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  • Von Baltzer, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att vårda palliativa hjärtsviktspatienter inom kommunal hemsjukvård - Distriktsköterskors upplevelser: - En kvalitativ studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    District nurses in the community health service are one of the main providers of palliative care. Chronic heart failure patients could suffer from lack of treatment or correct care in comparison to other groups of palliative care patients. Lack of experience, education in health professionals and the leadership within the organisation are one of several factors for palliative chronic heart failure patients to not receive tailor dressed care

    Aim:

    To explore district nurses view of caring for palliative chronic heart failure patients in community health service

    Method

    : Quality design and interviews were analyzed by a quality content analysis.

    Result:

    The results resulted in two categories; The organizations influence public health nurses daily work with two subcategories, The competence, development and team work of the public health nurses and the palliative care organisations and leadership. The second category was, Public health care nurses’ professional approach with subcategories Public health care nurse’s treatment of patients and relatives and Public health care nurse’s experiences of care plans.

    Conclusion:

    District nurses need continuously education enabling to feel secure and satisfaction in the care and reception of palliative heart failure patients and relatives. It´s important to enhance the teamwork to create a positive work environment for the District nurses. Care plan systems must be suitable and user friendly to improve the palliative care for chronic heart failure patients.

  • Skott Dahlgren, Anne Terese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mopers, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Distriktssköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta med motiverande samtal till patienter inom primärvården som är i behov av en livsstilsförändring: En kvalitativ studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Changing the lifestyle for the better health condition can provide major health

    benefits both at the individual level and at the social level. In health promotion work,

    motivating interviewing is one of the recommended methods. The district nurse's main tasks

    are to prevent illness and guide the patient to a good health.

    Aim:

    The aim of the study was to highlight the district nurse's experience of using

    motivational interviewing for patients in need of a lifestyle change in primary care.

    Method:

    Qualitative study with inductive approach. Semi-structured individual interviews

    were conducted with nine district nurses. The material was analyzed using a content analysis.

    Results:

    District nurses found that motivational interviewing was useful to many different

    patient groups who are in need of a lifestyle change. Motivational interviewing encouraged a

    person-centered approach and increase patient motivation for a change. Routines, update in

    the method and implementation in primary care were considered important parts for further

    use of the method.

    Conclusion:

    Motivational interviewing is a useful instrument for the primary care nurse in

    the meeting with patients in need of some type of lifestyle change. Motivational interviewing

    can be used in many different contexts and to several different patient groups. Using this

    method creates good conditions for a lifestyle change.

  • Lentina, Alda Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese.
    Questions de genre au Portugal: le cas d’Agustina Bessa-Luís2019In: Iberic@l, ISSN 2260-2534, Vol. 1, no 13, p. 155-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Nous nous proposons d’analyser l’impact des questions de genre et des études sur les femmes dans le monde académique portugais et, notamment, dans la littérature portugaise, ceci en nous penchant sur le cas particulier de l’écrivaine : Agustina Bessa-Luís. Nous tenterons de démontrer combien, encore aujourd’hui, les questions soulevées par la théorie du genre ou, plus précisément, par le féminin-féminisme, sont encore frappées par une forme de « doxa culturelle » au Portugal.

  • Fjellfeldt, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Choice as governance in community mental health services2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, the Act on Freedom of Choice Systems (SFS 2008:962) wasestablished in Sweden, and this enabled municipalities to organise services aschoice models. This thesis describes and analyses the implementation of afreedom of choice system within community mental health services. Daycentre services were in focus, and a case study was conducted of a majormunicipality that sought to be a “world-class city” in regard to citizens’ choice.The experiences of policy makers, managers, professionals, and participantswere explored in interviews, and documents on a national, municipal, and citydistrict level, as well as homepages of providers of community mental healthservices, were all part of the study and were analysed using content-analysismethods.

