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  • Olofsson, Pontus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Svenska sponsorers effektmätning av sponsring: En studie om svenska sponsorers effektmätning av sponsring2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sports sponsorship is a marketing method that grows incredibly fast on the market. Already about 20 years ago it was difficult to find a sporting event that was not sponsored in any way and the more time has passed, the more the sponsorship has grown. Sponsorship's development is based on the fact that sponsors no longer see their sponsorship as a gift. Instead, sponsorship has become an effective communication tool that sponsors invest large sums in, in order to communicate effectively with its market. Previous studies made in other parts of the world have shown that the sponsorship has, despite the fact that major investments are made, not shown to be particularly prioritized to evaluate and see the effects it has had on the brand. Compared to, for example, TV advertising, where the investments are about the same as in sponsorship, but sponsors tend to evaluate and measure the effects of this more.

    I wanted to investigate to what extent sponsors in Sweden perform sponsorship effect evaluation . Is this evaluation also related to objectives that existed with the sponsorship, ie is there any relationship between sponsorship objectives and the evaluations of sponsorship effect? The data collection has been conducted through a survey which contained all sponsors of the three largest sports federations in Sweden, the Swedish Football Association, the Swedish Hockey Federation and the Swedish Ski Federation.

    The study has shown that approximately 85% of the sponsors choose to measure in some way the effects of their sponsorship. What effects the sponsor then chooses to measure depends largely on the goals for the sponsorship. The survey has shown that the most common objectives sponsors have are increased exposure, increased brand awareness and image transfer. Furthermore, the survey showed that the connection between which goals the sponsors have and the effects they measure are large. Sponsors simply choose to basically base the effect evaluation on the predefined goals. Effects such as the number of receivers, brand recognition and image and attitude changes were therefore the effect evaluations that were highly prioritized by the Swedish sponsors.

  • Ahmed, Salim Saif Saeed
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Identify the driving behaviour in a parking lot in terms of distance.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle can often lead to frustration, air pollution and congestion due to limited availability of parking spaces. With increasing population density this problem can certainly increase unless addressed. Parking lots occupy large areas of scarce land resource therefore it is necessary to identify the driving behaviour in a parking lot to improve it further. This Paper tries study the driving behaviour in the parking lot and for this endeavours it conducted direct observation in three parking lots and used GPS data that was collected prior to this study by the University of Dalarna.

    To evaluate the driving behaviour in the parking lot direct observation was conducted to obtain overall indices of the parking lot vehicles movement. The parking route taken by the driver was compared with the optimal path to identify the driving behaviour in parking lot in terms of distance. The collected data was evaluated, filtered and analysed to identify the route, the distance and the time the vehicle takes to find a parking space.

    The outcome of the study shows that driving behaviour in the parking lots varies significantly among the parking user where most of the observed vehicles took unnecessary long time to complete their parking. The study shows that 56% of the 430 observed vehicles demonstrated inefficient driving behaviour as they took long driving path rather the than the optimal path. The study trace this behaviour to two factors, first, the absent of parking guidance in the parking lots and the second is the selectivity of the drivers when choosing the parking space.

    The study also shows that the ability of GPS data to identify the driving behaviour in the parking lots varies based on the time interval and the type of the device that is being used. The small the time interval the more accurate the GPS data in detecting the driving behaviour in the parking lots.

  • Henriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Sand, Anton
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Reglerad men ändå oreglerad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sustainability Reports have grown over the years, and it has now become statutory for companies that meet the limit values according to Chapter 6 of the Annual Accounts Act (1995: 1554). Comparability and transparency are the reason for this change of law. Due to the introduction of the new act, interest was raised to us if there has been any change in the sustainability report over the years and if the information is comparable.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate sustainability reports for companies in the same industry to see if there has been a change. The aim is also to compare and explain patterns within companies and between each other over the years.

    Method: The study uses a qualitative research method. The data collection was done through a self-made template that was created based on the purpose of the study based on Chapter 6. 12 § Annual Accounts Act (1995: 1554), and describes our interpretation of what a sustainability report should contain. The empirical data is based of the information companies described in the topics included in the template. The analysis was conducted according to a thematic analysis in which we compiled the empirical data and then divided it into similarities, differences, and changes. This was then used in the analysis to deal with theories, frameworks and previous research.

    Conclusion: The findings of the study shows that companies sustainability reports change over the years and makes it difficult to compare comparability within the same company as information and calculations change. However, the change makes all companies become more like each other as they follow the same framework and have signed under the UN Global Compact. But since companies tend to write different things over the years, there are room for professional assessment. Companies can choose what to do, as well as highlight what they consider important.

  • Cederström Pala, Jill
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Beskrivningen av samer i svenska läromedel: En läromedelsanalys med exempel hämtade från 1930-, 1960- och 2010-talet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att genom en kvalitativ textanalys undersöka på vilket sätt samer beskrivits i So-läromedel för årskurs 1–6 och hur styrdokument återspeglas i beskrivningen över tid, samt hur det förändrats. Studien har utförts med stöd av ett läromedelsanalytiskt och ett läroplansteoretiskt perspektiv där sju läroböcker för skolans So-ämnen undersökts. Resultatet av läromedelsanalysen påvisar att styrdokument återspeglas och att samer i synnerhet beskrivs som renskötande nomader, men även bofasta samer och samer med andra yrken beskrivs till viss del. Vidare visar resultatet på flera förändringar i läromedlens beskrivningar över tid. Studien påvisar vikten av att lärare granskar läromedel för att försäkra sig om att undervisningen lever upp till de krav som ställs i våra styrdokument.

