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  • Wall, Erika
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Selander, John
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Bergman, Jonny
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Makt och motstånd i rehabiliteringsprocessen: Sanningen om tidig återgång i arbete utmanad2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 289-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power and resistance in the rehabilitation process – The truth about early return to work challenged

    The aim of this study is to reach a deeper understanding of the ambition of early return-to-work, defined in the rehabilitation process, and what it means for some of those affected, women on sick-leave. Based on a governmental inquiry and responses to an open question from a survey, a discourse analyze is made with focus on how power and resistance appear in the material. The analysis show that the governmental inquiry can be understood as shaping discursive practices where early return-to-work is central. From that, the individual is positioned as a ”passive” receiver of rehabilitation, and/or as ”slow” in regard to norms created in the rehabilitation process. In relation to this, the women on sick-leave show resistance. That is, they oppose the normative speed of rehabilitation. From this, we mean that there is a need for variation when it comes to time in the process of return to work.

  • Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro University.
    Taking back control: Minimalism as a reaction to high speed and overload in contemporary society2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 233-252Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Jacobsson, Katarina
    Sveriges Sociologförbund.
    Sociologförbundet har ordet: Sociologförbundet i Manchester och på nätet2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 327-328Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, Sara
    Lunds universitet.
    Redaktörerna har ordet2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 195-196Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Recensioner2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 319-325Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Jul Sørensen, Majken
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Wiksell, Kristin
    Karlstad University.
    Constructive resistance to the dominant capitalist temporality2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 253-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The logics of capitalist temporality dominate western society today. Drawing on Barbara Adam’s work, we explore two important dimensions of this dominant temporality. Standardised and abstract clock time involves a detachment from seasons and the life-world, closely related to the commodification of time exemplified by expressions like ”time is money”. Many initiatives attempt to challenge the dominance of capitalist temporality, amongst which we present: (1) worker cooperatives that organize work and its temporality as alternatives to capitalism; and (2) timebanks where people exchange services with each other based on time rather than money. We investigate how these illustrative examples differ from the dominant capitalist temporality, and in what ways they depend on the same logic that they resist. The analysis shows that the initiatives divert from the dominant temporality in important aspects, but also reproduce it in other ways. Thereby, this article contributes to theorizing resistance in connection to time and temporality, and gives insights in the potential and elusiveness of constructive resistance to dominant temporality.

  • Jul Sørensen, Majken
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Karlstad University.
    Alfredsson Olsson, Eva
    Karlstad University.
    Time, power and resistance: Guest editors introduction2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 197-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time, power and resistance are all central sociological concepts, but only rarely have the intertwining between all three been explored. Here the guest editors of the special issue of Sociologisk Forskning called ”Time, power and resistance” introduce five empirical research articles. The articles all investigate time and temporality in relation to forms of power, ranging from discursive power to dominant norms and state power. The resistances vary from organised, collective resistance to subtle and discreet forms of everyday and constructive resistance. Additionally, the guest editors point towards future avenues of research in the area and show sociologically interesting links between the three concepts.

  • Borell, Klas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Nilsson, Marco
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Debatt: Samhällsvetenskaperna och den akademiska friheten i Turkiet: Massavskedanden, resignation och motstånd2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 311-317Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allvarliga kränkningar av den akademiska friheten förekommer idag i flera av Europarådets medlemsstater och det är ofta samhällsvetenskaperna som utgör måltavlan. Situationen är särskilt allvarlig i Turkiet där tusentals universitetslärare avskedats. Intervjuer med avskedade turkiska samhällsvetare och samhällsvetare som lever under hot om avsked ger en sammansatt bild: här finns både resignation och motstånd.

  • Brown, Craig
    Leeds Beckett University.
    Digital media and the accelerationof resistance: Findings from the 2010/11 Tunisian revolution2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 209-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is concerned with providing empirical evidence relating to the use of digital media and resistance during the so-called Arab Spring events. These events have been widely acknowledged as a case where digital media significantly contributed to the successful attainment of movements’ objectives. The use of such innovative technologies has been tied to the characteristics and, ultimately, the ends of these movements, with their ‘youthful’, ‘leaderless’ and ‘spontaneous’ nature reflecting Western-orientated practices. However, the analysis presented here utilises interview data obtained from participants in the 2010/11 Tunisian Revolution, detailing their perspectives and explanations of digital media’s role. The data and analysis show that while such technologies were a useful tool, their prominence has been exaggerated and offers a flawed understanding of the events. Rather, the social change being pursued during the Tunisian revolution was profound. Therefore, the deeper implications of the common emphasis on digital media in the literature is explored, with Rosa’s (2015) assessment of social acceleration being informative for elaborating on the nuances of these technologies’ use during the 2010/11 events. With technical acceleration linked to the prominence given to online networks’ utility for resistance, Rosa’s analysis of such acceleration in relation to acceleration of social change and the pace of life helps to clarify why looking beyond online technology for the implications of resistance during the so-called Arab Spring is so important. In this regard, one of these implications is introduced, namely the constructive forms of resistance that may provide a space for alternative understandings of modernity.

  • Diyad Elmi, Mohamed
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Manoharan, Lavaraj
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Optimal Grid Connected Inverter Sizing for Different Climatic Zones2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Grid connected inverter requires accurate and appropriate sizing which depends on the temperature, inverter operating efficiency, performance ratio, annual system yield and solar radiation characteristics. The aim of this study was to design and size for optimum sizing factor for grid connected inverter. The main component to be considered in any photovoltaic grid connected system is the inverter since the output depends on the inverter sizing ratio, therefore optimal sizing factor was designed by considering factors that affects inverter sizing such as temperature, irradiance and the location. Large and small systems of 50 kW and 5 kW respectively were considered to determine grid connected inverter sizing factors for different climates in Kenya, Sweden, and India using PVsyst simulation. Two different inverter brands of SMA and ABB with 20 kW and 25 kW rating for large system and 4.6 kW, 4 kW inverters for small system.

    PVsyst simulation result showed that different locations with different orientation angles, the optimum sizing varies hence affects the annual performance of the system. Photovoltaic system inverters are sized based on the rated power of the installed system and this can be achieved when the inverter size is either almost matching or not.

    In this case the study presents the optimal sizing factor for grid connected inverter for Mandera in Kenya, Norrköping in Sweden and Kerala in India. The determination was done through the use of designing, assessing and analyzing of the relationship between the sizing factor with performance ratio, operational efficiency and annual hourly energy yield. The unique weather profile in Kerala and in Mandera favors the adoption of solar energy technology in the location. Solar radiation for one year was used as a baseline input and the result reveals that Mandera receives yearly radiation of 2.1 MWh/m² while Kerala and Norrköping receives 2 MWh/m² and 1.1 MWh/m² respectively.

    Design simulation using PVsyst tool made it possible for the determination of the optimal sizing factor for the grid connected system. Considerations such as the losses and the variations within the specific location was done and a graph showing the relationship between the sizing factor in relation to the operational inverter efficiency as well as energy yield and performance ratio was later on compared to see the behavior of the sizing factor.