    The results showed that the freedom of choice system aimed for two objectives– improvements at the individual level and financial efficiency. In practice,financial efficiency was experienced as the main objective. Increased varietyof services was aimed for by the competitive model, but such variety was notobserved. Instead, services tended to be more similar than specialised.Concerning new providers, they were characterised as committedprofessionals running companies with strained economies. Participantsaffected by the reform expressed anxiety and worries due to theunpredictability and uncertainty embedded in the competitive choice model.Choice within the system concerned where to go, whereas participantsemphasised a wish to be able to influence the choice aspects of who carriedout the service and how much time to attend the services.

    The conclusion was that the freedom of choice system was implemented as atechnology of governance to increase financial efficiency of services.Individual choice was not experienced as increased in any aspect except forthe choice of where to go. Instead, freedom of choice actually appeared todecrease due to standardisation and hierarchical structures. Aspects that werefound to be relevant when designing freedom of choice systems aiming toincrease individual freedom of choice were to address predictability andcontinuity, to address sustainable financial premises, to analyse the predictedimpact of administrative systems that are to be used, and to avoid the use of“hidden goals” in the policy-making process.

  • Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Markström, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Eklund, Mona
    Lunds universitet.
    I valet och kvalet: implementering av valfrihetssystem inom svensk socialpsykiatri genom exemplet meningsfull sysselsättning2014Report (Other academic)
  • Fjellfeldt, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Markström, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Development of a Swedish community mental health service market2019In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in an organizational field over time when implementing a freedom of choice model. Main focus was on the range and characteristics of providers and services. Our findings suggest that the expected effects of the reform in terms of variety of providers and services within the organizational field did not materialise due to a lack of market competition. Providers complemented each other rather than competed with each other, and the logics of care, choice, and advocacy challenged each other within the quasi-market. All informants described financial conditions in the market as extremely strained. Strong personal commitment characterized providers entering and exiting the market. A gap was found between policy goals and experiences among stakeholders, and efficiency was found to be the policy goal achieved most often in practice. This raises the questions of how the Swedish community mental health service market will develop in the future and what the implications are for the participants.

  • Fjellfeldt, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Markström, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Länsgemensamma insatser för psykisk hälsa – en balansakt: Sammanställning och analys av handlingsstrategier i 21 handlingsplaner formulerade inom ramen för statens satsning Överenskommelse 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att få behålla de statliga stimulansmedel som delats ut till kommuner och landsting inom området psykisk hälsa 2017 förväntades aktörerna lämna in länsgemensamma handlingsplaner avseende riktade insatser. Forskare vid Umeå universitet fick i uppdrag att sammanställa och analysera dessa planer. Både kvantitativa och kvalitativa sammanställningar och innehållsanalyser genomfördes. Under en forskarpanel bidrog experter inom olika områden med sina kunskaper till att fördjupa och nyansera analyser av preliminära resultat.

    Inför länens arbete med handlingsplanerna uppmanades kommuner och landsting att länsvis, liksom 2016, presentera en aktuell gemensam analys och handlingsplan med tillhörande budget för att arbeta med befolkningens psykiska hälsa utifrån ett gemensamt ansvarstagande. År 2017 förväntades länen även presentera en fördjupad analys och handlingsplan med fokus på barn och unga 0–24 år, samt en uppföljning av arbetet 2017.

    Liksom 2016 fanns det även 2017 en stor variation i länsplanerna, både beträffande struktur och innehåll. Det framstår dock som att varje län funnit en form för det egna arbetet under detta andra år med gemensamt handlingsplansarbete. Handlingsplanerna 2017 påminner mycket om handlingsplanerna 2016, med tillägget att de 2017 inkluderar uppföljning av insatser samt särskilt fokuserar barn, unga och unga vuxna. Några handlingsplaner visar att den statliga satsningen inneburit att länen under 2017 kunnat utvecklat nya strategier för att arbeta länsgemensamt med insatser inom området psykisk hälsa. Andra handlingsplaner visar att länsnivån inte heller 2017 varit en naturlig plattform för kommunerna och landstingens arbete på området. I anslutning till länsplanerna 2017 har länen skickat in ett flertal dokument som de anser är relaterade till handlingsplanen, exempelvis regionernas egna handlingsplaner för utveckling av insatser inom området psykisk hälsa.