  • Sporre, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Women’s Human Rights in Sweden: a Feminist Ethical Perspective2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 288-310Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Sporre, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Introduction2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 7-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Pillay, Miranda
    University of the Western Cape.
    Women in the Church: Solidarity in Suffering in the Context of HIV/AIDS2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 142-163Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Petterson, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History.
    Human Rights, Citizenship and Welfare: The Swedish Model2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 54-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Narrowe, Judith
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Social Anthropology.
    Othering from Within: Sometimes Other, Sometimes Not. On being a Young Turk in Sweden2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 164-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Nadasen, Kathy
    University of Western Cape.
    A Profile of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and Human Rights2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 245-272Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Magnusson, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History.
    Economic Equality, Civic Traditions and Human Rights2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 35-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Koopman, Nico
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Trinitarian Anthropology, Ubuntu and Human Rights2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 194-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Jeffner, Stina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Different Space for Action: a Way to Understand Rape2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 208-219Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Gröndahl, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History.
    Curbing Women’s Suffrage: Expectations, Apprehensions and Strategies2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 77-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Conradie, Ernst M.
    University of the Western Cape.
    On a Human Rights Culture in a Global Era: Some Ecological Perspectives2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 311-333Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Clowes, Lindsay
    University of the Western Cape.
    The Vanishing Father: Changing Constructions of Fatherhood in Drum Magazine 1951–19652003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 220-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Botman, H Russel
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Human Dignity and Economic Globalization2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 20-34Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Bartholdsson, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Social Anthropology.
    Pretending Democracy: Learning and Teaching Participation in Two Swedish Schools2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 128-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Amnå, Erik
    Göteborg University.
    More Representation or More Participation?: Challenges in Swedish Democracy2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 102-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Ackermann, Denise M
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Freedom of Religion and the Equality and Dignity of Women: A Christian Feminist Perspective2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 180-193Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Abrahams, J P
    University of the Western Cape.
    Sentiment and the Spread of A Human Rights Culture2003In: Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives / [ed] Karin Sporre & H Russel Botman, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2003, p. 274-287Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Sporre, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Botman, H RusselUniversity of Stellenbosch.
    Building a Human Rights Culture: South African and Swedish Perspectives2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • Elf, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Nordmark, Sofi
    Lyhagen, Johan
    Lindberg, Inger
    Finch, Tracy
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    The Swedish version of the Normalization Process Theory Measure S-NoMAD: translation, adaptation, and pilot testing2018In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The original British instrument the Normalization Process Theory Measure (NoMAD) is based on the four core constructs of the Normalization Process Theory: Coherence, Cognitive Participation, Collective Action, and Reflexive Monitoring. They represent ways of thinking about implementation and are focused on how interventions can become part of everyday practice.

    AIM: To translate and adapt the original NoMAD into the Swedish version S-NoMAD and to evaluate its psychometric properties based on a pilot test in a health care context including in-hospital, primary, and community care contexts.

    METHODS: A systematic approach with a four-step process was utilized, including forward and backward translation and expert reviews for the test and improvement of content validity of the S-NoMAD in different stages of development. The final S-NoMAD version was then used for process evaluation in a pilot study aimed at the implementation of a new working method for individualized care planning. The pilot was executed in two hospitals, four health care centres, and two municipalities in a region in northern Sweden. The S-NoMAD pilot results were analysed for validity using confirmatory factor analysis, i.e. a one-factor model fitted for each of the four constructs of the S-NoMAD. Cronbach's alpha was used to ascertain the internal consistency reliability.

    RESULTS: In the pilot, S-NoMAD data were collected from 144 individuals who were different health care professionals or managers. The initial factor analysis model showed good fit for two of the constructs (Coherence and Cognitive Participation) and unsatisfactory fit for the remaining two (Collective Action and Reflexive Monitoring) based on three items. Deleting those items from the model yielded a good fit and good internal consistency (alphas between 0.78 and 0.83). However, the estimation of correlations between the factors showed that the factor Reflexive Monitoring was highly correlated (around 0.9) with the factors Coherence and Collective Action.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results show initial satisfactory psychometric properties for the translation and first validation of the S-NoMAD. However, development of a highly valid and reliable instrument is an iterative process, requiring more extensive validation in various settings and populations. Thus, in order to establish the validity and reliability of the S-NoMAD, additional psychometric testing is needed.

  • Viberg, Olga
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utvärdering av genomförda projekt inom Nästa Generations Lärande-programmet2016Report (Other academic)
  • Svärd, Linnea
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    En källkritisk kompromiss: En läromedelsanalys med fokus på källkritiska förhållningssätt inom historieämnet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur läroböcker för historieämnet riktade mot mellanstadiet framställer källor och det källkritiska arbetssättet. Vidare är syftet att undersöka om framställningarna följer formuleringarna om källkritik och kritiskt tänkande i historieämnets kursplan. Metoden som används är en kvalitativ innehållsanalys som utgår från en funktionell ansats. Resultatet visar att olika läroböckers framställning av källor och det källkritiska arbetssättet varierar. Framställningen sker främst genom att presentera källor som belägg, samt genom att presentera professionen i historieforskningen. Därtill visar resultatet att framställningen mer sällan sker genom att problematisera källor och det källkritiska arbetssättet, eller genom att belysa hur tolkning av källor kan göras genom olika perspektiv. Läroböckerna erbjuder sällan möjligheter för läsaren att förkovra sig i källmaterial för att på så vis bygga eller ifrågasätta teorier, eller möjligheter att utmana sina egna föreställningar om historia. Slutsatsen är att framställningen av källor och det källkritiska arbetet i läroböcker inte fullt ut följer kursplanens formuleringar. Studien visar stor utvecklingspotential i de böcker som undersökts.