    The study concludes that operational efficiency, performance ratio and energy yield affects the array optimum sizing ratio. For the three locations, inverters (SMA and ABB) shows different variations because optimal sizing ratio depends on the location and irradiation. The results reveal that Mandera has an optimal grid connected inverter sizing of the range from 1.1 to 1.4 while in Kerala it has from 1.2 to 1.4 and Norrköping has the range from 1.1 to 1.3. Optimal sizing of grid connected inverters depends on the energy yield and the location therefore the inverter mismatch voltage and its rating values have to be considered while determining the optimal sizing factor. The 25 kW inverters in all the locations had better efficiency and sizing factor and this proves that sizing the photovoltaic inverter will give better performance and efficiency.

  • Löfberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Torsethaugen, Grete
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Ungas och lärares erfarenheter av sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen – en kunskapsbas för barnmorskan i det hälsofrämjande och sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet: En kvalitativ metasyntes2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sexual and reproductive health rights are based on human rights. A major input to rise availability to sexual and reproductive health is a comprehensive and extensive sexual education. Many young people in Sweden consider though that they lack the necessary knowledge to care about their own sexual health. The midwife has a responsibility for the education of both women and society, and education includes sexual and reproductive health.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compile the current research on the experience of both young people and the teaching staff in the area of sex and sex education to create a knowledge base for the midwife in the health promotion and disease prevention work.

    Methods: The method of analysis used is a qualitative metasynthesis with a metaethnographic approach. In total 16 scientific articles were juxtaposed and examined.

    Results: The young people in this study expressed clear wishes not only as to the contents of their studies, but also the personality of the teaching staff and the environment where they are taught. They desired a broad and more balanced knowledge about sexuality and cohabitation, relations, emotions, social and cultural norms. The teaching staff in the study focused mostly on how the school curriculum, organizations and politics affected teaching and less on the contents.

    Conclusion: The result of this metasynthesis shows that there are differences in the required experience among both young people and teachers when it comes to sexuality and sex education. The midwife’s area of responsibility, knowledge and the revised understanding of sexuality and sex education can with advantage be used to better off the teaching of sex 3 education.

    Clinical applicability: This metasynthesis can become a basis to create an expanded cooperation between schools and midwives in order to first ameliorate sex education and second to boost the young people’s control of their own sexual health. This metasynthesis can also provide support and develop education in pedagogy for midwives, school nurses and district nurses as all these occupational categories meet young people. Teacher education's focus on sex and cohabitation education can be developed through this metasynthesis. Finally, decision makers within the schoolsystem can gain insight into the gap between young people's and adults' perspectives and actualize sex and cohabitation and sexual health within the schools.

  • Loskog, Ida
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Lundén, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av kontinuerlig barnmorskeledd vårdmodell under graviditet, förlossning och eftervård: En kvalitativ metasyntes2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Midwife-led continuity of care model for women during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum care is applied in several countries around the world. The model has proved positive both from medical and economic aspects. Women in Sweden express the wish that the continuity of care regarding pregnancy, childbirth and aftercare should increase. Despite this, midwife-led continuity of care model is not applied in Sweden today, apart from single recently initiated projects.

    Aim: To describe women's experiences of midwife-led continuity of care model during pregnancy, childbirth and aftercare.

    Method: Qualitative meta-synthesis with etnographic content analysis. Fifteen (15) items were included in the result.

    Results: Three main categories and seven subcategories were identified as central and overarching themes for women's experiences of midwife-led continuity of care model. The three main categories were person-centered care, the relation to the midwife and the communication. Overall, women's experiences of midwife-led continuity of care model were positive.

    Conclusion: Women experience midwife-led continuity of care model as supportive, strengthening and person-centred. Midwife-led continuity of care model is a person-centered form of care that supports and strengthens the women through pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum care. The positive experiences of midwife-led continuity of care model seem to decrease when the care is given in group form during pregnancy instead of individually.

    Clinical implications: The result of this study can be of value for developing maternity care in Sweden. This study can inspire to create new ways to achieve person-centered care for women during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum care.

  • Srinivasan, Suriya
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Design and Mathematical Modelling of a Solar Carport with Flat Reflector2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the world is moving towards the renewable energy, there is increase in usage of the electric vehicles in transport sector. This has led to more consumption of electricity from the grid and thus affecting its stability. To overcome this issue many decentralized charging stations have come of which generating electricity from the solar energy is more popular. These solar carports act as a shelter for the vehicles from various climatic factors such as rain, snow, dust in addition to producing renewable electricity.

    The main aim of this thesis study is to design a solar carport with the reflector compared to the existing Solar carports. The roof selected for this thesis study is a “V” shaped roof with the PV modules installed on one side of the roof and a reflector installed on the other side of the roof. The objectives of this thesis study are creating a mathematical irradiation and yield model of the PV system with and without a reflector. In addition, find the optimum roof tilt angle for a PV system with the reflector. Finally, determine the optimum increase in the annual energy yield for a PV system with the reflector compared to the PV system without a reflector.

    Microsoft Excel is used to create the mathematical irradiation and yield model of the PV system. The simulation was done for three different locations by obtaining hourly irradiation and temperature data from the PVsyst software. As a case study four different reflective materials of different specular and diffuse reflectance were chosen for better understanding and comparison. The simulation results showed that there is significant increase in the annual energy yield for a PV system with the reflector for all the locations. The study also shows that the increase in energy yield, optimum roof tilt angle is dependent on the specular and diffuse nature of the reflector.

    The study has concluded that the increase in the annual energy yield for a PV system with the specular reflector is more compared to a PV system with the diffuse reflector for the lower roof tilt angles and vice versa. It is also clear that the increase in the energy yield is similar for all the three locations. Hence, based on the roof tilt angle the selection of the reflector material needs to be done for an optimum design of the solar carport.

  • Sundström, Suzanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Larsson, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Att längta efter det liv som aldrig började: Kvinnors upplevelser av upprepade missfall En kvalitativ metasyntes2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, the concept of recurrent miscarriage is defined as a woman having three or more miscarriages in succession and it is estimated to affect about one percent of all couples of childbearing age worldwide. Since this is a small group of women, it can be difficult for the effected woman to know where she can turn with her thoughts and what she is entitled to regarding further help. After enduring multiple recurrent miscarriages, the need to get some answers and at the same time the need to receive support and understanding from their close surroundings increases. The access to further investigation and treatment is different depending on where you are but with some help from a midwife and other healthcare providers, an appropriate plan based on the woman's situation can be developed.

    Purpose: The aim of this essay was to investigate the experiences of women who have endured recurrent miscarriages and their further needs that occurred during and the time after the miscarriage.

    Methods: The method used in this essay was a qualitative metasynthesis with metaethnographic analysis method. In total, 29 articles were collected of which 16 of them went through the quality review and were compiled to a result.

    Results: seven categories containing of key concepts were formed. The categories identified were the process of miscarrying, room for griefing, avoiding behavior, the partners role, social support, expectations of the healthcare and becoming pregnant again.

    Conclusion: Due to the fact that all women are different, the experiences and needs during a miscarrying process varies. By having the knowledge of what the woman goes through both physically and mentally during recurrent miscarriages, it contributes to a greater understanding of what the woman needs, both from her surroundings but also from the healthcare.