    Alla län följer upp insatser genomförda 2017. Uppföljningarna tenderar att vara instrumentella i meningen att man mäter om insatser är genomförda eller inte, snarare än att man följer upp resultaten av insatserna. Några län problematiserar uppföljningen av specifika indikatorer, samt länsnivåns möjligheter och svårigheter i relation till uppföljning och utvärderingsarbete.

    I de delar av handlingsplanerna som presenterar insatser riktade till den vuxna och äldre delen av befolkningen kunde följande iakttagelser göras:

    • Det fanns en balans mellan generella insatser för psykisk hälsa riktade till en bred målgrupp i termer av hela befolkningen och specifika insatser riktade till en mer specifik målgrupp i termer av personer med långvarig psykisk ohälsa.
    • Insatser riktade till både en bred och en snävare målgrupp befann sig i ett spektrum från främjande insatser, till tidiga insatser och slutligen behandlande och långsiktigt stödjande insatser.
    • Den breddade policyn tycks ha påverkat med vilka perspektiv man betraktar även den traditionella målgruppen, lämpligast uttryckt som ett helhetstänkande som inte bara omfattar stöd och behandling utan även prevention och hälsofrämjande arbete.
    • Handlingsplanerna presenterar även ett antal utvecklingsområden som är av övergripande karaktär. De två teman som förekommer i flest planer är: brukare och närståendes delaktighet samt samverkan och samordning. Detta resultat kan tolkas som områden där hierarkier och maktrelationer, olika gruppers handlingsutrymme och olika syn på uppdrag och professionalitet aktualiseras.

    Sammantaget så är det en mycket jämn fördelning mellan de olika målgrupperna; den breda målgruppen medborgare, och den snävare målgruppen personer med etablerad psykisk ohälsa.

    I de delar av handlingsplanerna som presenterar insatser riktade till barn, unga och unga vuxna kunde följande iakttagelser göras:

    • Sammanställningen av planerna visar att det har varit ett trevande arbete i flera län, samtidigt som det i vissa län varit en fortsättning på ett sedan flera år redan påbörjat arbete.
    • Länen har gjort analyser utifrån elevhälsodata, folkhälsodata, riktade enkäter, intervjuer och fokusgrupper. I samband med analysarbetet har SKL gett länen 58 nyckelindikatorer att genomföra sina analyser utifrån. Dessa indikatorer har påverkat länens sökljus, och i förlängningen innehållet i länens handlingsplaner.
    • Handlingsplanerna för barn, unga och unga vuxna präglas av att riskgrupper för psykisk ohälsa identifieras. Tio olika riskgrupper nämns. Asylsökande, nyanlända och ensamkommande, ”hemmasittare” som varken studerar eller arbetar, personer med annan funktionsnedsättning, barn som anhöriga till personer med psykisk funktionsnedsättning och barn i samhällsvård är de riskgrupper som flest län nämner. Dessa fem riskgrupper finns med bland nyckelindikatorerna.
    • Bland övriga utvecklingsområden, förebyggande, tidiga, behandlande insatser samt övergripande teman, syns tydliga spår av de 58 nyckelindikatorerna. Det finns dock även en lokal variation beträffande riskgrupper, insatser, målgrupper och övergripande teman.
    • Samverkan och delaktighet utgör de viktigaste övergripande utvecklingsområdena även när det gäller övergripande områden med fokus på insatser för barn och unga.

    Länen formulerar sig med några få undantag, ofta svepande kring frågan om kunskapsbaserade arbetssätt. Det finns generellt en lyhördhet för nationella initiativ, där man i planerna kan referera till Socialstyrelsen, Folkhälsomyndigheten, SBU eller SKL med innebörden att sådana statliga satsningar utgår från bästa tillgängliga kunskaper.