  • Svärd, Ida-Lisa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    ”Jag tror ju att de har kunskaper”: Idrottslärares uppfattningar om ämnet idrott och hälsas möjlighetertill ett språk- och kunskapsutvecklande arbetssätt för gymnasieelever med svenska som andraspråk2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker några lärares uppfattning om ämnet idrott och hälsa som språkutvecklande för elever med svenska som andraspråk. Idag visar forskning positiva resultat på språk- och kunskapsutvecklande undervisning för såväl elever med svenska som modersmål och för elever med svenska som andraspråk. Studien undersöker även om lärarna i studien använder sig av denna undervisningsform i sin dagliga praktik, vilka resurser och hjälpmedel de har att tillgå samt i vilka situationer som de uppfattar att de arbetar på ett sätt som är språkutvecklande. Studien är en kvalitativ intervjustudie. Sex gymnasielärare som alla undervisar elever med svenska som andraspråk i idrott och hälsa deltar i studien.

    Resultatet visar att lärarna ställer sig positiva till och uppfattar att ämnet idrott och hälsa är språkutvecklande på många plan. Dels har ämnet många ingångssätt till verbal kommunikation genom instruktioner, regelgenomgångar och praktiska demonstrationer av ämnesspecifika begrepp och dels öppnar ämnet för kommunikation genom samarbetsövningar och lagspel mellan eleverna med svenska som förstaspråk och andraspråkseleverna. Lärarna i studien uppger ett behov av mer resurser och fortbildning av hur man på bästa sätt inkluderar andraspråkselever i undervisningen.

  • Hultgren, Matilda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Om, genom och för mänskliga rättigheter: Sjätteklassares tal om mänskliga rättigheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att bidra med kunskap om vad som framträder i talet hos elever i årskurs 6 när de talar om mänskliga rättigheter utifrån tre perspektiv om, genom och för. Studien fokuserar på ämnet samhällskunskap där elever ska få undervisning om mänskliga rättigheter och barnkonventionen. Studiens empiri insamlas genom kvalitativa intervjuer som genomförs i grupp vid tre tillfällen på två skolor och vid varje intervjutillfälle fokuseras det på ett av perspektiven om, genom och för. Temat som framträder tydligast i elevernas tal om mänskliga rättigheter är hur man behandlar varandra, vilket de själva anser att de har fått mycket undervisning om. Utifrån elevernas tal om mänskliga rättigheter framkommer vad de har lärt sig i undervisningen, hur de ser på användning av dem i skolan, hur de själva ser på sin förståelse och sina önskningar om hur de vill att undervisningen om mänskliga rättigheter ska genomföras.

  • Bengtsson, Moa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    Digitala verktyg i bildlärarutbildningen: En intervjustudie om studenters erfarenheter och upplevelser av digitala verktyg inom bildlärarundervisning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur bildlärarstudenter och nyutexaminerade bildlärare upplever att digitala verktyg implementerats i deras bildlärarutbildning. Studien har haft en kvalitativ ansats och genomförts genom intervjuer. Åtta bildlärarstudenter och två nyutexaminerade bildlärare, som studerar eller har studerat vid olika svenska lärosäten, har deltagit i undersökningen. Ett sociokulturellt lärandeperspektiv ligger som teoretisk bakgrund. Inledningsvis behandlas teman som bildämnets historia, bildlärarutbildningen, läroplanernas mål och den digitala revolutionen. Resultatet visar att endast två av tio upplever att de har undervisats om och med digitala verktyg i tillräckligt stor utsträckning i sin bildlärarutbildning. Deltagarna påpekar att digitala verktyg bör integreras i bildämnet, men poängterar samtidigt att dessa inte bör ta överhanden. En majoritet av de undersökta bildlärarna har en kommunikativ ämneskonception, som betonar vikten av att förbereda elever för vårt visuella samhälle, där digitala verktyg spelar en viktig roll. Studiens informanter beskriver en ojämlik verklighet i grund- och gymnasieskolans bildundervisning, där ramfaktorer samt bildlärarens egen förmåga och kompetens påverkar graden av implementering av digitala verktyg i ämnet. Det egna intresset spelar roll för hur den digitala kompetensen ser ut. En majoritet av bildlärarstudenterna/de nyutexaminerade bildlärarna upplever olika grader av osäkerhet inför att undervisa om och med digitala verktyg – och en del anser sig inte förberedda alls. En slutsats som tas är att en kompetenshöjning på det digitala området inom lärarutbildningarna behövs. En annan slutsats gäller att teoretiska ramverk för digitala verktygs implementering finns, men att det krävs mer explicita praktiska satsningar. En slutlig konklusion är att med ett sociokulturellt perspektiv kan den typen av insatser främja på fler plan i lärandet – och öppna för att olika verktyg samspelar. Ett sådant perspektiv skulle kunna leda till att de digitala verktygen jämställs med de traditionella och får en naturlig och integrerad plats inom såväl bildämnet som bildlärarutbildningen. Arbetet avslutas med förslag till vidare forskning.