    Clinical applicability: This essay could help to explore the possibilities of modifying the criteria for an investigation of recurrent miscarriages. The essay could also lead to improvement of the knowledge situation for the individual, the society and the care providers regarding how this group of women wants to be treated. Midwives as a profession could help to support this group of women by initiating contact with the women when or after she has contacted the midwife clinic to announce another pregnancy loss. Furthermore, the establishment of support groups for women with recurrent miscarriages could be helpful and supportive for these women. The support groups could potentially be coordinated by a midwife with specific knowledge about recurrent miscarriage.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    VTI.
    Potential impacts and net benefits of yearly air emission reductions for different abatement options and average ship types in the Baltic Sea Region2019Other (Other academic)
  • Ambjörnsson, Fanny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Time to clean: On resistance and the temporality of cleaning2019In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 56, no 3-4, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning is a practice with low status. Most people single out cleaning as the least attractive of household chores and the people who clean as a profession are usually badly payed. This article is an attempt to discuss why these practices have such a bad reputation – in everyday life, in work, in popular culture and, not the least, in the feminist movement. Through ethnographic data primarily based on interviews, I investigate the historically imbedded meanings tied to practices of tidying up. Drawing on theories of queer temporality, I highlight what I want to call the temporality of cleaning – the repetitiveness and direction backwards and sideways instead of forward – as a possible answer. The circular practice of taking care of our physical remains remind us of our approaching death, rather than of progress, and thus generates feelings of anger and despair. But instead of ignoring or avoiding this reminder of another time, I argue for a feminist appraisal of the temporality of cleaning. In line with scholars within resistance studies who urge for a sensibility for the temporal aspects of everyday resistance, I propose that a feminist politics that puts cleaning at the center rather than in the margins would acknowledge our mutual dependency and co-living with the material world around us.

  • Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, SaraLunds universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2019:3-42019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Andersson, Alexandra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Youth Policy of the European Union: Implementation of the EU Youth Strategy for the action to reduce early school leavers within two member states.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study with purpose to examine the implementation of the European Union Youth Strategy and the action of reducing early school leavers, which was put in force with the youth field of the European Union in 2010. The strategy contains of eight action fields, onwards only the field within education & training will be examined further in line with the strategy’s main objective to provide equal opportunities for young people in education. The theory of Normalization Process Theory focuses on policy implementation and how it becomes fully embedded within the intended society. Throughout the examination will be of how the implementation is supposed to work and how it actually is put into action within the two member states selected for this study, Sweden and Cyprus. The question to examine is to what degree has ‘the EU Youth Strategy’, and the fact of it being implemented within the member states, influenced the reduction of early school leavers. Through the method of comparative case study approach, materials were gattered throughout a variety of forms such as legislations, policies, evaluations, reports and many more. The analysis consists of the implementations of the action into the states, through what institutions and national legislations, as well as analysing the received grant from the European Union and what it has produced within the states. In conclusion, presenting the results of Sweden and Cyprus, both succeeding to reduce early school leavers, nevertheless, through different actions and interpretations of the strategy.

  • Karlsson, Asami
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Textsamtal – ett sätt att höja kvaliteten i läsandet: En kvalitativ studie om hur läsförståelsen utvecklas genom textsamtal2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I de senaste PISA- och PIRLS-undersökningar har det visat sig att Sveriges resultat i läsförståelse sjunkit i jämförelse med andra europeiska länder. Lärare i PIRLS-undersökningarna hävdar att det inte ges tillräckligt med utrymme för att samtala om texter. Flera forskare har även kommit fram till att ett ökat talutrymme för eleverna leder till ökad inlärning.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är således att undersöka hur sex svensklärare i mellanstadiet arbetar med läsförståelseutvecklingen genom att samtala om texter samt att ta reda på vilka olika uppfattningar de lärarna har angående textsamtal. Vygotskijs sociokulturella perspektiv och dess syn på lärande förklaras främst genom att betona vikten av språket för att kunna kommunicera och lära.

    För att få svar på studiens frågeställningar har datainsamlingen skett genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer. I resultatet framkommer att alla sex lärare har erfarenheter av textsamtal och använder det regelbundet. Lärarna använder sig av liknande metoder för att forma och individ- och nivåanpassa textsamtalen till sin elevgrupp. Resultatet lyfter även fram lärarnas personliga uppfattningar om textsamtal och hur de bedömer utvecklingen hos elevernas läsförståelseförmåga. Dessa uppfattningar handlar om hur viktigt det är att variera textsamtalen efter elevers olika behov men också hur de upprätthåller intresset av att samtala om texter hos eleverna.

  • Söderqvist, Simone
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Genrepedagogik som språkutvecklande arbetssätt: En intervjustudie om gymnasielärares arbete med genrepedagogik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka genrepedagogikens påverkan på elevers språkutveckling i svenskämnet på gymnasiet. Genrepedagogiken vilar på tre ben: det sociokulturella perspektivet på lärande, den systemisk funktionella grammatiken samt cykeln för undervisning och lärande. Det dessa har gemensamt är att de utgår ifrån att alla elever har olika förutsättningar och att undervisningen på grund av detta måste utformas på olika sätt för olika individer. Språk- och kunskapsutveckling anses också gå hand i hand. Metoden som används är av kvalitativ karaktär och innefattar semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem gymnasielärare om hur de arbetar med genrepedagogik i undervisningen. Studien ger en bild av hur de intervjuade lärarna arbetar med genrepedagogik i praktiken och resultatet jämförs sedan i diskussionen med tidigare forskning inom ämnet. Resultatet visar att genrepedagogik har en positiv inverkan på elevers språkutveckling då både de intervjuade lärarnas utsagor samt den tidigare forskningen går hand i hand. Slutsatsen kan dras att genrepedagogik är en undervisningsmetod som verkar språkutvecklande för alla elever oavsett nivå och bakgrund.

  • Saqlain, Murshid
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Investigating Stochastic Differential Equations Modelling for Levodopa Infusion in Patients with Parkinson's Disease2019In: European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, ISSN 0378-7966, E-ISSN 2107-0180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Levodopa concentration in patients with Parkinson's disease is frequently modelled with ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Here, we investigate a pharmacokinetic model of plasma levodopa concentration in patients with Parkinson's disease by introducing stochasticity to separate the intra-individual variability into measurement and system noise, and to account for auto-correlated errors. We also investigate whether the induced stochasticity provides a better fit than the ODE approach.

    METHODS: In this study, a system noise variable is added to the pharmacokinetic model for duodenal levodopa/carbidopa gel (LCIG) infusion described by three ODEs through a standard Wiener process, leading to a stochastic differential equations (SDE) model. The R package population stochastic modelling (PSM) was used for model fitting with data from previous studies for modelling plasma levodopa concentration and parameter estimation. First, the diffusion scale parameter (σw), measurement noise variance, and bioavailability are estimated with the SDE model. Second, σw is fixed to certain values from 0 to 1 and bioavailability is estimated. Cross-validation was performed to compare the average root mean square errors (RMSE) of predicted plasma levodopa concentration.

    RESULTS: Both the ODE and the SDE models estimated bioavailability to be approximately 75%. The SDE model converged at different values of σw that were significantly different from zero. The average RMSE for the ODE model was 0.313, and the lowest average RMSE for the SDE model was 0.297 when σw was fixed to 0.9, and these two values are significantly different.

    CONCLUSIONS: The SDE model provided a better fit for LCIG plasma levodopa concentration by approximately 5.5% in terms of mean percentage change of RMSE.

