utsträckning. Lärarna beskriver att de ändå ger elever rikligt med tillfällen att tala i klassrummet och att de använder övergripande såväl som direkt stöttning för att elever ska känna trygghet i gruppen. Lärarna säger att de försöker bedriva undervisning som jag tolkar landar inom ramen för den proximala utvecklingszonen genom att de låter undervisningsinnehållet baseras på elevers individuella utgångspunkter och stegvis utmanar eleverna mot målet att prestera väl i muntliga presentationer inför en publik. Huvudslutsatsen är att lärare verkar vara väl medvetna om hur de bedriver undervisning som syftar till att stödja elevers muntliga färdighetsutveckling, samtidigt som det förfaller råda en osäkerhet i vilka förmågor och färdigheter elever bör behärska för att kunna utvecklas i att hålla muntliga presentationer. Denna osäkerhet kan relatera till att kopplingen framstår som otydlig mellan de didaktiska frågorna vad elever behöver utveckla och hur undervisningen ska bedrivas.

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  • Kinyoki, D.K.
    et al.
    Ross, J.M.
    Lazzar-Atwood, A.
    Munro, S.B.
    Schaeffer, L.E.
    Abbasalizad-Farhangi, M
    Abbasi, M.
    Abbastabar, H.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Hai, S.I.
    Mapping local patterns of childhood overweight and wasting in low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 20172020In: Nature Medicine, ISSN 1078-8956, E-ISSN 1546-170X, Vol. 26, p. 750-759Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • Bourbour, Maryam
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Digital technologies in preschool education: The interplay between interactive whiteboards and teachers' teaching practices2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is aimed at exploring the ways in which a digital technology, the interactive whiteboard (IWB), interplays with preschool teachers’ teaching practices. In the literature and ongoing debates there are different claims about if and how digital technologies can contribute to children’s development and solving preschool educational challenges. The ways children learn from and by digital technologies have been widely studied, however, there is relatively little research on how digital technologies interplay with teachers’ teaching. Correspondingly, the approach taken here to the ways in which digital technologies contribute to early childhood education is based on preschool teachers’ practices and reasonings.In particular the focus is placed on the following research questions. How do preschool teachers reason about the embedding of IWB into their teaching practices? How do preschool teachers use IWB to structure their teaching practices? How do preschool teachers scaffold children’s learning processes in a context where IWB is used? How do IWBs mediate teaching actions? and What is privileged in the IWB-mediated teaching actions?

    To address these research questions, three sets of empirical data have been collected. These datasets, including interviews with preschool teachers and video observations of their teaching using IWB, were collected in 2012-2013 within the frame of the licentiate thesis and in late 2017 and early 2018 within the framework of the PhD thesis. Analytically, the study is built on a sociocultural perspective that assumes that learning is a constant social process.

    The findings of this study provide empirical knowledge regarding how preschool teachers reason about their use of IWB in teaching. The findings of the study, further, show that preschool teachers use diverse strategies to structure their teaching practice using the opportunities that IWB offers. The teachers’ use of IWBs exemplifies the ways they take into account the available technological features to support children’s learning within their ZPD.

    In its identification of scaffolding actions, this study provides rich details about how preschool teachers use a particular digital technology, IWB, in their teaching to support children’s learning and development. Scaffolding is seen as a collaborative process where preschool teachers’ active participation and emotional support plays an important role in fulfilling the given practices, and leads children’s learning to a higher level. By exploring how teachers’ teaching actions are meditated by the mediational aspects of IWB and what is privileged in the IWB-mediated teaching actions, the current study, moreover, contributes to mapping the desirable or undesirable consequences of using digital technologies in early childhood education. It also exemplifies how the use of IWB interplays with preschoolt eachers’ teaching practices.

    The new dimensions to scaffolding theory constructed in this thesis, further, contribute to expanding of Wood et al. (1976) theory. This can have significance for other studies using digital technologies in educational settings and can contribute to early childhood education, since early interventions, such as the ways preschool teachers support children, are particularly crucial for a child’s learning and their development later on in life.