  • Augustsson, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    "Jaa, men bild… det är ju allt!": En kvalitativ undersökning om elevers och bildlärares uppfattningar om bildämnets plats, roll och funktion i skolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    "Jaa, men bild…det är ju allt!" – En kvalitativ undersökning om elevers och bildlärares uppfattningar om bildämnets plats, roll och funktion i skolan

    är en intervjustudie vilken syftar till att få ökad kunskap om bildlärares och gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om bildundervisning och bildskapande, samt om bildämnets plats, roll och funktion i skolan. Materialet som behandlas består av gruppintervjuer med tre verksamma bildlärare, två estetelever i årskurs 3 samt två teknikelever i årskurs 1. Bildämnet har fått en marginaliserad plats i skolans värld, och sedan skolreformen 2011 har ämnet, som tidigare varit en obligatorisk kurs, reducerats till att vara en valbar kurs som saknar meritpoäng. Undervisning i estetiska ämnen brukar ofta beskrivas som efterlängtade "andningshål" i en skola präglad av teoretiska ämnen. Många forskare menar dock att undervisning i konstarterna har en stor betydelse för människors sätt att tänka, lära och uppleva sig själva och omvärlden. Uppsatsens resultat visar att studiens deltagare upplever att bildämnet har en låg status i skolan, men är viktigt, i synnerhet för att uppmuntra och utveckla kreativitet, som deltagarna menar är viktigt i såväl ungdomslivet, som i framtida yrkesliv. Studien mynnar ut i en diskussion om viktiga aspekter som rör undervisning, kreativa näringar och arbetsprocesser, vårt växande bildsamhälle samt bildämnets tillskrivna status, och vad som kan betecknas som kunskap. Dessutom en diskussion kring studiens teoretiska utgångspunkter – Visuell kultur och visuell läskunnighet.

  • Freitas, Iuri
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Green building rating systems in Swedish market: A comparative analysis between LEED, BREEAM SE, GreenBuilding and Miljöbyggnad2018In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 153, p. 402-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are four most commonly used green building rating systems, which are LEED, BREEAM SE, GreenBuilding and Miljöbyggnad. In this study, each of them is analyzed under the aspects of certification process, implementation cost, educational needs and the variety of categories. SWOT method is further applied to extract the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of each of the rating system in a direct and indirect manner, making it clearer to choose among various options when considering the individual needs of each project in practice. 

  • Turk, Suheyla
    et al.
    Quintana, Samer
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Life-cycle analysis as an indicator for impact assessment in sustainable building certification system: the case of Swedish building market2018In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 153, p. 414-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the prevailing sustainable building certification systems in Sweden, based on a critical analysis of their characterization for human and environmental impacts through the integration of life-cycle analysis. The aim of this study is to compare sustainable building certifications systems in terms of their assessment categories. In the Swedish market, BREEAM SE, LEED, Green Buildings and Miljobyggnad are the most used building certifications. Therefore, their guidelines are reviewed to evaluate which of them has comprehensively included human health indicators. This research presents useful information for transforming existing and developing future sustainable building certification systems.

  • Gustavsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Utbildning & Lärande 2017:1: Tema: Studiekulturer i högre utbildning - Design av flexibla lärandemiljöer2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Kjellström, Anita
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Temapresentation: Studiekulturer i högre utbildning - Design av flexibla lärandemiljöer2017In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 8-14Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Xiao, Manxuan
    et al.
    Tang, Llewelly
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Lun, Isaac Yu Fat
    Yuan, Yanping
    A Review on Recent Development of Cooling Technologies for Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, no 3416Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Arneback, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Nylund, Mattias
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Yrkeslärare som värdebalanserare - Värdekonflikter mellan skolans och arbetsplatsens läroplan i lärlingsutbildning2017In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 82-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The school and the workplace often represent two different cultures in terms of what is valued as important skills and values. The role of vocational teachers in apprenticeship education is to ensure that apprentices are embedded in both these cultures. However, because of significant differences between the school and the workplace, this task poses a professional challenge and a potential for value conflicts. In this study we analyse interviews with vocational teachers in the apprenticeship training for the building and construction programme using concepts based in Pragmatism and Curriculum theory. Our ambition is to highlight values often upheld by unreflected habits, and discuss how these condition the work of the vocational teacher. The main results indicate the importance of recognizing that two different types of curricula seems to interact in the apprenticeship education; a workplace curriculum that emphasize, “work ethics” and a school curriculum that emphasizes students´ “safety”. These different curricula interact in specific ways through the work of the vocational teachers that can be described as a ‘balancing act’. How this ‘balancing act’ is done have significant consequences for what kind of education students are offered and what value conflicts that emerge.

  • Heikkilä, Mia
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Organisationsmodell för teamlärande - Tema: Fler män i förskolan2017In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 64-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study has been to examine a number of municipalities that, in different ways, work to recruit more men to work in preschools. The aim of the study has been to identify ways of working, initiatives and processes conducted by municipalities aiming to recruit more men to work in preschools. The concepts of agency and preparedness are central in this matter. The study includes seven municipalities, all included in one network specially aiming at raising the number of men working in preschool. Between 2014 and 2016, the network met five times. Interviews and discussions were carried out with key persons involved in the local work to recruit more men to preschools. This analysis can show trends in initiating the concrete work to encourage more men to work in preschools. The results show that an organisation is needed, several measures are to be conducted and the formulation of objectives provides the organisation with a mandate and, ideally, also the time and resources for the work. The organisation and objectives contribute to continuity in the work, something that long-term areas for change often need.

  • Reneland-Forsman, Linda
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Student learning cultures as responses to a learning environment2017In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 48-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samtida och framtida lärkulturer beskrivs studenter ofta som självreglerande, självständiga och kunskapssökande studenter med världen som sitt redskap för kunskapsutveckling. Ur många aspekter skiljer sig den bilden från senaste års debatt i Sverige om studenter med försämrade förkunskaper och låg motivation för studier. Denna studie avser att istället lyfta diskussionen till att handla om studenters handlingar och hur dessa kan påverkas av mötet med en undervisningsmiljö. I denna studie analyseras och diskuteras lärkulturer som studenters kommunikativa handlingar vid två längre utbildningsprogram. Handlingarna kategoriserades utifrån människors livsattityder och förhållningssätt i mötet med en utbildningsmiljö. Studenters handlingar och strategier bör inte betraktas som fixa identiteter eller grupperingar utan bör ses som reaktioner på mötet med en lärmiljö. Frågan aktualiserar syftet med högre utbildning samt ansvar för utformningen av lärmiljöer som bättre stödjer studenters meningsskapande och måluppfyllelse.