  • Jónsdóttir, Rakel B
    et al.
    Jónsdóttir, Helga
    Skúladóttir, Arna
    Thorkelsson, Thordur
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Breastfeeding progression in late preterm infants from birth to one month.2019In: Maternal and Child Nutrition, ISSN 1740-8695, E-ISSN 1740-8709, article id e12893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe and compare breastfeeding progression, infants' feeding behaviours, maternal feeding difficulties, and mothers' usage of breastfeeding interventions for singleton late preterm (LPT) and term infants. A further aim was to identify associated factors for exclusive breastfeeding at breast at 1 month in LPT infants. This was a cohort study where mothers of LPT infants from a neonatal unit (n = 60), LPT infants from a maternity unit (n = 62), and term infants from a maternity unit (n = 269) answered a questionnaire approximately 1 month after delivery. Findings showed no significant differences in exclusive breastfeeding at breasts between LPT infants admitted to the neonatal unit compared with the maternity unit, during the first week at home (38% vs. 48%), or at 1 month of age (52% vs. 50%). Term infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed at the breast (86% and 74%, p < 0.05) compared with LPT infants. Multiple regression analysis showed that usage of a nipple shield, not feeding breast milk exclusively during the first week at home, or feeding less than 10 times per day at 1 month were statistically significant for not exclusively breastfeed at the breast. A protective factor was the mothers' experience of having an abundance of milk during the first week at home. In conclusion, LPT infants are less likely to be exclusively breastfed at the breast than term infants, highlighting the need for further research to guide interventions aimed at optimising exclusive breastfeeding rates.

  • Rybarczyk, Yves
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis. Universidad de Las Américas, Quito, Ecuador.
    Carvalho, D. G.
    Cordella, F.
    Bioinspired Implementation and Assessment of a Remote-Controlled Robot2019In: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, ISSN 1176-2322, E-ISSN 1754-2103, article id 8575607Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Zare, Kourosh Abbas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Development of a Predictive Control Model for a Heat Pump System Based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) approach2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    VTI, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    The Swedish Transport Agency.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    The Swedish Transport Agency.
    The precautionary principle and regulatory impact assessment: on the need for initial screening of hazards in regulatory work with examples from transport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve effective regulation, the OECD and the European Commission recommend the use of regulatory impact assessment (RIA). The full RIA process has however not been implemented in Sweden. There is for example a lack of established practices at the national level for the analysis of risk in regulatory work. Instead, soft law in the form of management by objective systems is guiding transport and environmental policy. These systems were introduced in the end of the 1990s following the international discussion on the precautionary principle. According to findings in other countries, policy making based on the precautionary principle may result in unexpected and unwanted consequences and therefore, based on a literature review and an assessment of current practices in transport regulation in Sweden, we suggest the use of an initial screening of hazards in regulatory work. We also apply the proposed method to four transport related case studies to illustrate how an initial assessment can provide the basis for an informed discussion on what hazards to counteract with regulation and on what grounds.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    VTI, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Dieselization in Sweden: blessing or curse?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss, based on research on the external cost of air pollution, if diesel as a fuel in the transport sector should be encouraged or discouraged in Swedish environmental policy. There are two main reasons for posing this question. The first is the international context where the use of diesel is generally considered to be a bad, due to its negative health effects. The second is the Swedish context with an ambitious vision for a fossil free vehicle fleet in 2030 where the use of diesel produced from forestry residues could be part of the solution. In recent years the use of diesel cars has been encouraged by various policy measures, for example a subsidy based on assessments of emissions for CO2 per kilometer. Is this a policy that should be continued or abandoned? In this paper we focus on the health impacts and our conclusion is that dieselization is more a blessing than a curse. The reason is that Sweden is a sparsely populated country and therefore the health costs of emissions from road transport are low by international standards.

  • Wedin, Åsa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Bomström Aho, Erika
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Student Agency in Science Learning: Multimodal and Multilingual Strategies and Practices among Recently Arrived Students in Upper Secondary Schools in Sweden2019In: International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, ISSN 1307-9298, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to develop knowledge about recently arrived students’ agency in learning science in upper secondary school in Sweden. The material was created through observations of science lessons and stimulated-recall interviews with four students. Findings showed that the multimodal and multilingual practices students were involved in, and the diverse strategies they used in these lessons, were enabled by their access to multilingual teaching material, including varied digital resources. Students were invited to use varied languages, but this does not, however, mean that the other languages were appreciated, and there is a danger in relying entirely on students’ own capacity to translate and understand. Our main conclusion is that students’ own agency becomes a prerequisite for learning in these classrooms, but that too much responsibility is put on the students to understand and learn the content and to develop required language skills. With the focus on vocabulary in the teaching, the risqué is high that students do not develop other linguistic skills that they will need in their further studies. Although the agency of these students was visible regarding strategies for their studies, their agency was mainly restricted to learning the prescribed theme in prescribed time.

  • Rosén, Jenny
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Studiehandledning på modersmål: Studiehandledares positionering och yrkesroll2019In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, no 3, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article focus is directed towards Study Guidance in the Mother Tongue (SGMT) and SGMT tutors’ professional roles in Swedish compulsory school. The aim is to study how SGMT tutors are positioned and position themselves in relation to official documents and other actors in school. Questions that are highlighted in the article deal with forms for participation in school activities, opportunities to agency and voice as well as expressions of professionality in the SGMT tutor role. The empirical material builds mainly on interviews with SGMT tutors together with official documents. The results show that there is big variation between individual SGMT tutors when it comes to their possibilities for agency and to make their voices heard, as well as when it comes to participation and influence. Several co-operating factors have been identified that may strengthen the SGMT tutors’ profession where competence and possibilities for co-operation with class and subject teachers appear as crucial. Also questions of organisational art, such as time allocated for preparation, are important for SGMT tutors’ profession.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-01 10:00 B310, Borlänge
    May, Ross
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    The reinforcement learning method: A feasible and sustainable control strategy for efficient occupant-centred building operation in smart cities2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over half of the world’s population lives in urban areas, a trend which is expected to only grow as we move further into the future. With this increasing trend in urbanisation, challenges are presented in the form of the management of urban infrastructure systems. As an essential infrastructure of any city, the energy system presents itself as one of the biggest challenges. As cities expand in population and economically, global energy consumption increases and as a result so do greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To achieve the 2030 Agenda’s sustainable development goal on energy (SDG 7), renewable energy and energy efficiency have been shown as key strategies for attaining SDG 7. As the largest contributor to climate change, the building sector is responsible for more than half of the global final energy consumption and GHG emissions. As people spend most of their time indoors, the demand for energy is made worse as a result of maintaining the comfort level of the indoor environment. However, the emergence of the smart city and the internet of things (IoT) offers the opportunity for the smart management of buildings. Focusing on the latter strategy towards attaining SDG 7, intelligent building control offers significant potential for saving energy while respecting occupant comfort (OC). Most intelligent control strategies, however, rely on complex mathematical models which require a great deal of expertise to construct thereby costing in time and money. Furthermore, if these are inaccurate then energy is wasted and the comfort of occupants is decreased. Moreover, any change in the physical environment such as retrofits result in obsolete models which must be re-identified to match the new state of the environment. This model-based approach seems unsustainable and so a new model-free alternative is proposed. One such alternative is the reinforcement learning (RL) method. This method provides a beautiful solution to accomplishing the tradeoff between energy efficiency and OC within the smart city and more importantly to achieving SDG 7. To address the feasibility of RL as a sustainable control strategy for efficient occupant-centred building operation, a comprehensive review of RL for controlling OC in buildings as well as a case study implementing RL for improving OC via a window system are presented. The outcomes of each seem to suggest RL as a feasible solution, however, more work is required in the form of addressing current open issues such as cooperative multi-agent RL (MARL) needed for multi-occupant/multi-zonal buildings.