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  • Granström, Therese
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Patient-reported and medical outcomes in patients treated for diabetic macular edema: A real-world longitudinal study2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Diabetes mellitus can lead to complications, when the complication affects the eyes it is called retinopathy. This can affect the macula and lead to severe loss of vision, diabetic macular edema (DME). This condition has traditionally been treated with laser. However, in 2011, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections in the eye were approved as a treatment for diabetic macular edema, and started to be used in eye clinics.

    Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to describe patient-reported outcomes and medical outcomes (PRO) in people treated for diabetic macular edema in a real-world setting in a long-time follow-up study in Sweden.

    Methods Participants were enrolled at two eye clinics at two county hospitals in Sweden between 2012 and 2014. Patient-reported outcomes were measured using a vision-specific questionnaire, the 25-question National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) and a generic questionnaire, the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). Completed questionnaires, medical data such as visual acuity (EDRS), macula swelling (OCT) and social background characteristics were collected before treatment start, at one-year and four-year follow up points. The data was analyzed, descriptive statistics developed and comparative analyses were performed. Interviews were performed before treatment start and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results A total of 59 participants were included at baseline. The mean age was 69 years, with an equal gender distribution. At baseline, the participants scored a low general health with the vision-specific questionnaire. In total, 21 participants were interviewed, and a theme emerged of ‘being at a crossroads and a crucial phase in life with an uncertain outcome’. The participants expressed thoughts and concerns at different levels, including practical concerns about the treatment procedure and more existential thoughts about hope for improved visual acuity or fear of deterioration. The results at the one-year follow up showed that 30 patients had improved visual acuity and reported an improvement in several subscales in the NEI VFQ-25. The remaining 27 participants had no improvement in visual acuity or in the vision specific questionnaire. The four-year follow-up involved 37 people, and the result showed significant improvement in subjective near-vision activities and improved distance visual acuity.

    Conclusion: Before treatment, the participants reported low general health and expressed concerns about the injection treatment and their vision. One year after treatment started, the results showed significant improvement in several NEI VFQ-25 subscales, decreased macula swelling and improved visual acuity. These positive results remained at the four-year follow-up point.

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  • Persson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Boman, Inga-Lill
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Karolinska institutet, Stockholms universitet.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Möller, Marika C
    Löfgren, Monika
    Lack of time and dependence on significant others: Occupational therapists´ experiences of prescribing time assistive technology for persons with dementia.2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is lack of knowledge on how occupational therapists (OTs) assess daily time management (DTM) for persons with dementia (PwDs) and on which aspects affect prescription of time assistive technology (AT).Aim: To explore OTs' experiences of assessing the need for and prescribing time AT for PwDs.Material and methods: Focus group interviews with OTs that prescribe time AT for PwDs analyzed via qualitative content analysis.Results: A main category and four categories were identified. The categories illustrated a complex and time-consuming prescription process, which was facilitated if the PwD was supported by a significant other (SO). Support from a SO was especially important during implementation and follow-up. OTs had to take individual responsibility for staying informed about time AT. Organizational limitations and time constraints were barriers for OTs striving to work according to national prescription guidelines.Conclusions and significance: High demands are made on SO's participation during the prescription process. PwDs with no support from SOs are at risk not receiving or fully benefitting from time AT. To avoid inequalities, specific forms of support need to be developed and targeted at PwDs without SOs to ensure that they have sufficient opportunities to access and use time AT.

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  • Dahlberg, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Fritzell, J.
    Heap, J.
    Lennartsson, C.
    Trends and gender associations in social exclusion in older adults in Sweden over two decades2020In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 89, article id 104032Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • Gluesenkamp, Kyle R.
    et al.
    Frazzica, Andrea
    Velte, Andreas
    Metcalf, Steven
    Yang, Zhiyao
    Rouhani, Mina
    Blackman, Corey
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. SaltX Technol AB / Malardalens Univ.
    Qu, Ming
    Laurenz, Eric
    Hallin, Ingemar
    Experimentally Measured Thermal Masses of Adsorption Heat Exchangers2020In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal masses of components influence the performance of many adsorption heat pump systems. However, typically when experimental adsorption systems are reported, data on thermal mass are missing or incomplete. This work provides original measurements of the thermal masses for experimental sorption heat exchanger hardware. Much of this hardware was previously reported in the literature, but without detailed thermal mass data. The data reported in this work are the first values reported in the literature to thoroughly account for all thermal masses, including heat transfer fluid. The impact of thermal mass on system performance is also discussed, with detailed calculation left for future work. The degree to which heat transfer fluid contributes to overall effective thermal mass is also discussed, with detailed calculation left for future work. This work provides a framework for future reporting of experimental thermal masses. The utilization of this framework will enrich the data available for model validation and provide a more thorough accounting of adsorption heat pumps.