  • Willén Lundgren, Berit
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Reneland-Forsman, Linda
    Värderelationell reflektion med stöd av digital spegling2017In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 34-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a development project within pre-school teacher training at Linnaeus University with the purpose to enhance student activity, goal fulfilment and the use of digital media. Empirical data is from an assessment where students were filmed in two steps, the second time by themselves, reflecting on a previously filmed presentation. Student previous knowledge is used as a capacity for self-reflection elaborating meta-cognitive awareness for a future teaching practice. The study uses a relational approach which takes into account both cognitive and emotional aspects of learning. Analyses show an enhanced meta-cognitive awareness of future pedagogical practice manifested at three levels. Students’ strategies vary between being able to act upon established knowledge in a pedagogical practice to being able to stretch into and vision a future practice and discuss consequences for relations and the impact of democratic values in practice. Digital reflections as a didactical tool were by students themselves regarded as supportive for qualitative variations of reflections related to a future professional practice although further precision in task description and framing is probably necessary for a majority to develop an elaborated awareness.

  • Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Gruffman Cruise, Ewa
    Umeå universitet.
    Malmros, Bengt
    Umeå universitet.
    Sundbaum, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet.
    Tieva, Åse
    Umeå universitet.
    Pedagogisk rum-tid och strategier för aktivt lärande i högre utbildning2017In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 16-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of formal learning spaces in higher education has almost been a non-issue until recently, when the interest has increased considerably, both in Sweden and internationally. Hitherto, the close connection between space and time has been rather unnoticed in this context. The article aims at deepening the knowledge on the relationship between space, time, teaching and learning in higher education. Especially it highlights teachers' possibilities, or lack thereof, to promote students' understanding of curricular content under varying spatial and temporal conditions. The article describes and analyses two empirical studies, including five undergraduate courses framed by different combinations of time-space conditions. The analysis rested on extensive data: systematic observations, student surveys, interviews of students and teachers, and in one of the studies, examination results for a longer time period. We found that multi-functional learning spaces where both students and teachers could engage in presentations, communication and use of digital resources enabled teaching for student active learning, thus promoting understanding and improved examination results. This however presupposed that teachers initially got educational support and additional time for planning. Good spatial preconditions also reduced space-related time-losses and disruptions of teaching and learning considerably, which is particularly important when the teacher-led time is sparse.

  • Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    The neonatal environment and the long-term impact of neonatal care2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Seers, K.
    et al.
    Rycroft-Malone, J.
    Cox, K.
    Crichton, N.
    Edwards, R. T.
    Eldh, A. C.
    Estabrooks, C. A.
    Harvey, G.
    Hawkes, C.
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    Facilitating Implementation of Research Evidence (FIRE): An international cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate two models of facilitation informed by the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework2018In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Health care practice needs to be underpinned by high quality research evidence, so that the best possible care can be delivered. However, evidence from research is not always utilised in practice. This study used the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework as its theoretical underpinning to test whether two different approaches to facilitating implementation could affect the use of research evidence in practice.

    Methods

    A pragmatic clustered randomised controlled trial with embedded process and economic evaluation was used. The study took place in four European countries across 24 long-term nursing care sites, for people aged 60 years or more with documented urinary incontinence. In each country, sites were randomly allocated to standard dissemination, or one of two different types of facilitation. The primary outcome was the documented percentage compliance with the continence recommendations, assessed at baseline, then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the intervention.

    Data were analysed using STATA15, multi-level mixed-effects linear regression models were fitted to scores for compliance with the continence recommendations, adjusting for clustering.

    Results

    Quantitative data were obtained from reviews of 2313 records. There were no significant differences in the primary outcome (documented compliance with continence recommendations) between study arms and all study arms improved over time.

    Conclusions

    This was the first cross European randomised controlled trial with embedded process evaluation that sought to test different methods of facilitation. There were no statistically significant differences in compliance with continence recommendations between the groups. It was not possible to identify whether different types and “doses” of facilitation were influential within very diverse contextual conditions. The process evaluation (Rycroft-Malone et al., Implementation Science. doi: 10.1186/s13012-018-0811-0) revealed the models of facilitation used were limited in their ability to overcome the influence of contextual factors.

    Trial registration

    Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN11598502. Date 4/2/10.

    The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement no. 223646.

  • Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Live-action Communication Design: A Technical How-To Video Case Study2018In: Technical Communication Quarterly, ISSN 1057-2252, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study is based on a research through design project (RTD) thatfocuses on a technical communication video of the live-action format. Itinvestigates the usability and design-implications of a live-action how-tovideo, by means of analyzing user-centered data such as YouTube analyticsdata, usability, and comprehension assessments. In the study, four key liveactionvideo affordances are identified: verifiability, comparability, recordability,and visibility. The identification of these affordances when related tothe users’ assessments resulted in several design implementations thatwould warrant sought-for communication efficacies. Findings show thatsome assumed efficacies appear to be mitigated by the complexity andthe density of the video information. One implication of this is that theimplementation of conventional video editing techniques and the additionof on-screen text that serve to make content briefer and more concise intoinstructional live-action videos requires the technical communicator’s carefulconsideration.