  • Beck Hansson, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Ljungquist, Mathilda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Förlossningsrädsla – Beskrivning av förlossningsrädda gravida kvinnors upplevelser och rädslor: En kvalitativ metasyntes2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fear of childbirth can be classified as low fear or worry, moderate fear and severe fear of childbirth. The prevalence of severe fear of childbirth among pregnant women is estimated to be 14 percent globally. Consequences of fear of childbirth is not wanting to have another child, involuntarily long time between pregnancies and more pain during labour.

    Method: Qualitative meta- synthesis with meta-ethnographic analysis method. Databases that was used to find the articles were PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsycINFO. Totally 15 articles are included in the meta-synthesis after a quality review.

    Results: Four main themes were identified Description of fear of childbirth, Fear of their own health and the uncontrollable, Fear associated with meetings with healthcare and Fear of the health of the child. Also six subtopics were identified, The unpredictable, Not having control, The physical health, Pain, Encounters with midwives and other healthcare professionals and interventions.

    Conclusion: The results showed that the most common fear among pregnant women with fear of childbirth were fear of tearing, pain and the health of the baby. The women with fear of childbirth is also afraid of encounter a midwife who would give inadequate support.

    Clinical implications: This meta-synthesis shows it is of huge importance to identify fear of childbirth in early pregnancy to promote health and reduce fear of childbirth. To help these women, the midwife may propose parental education for women who feel anxious or afraid of childbirth. This training could include study visits to a maternity ward as well as information on the most common fears and measures taken if complications should occur.

  • Sjögren, Felicia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Postmateriell röstning i ett fördelningspolitiskt landskap?: En studie om svenska väljarskarans syn på postmateriella frågor mellan 2010 och 20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska väljarstrukturen har genomgått ett politiskt värderingsskifte, från att enbart präglas av en ekonomisk och materiell höger/- vänsterskala till att utmanas av en postmateriell kulturell dimension som fångar upp grundläggande motsättningar i frågor om nationalstatens gränser och globaliseringens konsekvenser. Den kulturella dimensionen brukar delas in två polariserade riktningar. Gröna, alternativa, och liberala värderingar, även kallade GAL, ställs emot värderingar som är traditionella, auktoritära, och nationalistiska, även kallade TAN. Som ett bidrag till den statsvetenskapliga debatten om postmaterialism och GAL/TAN- skalan syftar denna uppsats till att analysera vad den kulturella dimensionen innebär för det politiska klimatet i Sverige. Med grund i Ronald Ingleharts postmateriella teori undersöker studien hur den svenska väljarskarans syn på postmateriella frågor utvecklats mellan 2010 och 2018. Undersökningen appliceras på valundersökningar i väljarbeteende inom ramen för den valda tidsperioden. Resultaten visar en värderingsökning i postmateriella frågor mellan 2010- 2018, samt en värderingsminskning av materiella fördelningspolitiska frågor under samma period.

  • MacGregor, Sean
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    The Science of the Sirens: A Critical Analysis on the Compounded Abjection of Science, Progress and Women in Three Short Stories by H.P. Lovecraft2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Fors, Heather Congdon
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Högskolen i Molde, Norge.
    Hammes, Johanna Jussila
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Politiska krav och tjänstemäns roll för analys av och beslut om styrmedel: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development implies that society’s limited resources should be used efficiently, taking into account the various impacts on society – social, economic and environmental. To achieve established societal goals efficiently, various aspects have to be accounted for in the design of policy measures. Within the EU a Regulatory Impact Assessment, where a cost-benefit analysis is included, needs to accompany all major regulatory initiatives. According to research and different policy assessment, Sweden lacks an established praxis regarding this type of analysis in the area of environmental policy but also in the field of energy and transport. The purpose of this project is to investigate how Sweden uses this type of information in the negotiations that take place within the EU regarding policy proposals but also investigate the reasons for use or non-use. The focus is on what role the organization and the bureaucrats play for the collection of this type of information.

    The overall conclusion that can be drawn from the three sub-studies included in the project, as well as the discussion at the closing seminar, is that this is not an established way of working in the Swedish government system. This can be explained by lack of competence, an established mistrust, management by objectives and lack of an institutional framework for when and how this type of broader impact assessment is to be conducted. At the closing seminar, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency presented that it is now working on a guide to help officials to analyze at an early stage whether there is a need for regulation by society, to initiate the work by asking the question “What is the problem?”. We think that this is a step in the right direction, but we also see that the economists working out in government are often alone or very few and may therefore need different forms of support to develop the work on this kind of, often complex, analysis.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Regulating transport: The possible role of regulatory impact assessment in Swedish transport planningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By performing RIA, the risk of imposing a proposal that is inefficient or leads to sub-optimization is reduced. In the EU this approach to regulatory policy making was introduced in 2002 and it is a crucial component of the Better Regulation Agenda. However the practical implementation of this approach in Member States is varied; Sweden has not implemented the full RIA process. Currently there is a focus on the reduction of administrative burdens for businesses. This paper describes the present use of RIA and CBA in the Swedish planning context and discusses the reasons for and the consequences of current practices. Using the Swedish transport regulator as a case study, the paper considers the following aspects; i) the Swedish planning context and existing requirements regarding the use of RIA, ii) current focus of research regarding CBA for infrastructure investments in the Swedish transport sector and the need for greater focus on issues concerning regulation, iii) the difficulty to quantify and place monetary values on effects, which also increases when unique, complex and uncertain situations are assessed and iv) the need for the alignment of incentives at all levels and across agencies.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Response to a social dilemma: an analysis of the choice between an economic and an environmental optimum in a policy making context2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries have begun to require benefit-cost analysis as a way of informing key regulatory decisions. However, its actual use seem to be limited, especially in the area of environmental, health, and safety regulation. Reasons for this seem to be lack of knowledge and experience among decision makers and that established quality objectives prevent the use of this type of analysis and deliberation. We present the results from an experiment designed to investigate choice behavior in a public sector context. Students with different academic majors were asked to act as decision makers. There were two choice situations: one in a municipality deciding on an action plan and one in a government agency having to propose a national limit value. In both settings, the outcome that would pass a benefit-cost test would not achieve a natural state of the environment, hence a social dilemma choice situation. We find that a majority of the respondents prefer outcomes that can be considered environmental “optimum” but that there is a difference depending on academic major. The choice context also influences the response behavior and so does the information about an international standard. The latter increases the likelihood to accept alternatives that imply higher costs.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys i arbetet med nationell risk- och förmågebedömning: vägledning och förslag på metodik2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012 the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) was commissioned by the government to develop and establish a procedure and methodology for national risk assessment in Sweden. In 2013 MSB continued this work and also initiated work to develop a more coherent and reliable process for producing national risk and capability assessments. An assignment was therefore given to VTI where the questions was how economics can be implemented in practice in this more comprehensive work. To provide a basis for discussion, the current system for national risk- and capability assessments undertaken by the public sector is described in the beginning of the report. Next, based on findings in the scientific literature, the report contains a discussion of how economics can be of use in risk assessment and management. Since cost-benefit analysis is the analytical tool used, this overview also contains a short summary on how to perform this type of analysis. Based on this background information a method is proposed on how to analyze a decision problem in this kind of risk context. The method comprises the following logical steps: - Scenario analysis to develop an analytical model of the risk context focusing on a description of the capabilities needed to reduce the probability of and the consequences of a certain hazard. - Capability assessment to quantify the current level of the relevant capabilities. - GAP-analysis to identify if there is a lack of important capabilities and if so, what measures that can address these insufficiencies. - Cost-benefit analysis to evaluate different policy measures to improve the capability. - Stress test and evaluation to test the functioning of the risk management system and the effect of the policy changes made. The analytical model developed in the first step can be used for this purpose.