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  • Palmcrantz, Cornelia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Eleverna och läsningen: En undersökning av läsvanor och läsattityder ur ett elevperspektiv2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka elevers relation till läsning av skönlitteratur på fritiden och i skolan för att få bättre kunskap om hur en framgångsrik litteraturundervisning kan bedrivas. Undersökningen utgörs av en enkätundersökning som distribuerades till fyra klasser från olika program på en gymnasieskola i Jämtland. Mot en bakgrund av att unga läser i allt mindre utsträckning samt att skönlitteraturen hålls som självklart nyttig av skola och samhälle har frågor formulerats för att undersöka elevernas läsvanor och attityder till läsning generellt och läsning i skolan i synnerhet. Undersökningen visar att elever gör stor skillnad mellan att läsa hemma och att läsa i skolan och att det senare uppfattas som mer styrt. Enligt eleverna är fritidsläsningen en underhållande verklighetsflykt medan skolläsningen främst handlar om de efterföljande uppgifterna. Som teoretiskt ramverk för uppsatsen valdes John Deweys teori om lärande genom inquiry och de idéer om en elevstyrd undervisning som kallas pragmatismen. Det framgår i denna uppsats att om man vill få elever att läsa mer och dra lärdomar av det lästa bör man ge dem större frihet i valet av litteratur och arbetssätt. Det framgår också att elevers egna funderingar och frågor på det lästa är viktiga att arbeta med. Ett större fokus på en elevstyrd litteraturundervisning främjar elevernas läslust och kan bidra till en mer framgångsrik litteraturundervisning.

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  • Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Samtalets läsarter: En kvalitativ studie om gymnasieelevers förmåga att inta läsarter i litteratursamtal2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker vilka läsarter gymnasieelever intar på egen hand och med stöttning i litteratursamtal. Studien grundar sig i ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande genom att undersöka hur stöttning och kommunikation bidrar till att elever kan inta och utveckla att inta olika läsarter. Kunskapskraven för svenskämnet i gymnasieskolan ställer krav på att elever ska kunna inta olika förhållningssätt till skönlitterära texter och det är svenskundervisningens ansvar att ge eleverna förutsättningar att bemöta kunskapskravens efterfrågan på läsarter. Metoden för studien är kvalitativa litteratursamtal med gymnasieelever från studie- och yrkesförberedande program som läser Svenska 1 och Svenska 3. Det föregående examensarbetet undersökte läsarter inom tidigare svensk forskning om läsarter. Det arbetet visade att det verkar finnas en diskrepans mellan vilka läsarter elever intar i svenskundervisningen och vilka som efterfrågas av styrdokument och nationell examination. Därför undersöker denna studie vilka läsarter som elever intar i litteratursamtal, både med och utan stöttning.   Resultatet visar att gymnasieelever överlag intar de flesta läsarter med enkelhet eller i viss utsträckning. Resultatet visar också att stöttning är ett viktigt verktyg för att få eleverna att fördjupa sina resonemang och få dem att inta flera läsarter. Det finns dock skillnader för vilka läsarter de intar beroende på vilken program och vilken kurs de läser. De läsarter som elever intar utan stöttning skiljer sig beroende på vilken svenskkurs de läser. För de läsarter eleverna intar när de stöttas består skillnaden i om det går ett studie- eller yrkesförberedande program. Styrdokumenten gör ingen skillnad beroende på programtillhörighet, vilket innebär att det finns ett möjligt didaktiskt problem. För att synliggöra ett sådant didaktiskt problem behövs mer empirisk forskning på området med liknande upplägg – att undersöka gymnasieelevers förutsättningar att inta läsarter i svenskundervisningen.

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