  • Haftor, Darek
    et al.
    Keller, Christina
    Rapp, Birger
    Stenberg, Göran
    Sundberg, Klas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Organisering för lyckad innovationsprocess: Samspel och integration mellan innovation och produktion2018In: Management of Innovation and Technology, no 4, p. 9-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Upphagen, Ann-Sofie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Tysta elever inom engelskundervisning: Lärares syn på språklig ängslan hos elever i grundskolans tidiga år.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkinlärning är inte alltid problemfri för elever. Ett problem som kan uppstå är språklig ängslan som gör att språkinlärning förknippas med negativa känslor. Språklig ängslan kan påverka elever långt fram i livet och även påverka andra områden om de inte uppmärksammas i tid. Examensarbetet

    Tysta elever inom engelskundervisning syftar till att undersöka hur lärarna i studien resonerar kring begreppet språklig ängslan, elevers motivation till att prata engelska och hur lärarna tror att elever påverkas av lärarens inställning till ämnet. Undersökningen genomfördes med enkäter som publicerades på internet. Svaren på enkäterna kategoriserades och tolkades för att sedan kopplas till MacIntyres teori -willingness to communicate (WTC). Resultatet av undersökningen visade att även om inte alla lärare kände till begreppet språklig ängslan så hade nästan samtliga upplevt konsekvenserna av denna ängslan. Enligt lärarna är motivation och glädje viktiga komponenter i engelskundervisning och kan locka ängsliga elever till att prata engelska. Att elever påverkas av lärarens inställning till ämnet är något lärarna i studien är överens om. I de fall läraren har dåliga erfarenheter som påverkar inställningen negativt kan denna erfarenhet vändas till något positivt om läraren är medveten om sin inställning och använder den på ett genomtänkt sätt. Fortsatt forskning inom området kan vara att mer utförligt undersöka lärarens roll som motivationshöjare för språkligt ängsliga elever.

  • Rudholm Feldreich, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet; Uppsala universitet.
    Nowak, Christoph
    Fall, Tove
    Carlsson, Axel C
    Carrero, Juan-Jesus
    Ripsweden, Jonas
    Qureshi, Abdul Rashid
    Heimbürger, Olof
    Barany, Peter
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Circulating proteins as predictors of cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease.2018In: JN. Journal of Nephrology (Milano. 1992), ISSN 1121-8428, E-ISSN 1724-6059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Proteomic profiling of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients could lead to improved risk prediction and novel insights into cardiovascular disease mechanisms. Plasma levels of 92 cardiovascular disease-associated proteins were assessed by proximity extension assay (Proseek Multiplex CVD-1, Olink Bioscience, Uppsala, Sweden) in a discovery cohort of dialysis patients, the Mapping of Inflammatory Markers in Chronic Kidney disease cohort [MIMICK; n = 183, 55% women, mean age 63 years, 46 cardiovascular deaths during follow-up (mean 43 months)]. Significant results were replicated in the incident and prevalent hemodialysis arm of the Salford Kidney Study [SKS dialysis study, n = 186, 73% women, mean age 62 years, 45 cardiovascular deaths during follow-up (mean 12 months)], and in the CKD5-LD-RTxcohort with assessments of coronary artery calcium (CAC)-score by cardiac computed tomography (n = 89, 37% women, mean age 46 years).

    RESULTS: In age and sex-adjusted Cox regression in MIMICK, 11 plasma proteins were nominally associated with cardiovascular mortality (in order of significance: Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), Matrix metalloproteinase-7, Tumour necrosis factor receptor 2, Interleukin-6, Matrix metalloproteinase-1, Brain-natriuretic peptide, ST2 protein, Hepatocyte growth factor, TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand receptor-2, Spondin-1, and Fibroblast growth factor 25). Only plasma KIM-1 was associated with cardiovascular mortality after correction for multiple testing, but also after adjustment for dialysis vintage, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation (hazard ratio) per standard deviation (SD) increase 1.84, 95% CI 1.26-2.69, p = 0.002. Addition of KIM-1, or nine of the most informative proteins to an established risk-score (modified AROii CVM-score) improved discrimination of cardiovascular mortality risk from C = 0.777 to C = 0.799 and C = 0.823, respectively. In the SKS dialysis study, KIM-1 predicted cardiovascular mortality in age and sex adjusted models (hazard ratio per SD increase 1.45, 95% CI 1.03-2.05, p = 0.034) and higher KIM-1 was associated with higher CACscores in the CKD5-LD-RTx-cohort.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomics approach identified plasma KIM-1 as a risk marker for cardiovascular mortality and coronary artery calcification in three independent ESRD-cohorts. The improved risk prediction for cardiovascular mortality by plasma proteomics merit further studies.

  • Hu, Lung-Lung
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Chinese.
    Truth Does Not Matter: Legal Storytelling in the Japanese Drama “Legal High 2”2018In: International Journal for the Semiotics of Law, ISSN 0952-8059, E-ISSN 1572-8722, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People expect that the truth can be revealed in a trial and the decision then is made based on the truth. However, such expectation is a fantasy because the truth has disappeared since the moment when an incident occurred. What are left about this incident are merely fragments (witnesses and evidences) that need further interpretations. Interpretations are open to possibilities; possibilities mean different stories. That is to say: there is no truth (or there are many truths) but stories; truth actually does not matter in law. Law is asked to re-construct the truth logically, based on facts, and without being affected by what outside the law, and then a fair and just legal decision can be made. The idea of storytelling, from the perspective of literature—literary narrative, on the other end is opposite to legal narrative that: a story does not need to be true or real; a story can be as bizarre as it can get as long as it is explainable and acceptable when the story comes to law. In a Japanese drama “Legal High 2” a black widow spider woman is accused of murdering her fiancée and his daughter. Since this woman is the only suspect and has been involved in many marriage fraudulent cases, the prosecutor proves that she is the murder based on the motivation and evidences found (the poison she bought from internet) in the crime scene. However, the defense attorney for getting this woman acquitted tells a story absolutely different from the prosecutor’s based on the same evidences. Therefore, in this present paper I am going to discuss that: how literary narrative and legal narrative in a law drama create both legit but opposite stories that challenges the idea that law and its language is a tool used to pursue the truth based on logics and facts. And, I will compare the similarity and the difference between literary narrative and legal narrative, from the both sides of legal theory and literary theory about language, to examine the idea of “truth” in law and in literature about law.

  • Larsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Bildning, performativitet och teaching to the test - kulturkollision i svensk skolvardag?2015In: Kapet (avslutad tryckt version), ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 45-59Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad har bildningsbegreppet tillskrivits för innehåll under olika tider? Vad innebär performativitet i en skolkontext? Vad kan konsekvenserna bli av ett allt för stort fokus på undervisning mot standardiserade prov, så kallat teaching to the test? Syftet med utbildning och bildning i ett individ- och samhällsperspektiv har varierat i takt med samhällsutvecklingen liksom synen på hur kunskap ska värderas och bedömas. I en tid av ett allt starkare fokus på vad som är mätbart i skolans värld har lärarens uppdrag förändrat inte bara vad lärare gör utan även vad lärare är.

    Syftet med föreliggande essä är att problematisera hur bildningsbegreppet kan sättas i relation till dagens svenska skolkultur där resultatfokusering och ökad måluppfyllelse har blivit en dominerande diskurs. Några nedslag i bildningsbegreppets historia görs, liksom några reflektioner kring dess plats i de senaste två utbildningsreformerna, Lpf 94 och Gy11. Bildningsbegreppet ställs även mot begrepp som performativitet och teaching to the test i en diskussion om vilka konsekvenser som kan uppstå när de kolliderar med varandra i svensk skolvardag. Diskussionen avslutas med ett konkret exempel på denna kulturkollision hämtad ur författarens egen svensklärarvardag på gymnasiet.

  • Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe
    et al.
    Abate, Degu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abay, Solomon
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abbastabar, Hedayat
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L
    Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 1859-1922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background How long one lives, how many years of life are spent in good and poor health, and how the population's state of health and leading causes of disability change over time all have implications for policy, planning, and provision of services. We comparatively assessed the patterns and trends of healthy life expectancy (HALE), which quantifies the number of years of life expected to be lived in good health, and the complementary measure of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a composite measure of disease burden capturing both premature mortality and prevalence and severity of ill health, for 359 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories over the past 28 years. 

    Methods We used data for age-specific mortality rates, years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature mortality, and years lived with disability (YLDs) from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to calculate HALE and DALYs from 1990 to 2017. We calculated HALE using age-specific mortality rates and YLDs per capita for each location, age, sex, and year. We calculated DALYs for 359 causes as the sum of YLLs and YLDs. We assessed how observed HALE and DALYs differed by country and sex from expected trends based on Sociodemographic Index (SDI). We also analysed HALE by decomposing years of life gained into years spent in good health and in poor health, between 1990 and 2017, and extra years lived by females compared with males. 

    Findings Globally, from 1990 to 2017, life expectancy at birth increased by 7.4 years (95% uncertainty interval 74-7.8), from 65.6 years (65.3-65- 8) in 1990 to 73.0 years (72.7-73.3) in 2017. The increase in years of life varied from 5.1 years (5.0-5.3) in high SDI countries to 12.0 years (11.3-12.8) in low SDI countries. Of the additional years of life expected at birth, 26.3% (20.1-33.1) were expected to be spent in poor health in high SDI countries compared with 11.7% (8.8-15.1) in low-middle SDI countries. HALE at birth increased by 6.3 years (5.9-6.7), from 57.0 years (54.6-59.1) in 1990 to 63.3 years (60.5-65.7) in 2017. The increase varied from 3.8 years (3.4-4.1) in high SDI countries to 10.5 years (9.8-11.2) in low SDI countries. Even larger variations in HALE than these were observed between countries, ranging from 1.0 year (0.4-1.7) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (62.4 years [59.9-64.7] in 1990 to 63.5 years [60.9-65.8] in 2017) to 23.7 years (21.9-25.6) in Eritrea (30.7 years [28.9-32.2] in 1990 to 54.4 years [51.5-57.1] in 2017). In most countries, the increase in HALE was smaller than the increase in overall life expectancy, indicating more years lived in poor health. In 180 of 195 countries and territories, females were expected to live longer than males in 2017, with extra years lived varying from 1.4 years (0.6-2.3) in Algeria to 11.9 years (10.9-12.9) in Ukraine. Of the extra years gained, the proportion spent in poor health varied largely across countries, with less than 20% of additional years spent in poor health in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, and Slovakia, whereas in Bahrain all the extra years were spent in poor health. In 2017, the highest estimate of HALE at birth was in Singapore for both females (75.8 years [72.4-78.7]) and males (72.6 years [69 " 8-75.0]) and the lowest estimates were in Central African Republic (47.0 years [43.7-50.2] for females and 42.8 years [40.1-45.6] for males). Globally, in 2017, the five leading causes of DALYs were neonatal disorders, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, lower respiratory infections, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALY rates decreased by 41.3% (38.8-43.5) for communicable diseases and by 49"8% (47.9-51.6) for neonatal disorders. For non-communicable diseases, global DALYs increased by 40.1% (36.8-43.0), although age-standardised DALY rates decreased by 18.1% (16.0-20.2). 

    Interpretation With increasing life expectancy in most countries, the question of whether the additional years of life gained are spent in good health or poor health has been increasingly relevant because of the potential policy implications, such as health-care provisions and extending retirement ages. In some locations, a large proportion of those additional years are spent in poor health. Large inequalities in HALE and disease burden exist across countries in different SDI quintiles and between sexes. The burden of disabling conditions has serious implications for health system planning and health-related expenditures. Despite the progress made in reducing the burden of communicable diseases and neonatal disorders in low S DI countries, the speed of this progress could be increased by scaling up proven interventions. The global trends among non-communicable diseases indicate that more effort is needed to maximise HALE, such as risk prevention and attention to upstream determinants of health.