  • Forsstedt, Sara
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys i regelgivningsarbetet: Avrapportering av inledande delprojekt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportstyrelsen genomför konsekvensutredningar bland annat avseende förslag till förändringar i föreskrifter, framställan till regelförändringar och som en del i regeringsuppdrag. Myndigheten har under senare år identifierat ett behov av att vidga innehållet i konsekvensutredningarna för att kunna bedöma om nya och förändrade regleringar bidrar till en transport-försörjning som är samhällsekonomiskt effektiv. Ett utvecklingsarbete har pågått sedan myndigheten bildades 2009.

    Inom ramen för ett pågående forskningsprojekt genomfört av Centrum för Transportstudier (CTS) – Samhällsekonomisk analys av regleringar – studeras effekterna av de förändringar som genomförts. Syftet är att analysera de problem som uppkommer i det praktiska arbetet med genomförandet av konsekvensanalyser av samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och att, baserat på resultaten, utveckla en mer generell metodik för hur arbetet ska genomföras och vad som bör ingå i den samhällsekonomiska analysen.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro universitet.
    Samhällsekonomiska analyser av åtgärder i krisberedskapsarbetet: teori, metodik och tillämpning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disaster risk management is an example of a public good where political decisions determine the content and extent of the services provided. For the policy maker the question is how much to spend on these services since resources are limited. The question addressed in this report is how economic analysis, including cost-benefit analysis, can be used in order to achieve an efficient level of these services The report is commissioned by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency. It is a contribution to their work with development of a methodology for National Risk Assessments and Disaster Risk Management. The former is prepared in response to an EU directive. According to the EU commission: Risk assessment and mapping are carried out within the broader context of disaster risk management. Risk assessment and mapping are the central components of a more general process which furthermore identifies the capacities and resources available to reduce the identified levels of risk, or the possible effects of a disaster (capacity analysis), and considers the planning of appropriate risk mitigation measures (capability planning), the monitoring and review of hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities, as well as consultation and communication of findings and results.” This report starts with a description of the current work with disaster risk management in Sweden and changes in the organization that has taken place in recent years. It also describes the evolution and use of economic analysis, including cost-benefit analysis, in policy making in different contexts. Based on these overviews it is concluded that economic analysis is rarely used in practical policy making regarding public goods in Sweden, and it has not previously been used in decisions concerning disaster risk management. Therefore, based on a literature review, we present a basic economic model that can be used in this context to define what a policy measure is and the aspects that needs to be considered in an economic evaluation of such measures. Furthermore we provide an example of how a method developed for economic analysis proposed by OECD, Regulatory Impact Assessment, can be applied to this kind of decision making. In the example we use information collected in a risk assessment made regarding the impact of climate change for one of the largest rivers in Sweden, Göta Älv. It is concluded that economic analysis can provide important information to this type of decision making, not the least through providing structure to the collection of information. However, further work is needed before this type of analysis can be used in practical policy making and the report ends with suggestions for further development work.

  • Omstedt, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMHI, Luftmiljö.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Länsstyrelsen Dalarnas Län.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Umeå Universitet.
    SIMAIRscenario - ett modellverktyg för bedömning av luftföroreningars hälsoeffekter och kostnader2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SIMAIRscenario is a new web based tool developed for estimation of health impacts and economic benefits occurring when populations experience changes in air quality. It is a new member of the SIMAIR family, which is a national air quality system for Sweden. In SIMAIRscenario following can be done: 1. Import air quality data fields from different dispersion models such as SIMAIR and Airviro. 2. Process air quality data by different mathematical operators. 3. Import and store detailed population data and process them by different mathematical operators. Population data for the year 2008 divided in different age groups with the resolution of 100*100 meters for the whole country is now available. 4. Presentation of air quality and population data on maps. 5. Perform exposure calculations and presents results on maps and in tables. 6. Perform health impact assessments and valuation of these impacts in monetary terms. The air quality change is calculated as the difference between the starting air pollution level, also called the baseline, and the air pollution level after some change, also called the scenario. The scenario can be described as a major change in activities or technical solutions in an urban or regional area or a regulation leading to different emissions to the atmosphere compare to the baseline.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Jonsson, Mats
    Sportfiske och fisketurism för landsbygdens utveckling: Om intäktspotential, framgångsfaktorer och förvaltning av gemensamma naturresurser2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordbruksverket och Havs- och vattenmyndigheten har gemensamt tagit fram en strategi för utvecklingen av svenskt fritidsfiske och fisketurism fram till 2020. Där anges ett antal mål varav i första hand två är anledningen till att denna studie initierats. Dessa två mål är:

    • Kunskapen är stor om fritidsfiskets och fisketurismens samhällsnytta och betydelse för stadsbefolkningen och för möjligheterna att bo, leva och verka på landsbygden.
    • Kunskapsförsörjning om fritidsfiske och fisketurism utvecklas och samordnas av ansvariga myndigheter i syfte att förse berörda intressenter med kunskapsunderlag.

    Denna studie har genomförts på Jordbruksverkets uppdrag. Syftet har varit att beskriva den forskning som pågår och de kompletterande forskningsbehov som finns med utgångspunkt från det uppdrag Jordbruksverket har att främja utvecklingen av fritidsfisket och fisketurismen. Det har också ingått att kartlägga och presentera goda exempel på fisketuristisk verksamhet och att utifrån dessa exempel beskriva vilket värde olika typer av sportfiske och fisketurism kan generera i olika typer av vatten. Det övergripande syftet är att identifiera och kommunicera framgångsfaktorer bakom lönsam fisketuristisk verksamhet och därigenom bidra till en utveckling av branschen och förutsättningarna att bo, leva och verka på landsbygden. För att uppfylla detta syfte har också förutsättningarna för att bedriva sådan verksamhet undersökts. I studien har sex goda exempel på fisketuristisk verksamhet i olika delar av landet fått beskriva sin verksamhet, dess förutsättningar och hinder.

  • Hansen, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Svenska flygplatser och marginalkostnadsprissättning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is commissioned by the Swedish Civil Aviation Authority. The aim is to update the knowledge regarding the price relevant costs of aviation. We distinguish between marginal costs caused by airport activities and those caused by the external effects of pollution and noise. The review shows that vital data is missing regarding the activities and effects of aviation in order to perform solid marginal cost calculations. In the report we have calculated approximative values for two types of airplanes. Marginal costs related to airport services are divided into those related to passenger services and those related to congestion services. We conclude that the Swedish charges are at least twice as high as marginal costs. We do, however, lack any estimation of the congestion-related marginal costs. Regarding the external effects, today's charges concerning the landing and take-off cycle are sufficient although partly mischarged since they only reflect NOx-emissions. Moreover it should be examined if emissions during flying should be charged or not. The conclusion of this report is that more research is needed in this area. This concerns studies dealing with Swedish airports as well as making cost data publicly available.

  • Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Bolling, Anne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    The impact of education on environmental policy decision-making2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil servants in governmental agencies regularly both propose environmental policies for the elected politicians and make own decisions. In making these decisions they may be influenced by legal norms, agency policy and culture, professional norms acquired through education as well as personal political preferences. This study tests how students in late stages of professional training in economics, biology and social sciences handle information in order to make a stylized choice of a national nutrient limit for lake water, or choose a program at a municipal level to lower the nutrient level in a local lake. The purpose is to test whether professional norms acquired during academic education and/or the presence of an international standard influences decision-making. We examine three hypotheses. Firstly, students’ political attitudes affect their choice of major, i.e. biology, economics or social sciences, and thereby indirectly their decisions. We find that the distribution of the political values among disciplines is compatible with the hypothesis, which therefore is not rejected. Secondly, a student’s major influences the kind of information they use and consequently the policy choice they will recommend. In plain words we expected biology students to go for environmentally more ambitious (lower) nutrient limits and economics students to prefer economically efficient (higher) levels. The central result is that while economics majors are more likely than biology or social science majors to choose a cost-efficient nutrient limit, the mean and median values of the nutrient levels chosen by the three groups do not differ from one another in a statistically significant way. Economists thus have a higher standard deviation in their answers than the other majors. The third hypothesis is that the presence of an internationally approved standard level for the nutrient content will significantly influence the choice of national nutrient limit. We find that biology students are influenced to set a lower nutrient limit when presented with the standard than otherwise, thereby rejecting the null hypothesis for this group. For students in economics and social sciences, no significant effect is found. Our results have implications for the feasibility of micromanagement in government agencies as recruiting economists to environmental agencies may not be sufficient to ensure economically efficient decisions. The findings also should sound a warning about the skills learned by economics majors at the two largest universities in Sweden: while some students seem familiar with the concepts of optimality and cost efficiency and able to use them, this applies to far from all of them.

  • Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    VTI, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Congdon Fors, Heather
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The influence of individual characteristics and institutional norms on bureaucrats’ use of CBA in environmental policy: a model and a choice experiment2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social scientists regularly criticize the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA), which has led to much focus being placed on investigating the possible biases related to its results. Recent research shows that CBA is not routinely done prior to environmental, energy, and climate policymaking in Sweden, and in countries where a CBA is made, the results have little influence on political decisions. This paper investigates obstacles to using CBA information with a focus on bureaucrats. We use empirical data from Sweden, where the ministries are small by international standards and hence government agencies have a sizeable influence on policymaking. We construct a theoretical model and then test the theoretical predictions with empirical data collected from five Swedish government agencies. The empirical results lend support both for the assertion that risk aversion concerning the environmental outcome, the bureaucrats’ environmental attitudes, and the cost of taking CBA information into account have a considerable impact on the probability of using information from a CBA. Hence risk averse and bureaucrats with strong environmental preferences are less likely and bureaucrats with low cost of doing a CBA more likely than other bureaucrats to use CBA information. Finally, a binding governmental budget constraint may positively influence a bureaucrat’s choice of undertaking a CBA. A tentative conclusion is therefore that it may be possible to increase the use of CBA by making the budgetary consequences of policies much clearer and demanding due consideration of costs.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Bergström, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB analys.
    The mortality cost of particulate matter due to emissions in the Stockholm area: an investigation into harmfulness, sources and the geographical dimension of their impact2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been recognized that emissions from traffic have a negative impact on human health. In recent years there has been emerging consensus that the main influence is due to particulate matter. From an economic point of view these negative effects are external costs caused by traffic that, if not accounted for in decision making regarding transport, will result in a non-optimal allocation of resources leading to welfare losses. To be able to implement road pricing measures, but also for the evaluation of other control measures through benefit-cost analysis, information on the external cost of traffic emissions is needed. In the Impact pathway approach (IPA), that has been developed in the ExternE projects, the external cost is calculated as the product of exposure, effect and value. In this study the effect we focus on is health impacts (mortality). Regarding particulate matter (PM) there is recognition among the research community that there are different types of PM and that it is likely that their impact on human health differs. Still the current practice is to treat fine PM (which are considered to be most detrimental to health) as equally harmful irrespective of origin. In the TESS project the purpose has been to investigate how important the external health cost of road traffic generated PM is in relation to the cost of other sources of PM. To do this we have both investigated how the exposure varies between sources but also assessed if it is reasonable to assume that the impact differs between PM from different sources. Whether or not to assume that PM of different origin is equally harmful is of particular interest in Sweden where non-exhaust PM makes a large contribution to the concentrations of PM in urban areas. In the project we have used Stockholm as a case study and we have focused on mortality since this is the health impact that has been found to have the largest impact on health cost in other studies.

  • Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Transportstyrelsens arbete med konsekvensutredningar: metodik för samhällsekonomisk analys med beräkningshandledning i bilaga2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport is an area where the public sector plays an important role for the design and the functioning of the system. In Sweden the overriding goal for transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and businesses throughout the country. When making changes to the system there is a need for information on the advantages and disadvantages of different policy options so that the decisions are based on balanced evidence. To meet these ends, the methodology of cost-benefit analysis is applied as a decision support tool, especially regarding decision related to infrastructure investment. The Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish Transport Agency have the main responsibility for the design and functioning of the transport system in Sweden. The former is responsible for the infrastructure while the latter is more concerned with the management of traffic and the design of rules and regulations. The Swedish Transport Agency also exercises supervision. In 2012 the Swedish Transport Agency commissioned VTI to develop a first version of a calculation handbook to be used in the impact assessments performed by the Agency, together with a plan for education on how to perform this type of assessment. Our proposition is presented in this report. Based on a number of case studies of impact assessment recently performed at the Agency we have assessed what kind of information that needs to be included in their impact assessments. We have also investigated which methods are used internationally, and by the Swedish Transport Administration, to perform this type of analysis. Using this information we present a draft for a calculation handbook based on the experience and material used at the Swedish Transport Administration. We also present an education plan. However, since there is a difference between issues related to investments in infrastructure and management issues, we also suggest a plan for development of the calculation handbook and its use within the Agency.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Valuing statistical lives or life years?: a choice experimental study2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Although the value of reducing mortality risks and that of reducing life year losses are closely related to each other, the valuation literature seems to treat them rather separately resulting in conflicting value estimates. While the former is more concerned with saved statistical lives from accidents, the latter is more directed to the lost life years due to air pollution etc. In this paper, we attempt to conduct an integrated valuation study for both types of values in the same choice experimental design. We formulate an econometric model which simultaneously takes into account both mortality risk reduction and life year loss. The results indicates that conditional on given remaining life years upon survival, the marginal willingness to pay is constant for each statistical life saved, which indicates strong scope effect. The marginal value per extra life year, however, is a diminishing function of the number of life years. We have also examined the effect of other covariates such as the respondents’ characteristics (e.g. gender and age), their self-confidence in making choices, and possible categorical behavior on the final value estimates.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    VTI, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Variations in the external cost of transport air pollution: The case of Sweden2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In recent years large efforts have been devoted in EU-funded research projects, i.e. the ExternE-projects, to the development of an approach that can be used to estimate the external costs of air pollution. The calculation in these projects is based on the so called Impact pathway approach where the impacts from air pollution are assessed and valued. This approach has now been used to estimate the cost of air pollution of transport in Sweden for the year 2000. In addition, we have used abatement cost estimates to include the costs due to acidification and eutrophication. This is a joint project between VTI, TFK and IER at the University of Stuttgart. This report presents and discusses the results from this project, "the all-modes study", regarding air pollutants with a local and regional dispersion. It also relates the results from this project to cost estimates in other studies. Cost estimates have been calculated for all transport modes. For road transport, estimates were calculated for extra urban and urban traffic and also for two cases, Skellefteå and Stockholm. The purpose was to obtain information on the variation in costs between different traffic situations. Such information is an input in the evaluation of infrastructure investments and is also a basis for marginal cost pricing. The costs vary since there is a large number of variables that influence the estimates. Costs will depend upon which pollutant we consider and where the emissions occur. Costs will also depend upon other relationships such as the number of people being asthmatics in a population and the value placed on an asthma attack. For the latter, the assumptions used in the all-modes study are the same as those used in the EU-funded UNITE-project.  

  • Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Miljöpolitik på samhällsekonomisk grund: en fallstudie om styrmedlet miljökvalitetsnormer för partiklar och kvävedioxid2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present project is to examine whether or not economic analysis and quantified assessments have been part of the information used when designing and implementing these environmental quality standards for nitrodioxid and particles in air. Such assessments arc regularly used in the transport sector in Sweden but several studies in Sweden and abroad have found that this is not the case for environmental policies. Most of these studies argue that this type of information is important for an efficient design of policy instruments and abatement measures. Efficient policy design was also considered an important part in the new environmental policy and the Swedish EPA was commissioned to develop methods of integrating costs of environmental impacts into economic and social decision- making models but also to investigate the possibility to use economic policy instruments. A finding in this study is that the Environmental quality standards have resulted in a number of activities at different levels of society. At the municipality level measurements of air quality are undertaken and information on these levels is provided to the public, while the Swedish EPA develops regulations and also makes assessments and decides on research programmes. The impact of the standards on air quality and societal costs however has so far been limited since few of the abatement measures presented in the action programmes have been implemented and these are to some extent introduced for other reasons than air quality. There is however a risk that the Environmental quality standards have resulted in abatement measures which have had a minor impact on human health. The conclusion is that socioeconomic analysis and quantified assessments are and have been lacking in the decision making regarding environmental policies for improved air quality in Sweden. Therefore policy makers are not notified about possible conflicts between improvements in air quality and other objectives in society and neither are they notified about possible synergies between different abatement measures. Quantified economic analysis is used in the transport sector partly for the reason of assessing trade-offs and possible conflicts between different policy objectives. This is also likely to be an important aspect to consider in the design of environmental policies and it is therefore troublesome that this kind of a systematic approach to evaluation is not used on a regular basis.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    Länsstyrelsen Dalarna.
    Miljökvalitetsnormer och luftkvaliteten i Dalarna: resultat, diskussion, mätning och modellering2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige antogs en ny Luftkvalitetsförordning i juni 2010 (2010:477). Den reglerar vilka ämnen som omfattas av miljökvalitetsnormer för luftkvalitet samt hur detta styrmedel ska tillämpas. Enligt denna förordning ansvarar kommunerna för att kontrollera luftkvaliteten för de flesta miljökvalitetsnormerna, i samverkan eller på egen hand. Dalarnas Luftvårdsförbund samordnar detta arbete i Dalarna och de arbetar nu med att utforma ett nytt program. Ett sådant program ska baseras på den kunskap som finns om luftkvaliteten i samverkansområdet. I denna rapport beskrivs resultaten från den övervakning som skett fram till nu och utifrån detta diskuteras vad ett nytt program för övervakning av luftkvalitet behöver innehålla. I Dalarna är det risk för överskridande av nedre utvärderingströskeln (NUT) för partiklar och kvävedioxid på vissa gator i Borlänge respektive Falun. Det finns även risk för överskridande av miljökvalitetsnormen för kvävedioxid (det svenska gränsvärdet för dag och timme) i Falun. Detta innebär att Falun åtminstone måste ha en mätstation för kvävedioxid. Eftersom övre utvärderingströskeln (ÖUT) överskrids måste denna kompletteras med ytterligare en mätstation alternativt modellering på någon plats i samverkansområdet. För partiklar gäller att NUT överskrids och därmed måste det finnas två mätstationer i samverkansområdet. Risk för överskridande av NUT finns inte för övriga ämnen och därmed kan enklare mätning alternativt modellering användas för dessa. Programmet bör utformas för att både övervaka långsiktiga förändringar och ge underlag för att bedöma om behov finns för genomförande av åtgärder. Detta sker genom fasta mätpunkter som är strategiskt placerade på platser där det kan förmodas vara för länet högsta halter. Om miljökvalitetsnormer eller den övre eller nedre utvärderingströskeln inte överskrids på dessa platser är sannolikheten liten att halter av aktuella föroreningar överskrids på andra platser i länet. Vid dessa mätstationer samlas även information om aktiviteter som bidrar till halter av luftföroreningar för att mätningarna ska kunna användas för att kalibrera modeller för förhållanden i Dalarna. Eftersom Falun och Borlänge är tätorterna med högst halter bör de fasta mätstationer som lagen kräver ska finnas i samverkansområdet placeras där. I Falun måste mätning av kvävedioxid genomföras medan Borlänge har störst problem med partiklar. Det är därför lämpligt att mätning av kvävedioxid sker i Falun (gärna två platser som representerar gatunivå och urban bakgrund) medan mätningar av partiklar på motsvarande sätt sker i Borlänge (gatunivå för PM 10 och urban bakgrund för PM2,5). Givet att annan relevant information som trafikarbete samlas in vid mätpunkterna kommer denna information kunna användas för att både använda och kalibrera modeller. Utöver dessa fasta mätstationer behöver kontroll av luftkvalitet genomföras med jämna mellanrum i andra kommuner i länet. Detta kan ske genom ambulerande mätningar, alternativ modelleringar, på olika platser i länet som utformas utifrån lokala behov. Exempel på sådana lokala behov är att kommunerna bedriver tillsyn och de har exempelvis skyldighet att övervaka betydelsen av småskalig vedeldning för luftkvaliteten. Eftersom detta är en källa med begränsad lokal påverkan är det svårt att fånga dess inverkan genom centralt placerade mätstationer. Det finns även variationer över tid i trafikarbetet som kan leda till förhöjda halter på vissa platser periodvis. Även bidraget från olika industrier kan vara intressant att kartlägga mer i detalj för att ge underlag för arbetet med tillsyn.