  • Aho, Erika
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Henriksson Persson, Anna
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Larsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Skolnära – ett skolnära begrepp?2016In: Kapet (avslutad tryckt version), ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 116-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolnära kan beskrivas som ett relativt nytt begrepp inom utbildning och forskning med skolanknytning. Det förekommer ofta i sammanhang där det tycks finnas en ambition att knyta skola och forskning närmare varandra. Det kan till exempel handla om olika forskarskolor, skolforskning och skolutvecklingsprojekt. Dock finns ingen enhetlig definition av begreppet utan det används parallellt med och i vissa fall synonymt med begreppen praktiknära och praxisnära. Syftet med denna artikel är att bidra till en problematisering av begreppet skolnära med fokus på såväl innebörder som användningsområden. Utifrån studier av olika typer av texter belyses hur begreppet skolnära används inom skolforskning och i andra utbildningsvetenskapliga sammanhang idag. Begreppet skolnära ser ut att uppkomma i samband med framväxten av forskarutbildningsämnet pedagogiskt arbete men återfinns idag även inom andra forskarutbildningsämnen. Till exempel kan en ”skolnära avhandling” vara skriven inom pedagogik eller något ämnesdidaktiskt ämne. Vad det innebär att forskningen är skolnära tycks ha skiftande innebörd och avgränsning i olika sammanhang. Det kan till exempel handla om huruvida forskningen bedrivs av eller för lärare. Begreppet används också inom skolvärlden i ett vidare perspektiv.

  • Lozano, Rafael
    et al.
    Fullman, Nancy
    Abate, Degu
    Abay, Solomon
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abbastabar, Hedayat
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L
    Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 091-2138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of "leaving no one behind", it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we measured progress on 41 of 52 health -related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for 195 countries and territories for the period 1990-2017, projected indicators to 2030, and analysed global attainment. 

    Methods We measured progress on 41 health-related S DG indicators from 1990 to 2017, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2016 (new indicators were health worker density, sexual violence by non-intimate partners, population census status, and prevalence of physical and sexual violence [reported separately]). We also improved the measurement of several previously reported indicators. We constructed national-level estimates and, for a subset of health-related SDGs, examined indicator-level differences by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile. We also did subnational assessments of performance for selected countries. To construct the health related SDG index, we transformed the value for each indicator on a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the 2.5th percentile and 100 as the 97.5th percentile of 1000 draws calculated from 1990 to 2030, and took the geometric mean of the scaled indicators by target. To generate projections through 2030, we used a forecasting framework that drew estimates from the broader GBD study and used weighted averages of indicator-specific and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2017 to inform future estimates. We assessed attainment of indicators with defined targets in two ways: first, using mean values projected for 2030, and then using the probability of attainment in 2030 calculated from 1000 draws. We also did a global attainment analysis of the feasibility of attaining SDG targets on the basis of past trends. Using 2015 global averages of indicators with defined SDG targets, we calculated the global annualised rates of change required from 2015 to 2030 to meet these targets, and then identified in what percentiles the required global annualised rates of change fell in the distribution of country-level rates of change from 1990 to 2015. We took the mean of these global percentile values across indicators and applied the past rate of change at this mean global percentile to all health-related SDG indicators, irrespective of target definition, to estimate the equivalent 2030 global average value and percentage change from 2015 to 2030 for each indicator. 

    Findings The global median health-related SDG index in 2017 was 59.4 (IQR 35.4-67.3), ranging from a low of 11.6 (95% uncertainty interval 9.6-14.0) to a high of 84.9 (83.1-86.7). SDG index values in countries assessed at the subnational level varied substantially particularly in China and India, although scores in Japan and the UK were more homogeneous. Indicators also varied by SDI quintile and sex, with males having worse outcomes than females for non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality, alcohol use, and smoking, among others. Most countries were projected to have a higher health-related SDG index in 2030 than in 2017, while country-level probabilities of attainment by 2030 varied widely by indicator. Under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria indicators had the most countries with at least 95% probability of target attainment. Other indicators, including NCD mortality and suicide mortality, had no countries projected to meet corresponding SDG targets on the basis of projected mean values for 2030 but showed some probability of attaimnent by 2030. For some indicators, including child malnutrition, several infectious diseases, and most violence measures, the annualised rates of change required to meet SDG targets far exceeded the pace of progress achieved by any country in the recent past. We found that applying the mean global annualised rate of change to indicators without defined targets would equate to about 19% and 22% reductions in global smoking and alcohol consumption, respectively; a 47% decline in adolescent birth rates; and a more than 85% increase in health worker density per 1000 population by 2030. 

    Interpretation The GBD study offers a unique, robust platform for monitoring the health -related SDGs across demographic and geographic dimensions. Our findings underscore the importance of increased collection and analysis of disaggregated data and highlight where more deliberate design or targeting of interventions could accelerate progress in attaining the SDGs. Current projections show that many health -related SDG indicators, NCDs, NCD-related risks, and violence -related indicators will require a concerted shift away from what might have driven past gains curative interventions in the case of NCDs towards multisectoral, prevention -oriented policy action and investments to achieve SDG aims. Notably, several targets, if they are to be met by 2030, demand a pace of progress that no country has achieved in the recent past. The future is fundamentally uncertain, and no model can fully predict what breakthroughs or events might alter the course of the S DGs. What is clear is that our actions or inaction today will ultimately dictate how close the world, collectively, can get to leaving no one behind by 2030.