    Trots en breddad policy i den nationella satsningen, är många av de specifika arbetssätt och interventioner som nämns i planerna riktade till personer med allvarliga tillstånd eller funktionsnedsättningar. Oaktat den uppmärksamhet som ägnas åt psykosociala interventioner vid allvarlig psykisk sjukdom, är suicidprevention det enskilda insatsområde som dominerar handlingsplanerna.

    Några ”tystnader” som identifierats i materialet är följande: 1, avsaknaden av insyn i det reguljära arbetet, som en följd av att handlingsplanerna fokuserar länens utvecklingsarbete 2, unga vuxna, och specifikt unga flickor och kvinnor utgör inte en prioriterad riskgrupp i länsplanerna, trots att aktuell statistik pekar ut denna grupp som utsatt 3, avsaknaden av familjeinterventioner i länens praktik, trots hög evidensgrad och prioriteringsnivå i nationella riktlinjer 4, avsaknaden av att systematiskt arbeta med brukarerfarenheter på länsnivå.

    I rapportens avslutande del lyfts ett antal reflektioner upp till diskussion. Några saker som diskuteras är:

    • Länsnivåns legitimitet när det inte finns någon politisk nivå att förankra planerna i, eller instans att utkräva ansvar från.
    • Tillitsstyrningens dilemma på länsnivå – staten ingår en överenskommelse med vem?
    • Materialet visar att den breddade folkhälsopolicyn kompletteras med ett perspektiv på ohälsa och sjukdom som värnar om personer med långvarig psykisk ohälsa eller funktionsnedsättningar.
    • Det breda uppdraget landar i en struktur som tidigare skapats för att arbeta med en specifik målgrupp: personer med psykiska funktionsnedsättningar. Denna tradition påverkar vilka aktörer som är delaktiga även när det gäller den breddade policyn. Det tycks vara svårt att förankra delaktighet hos en breddad aktörskara i länen, t.ex. skolan, så länge det inte finns ekonomiska incitament för att delta.
    • Innebär den breddade policyn ett ”förfrämligande” hos specialistpsykiatrin i arbetet med handlingsplanerna?
  • Fjellfeldt, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Markström, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Rosenberg, David
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Psykisk hälsa - ett mångfacetterat uppdrag: analys av behovsbilder och handlingsstrategier i 21 länsplaner sammanställda inom ramen för statens satsning inom området psykisk hälsa2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att få del av de statliga stimulansmedlen inom ramen för överenskommelsen mellan Regeringen och Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting (SKL) 2016 var kommuner och landsting skyldiga att länsvis sammanställa en handlingsplan med avseende på området psykisk hälsa. Forskare vid Umeå universitet fick i uppdrag att analysera dessa planer. Både kvantitativa och kvalitativa sammanställningar och innehållsanalyser genomfördes. Under en forskarpanel bidrog experter inom olika områden med sina kunskaper till att fördjupa och nyansera analyser av preliminära resultat. Preliminära resultat presenterades under en seminariedag i Stockholm där representanter för länen samt företrädare för SKL, Socialstyrelsen och Folkhälsomyndigheten samlats. I samband med denna presentation inkom kompletterande uppgifter som innebar att vissa revideringen av rapporten genomfördes. Inför länens arbete med handlingsplanerna föreslog regeringen i överenskommelsen med SKL att kommuner och landsting skulle beakta fem fokusområden: 1, förebyggande och främjande insatser 2, tillgängliga tidiga insatser 3, enskildas delaktighet och rättigheter 4, utsatta grupper och 5, styrning, ledning och organisation. Dessa fem områden är aktuella för barn och unga, vuxna och äldre. I samtliga handlingsplaner förhåller sig länen till dessa fokusområden. I 18 av 21 län har man strukturerat sina handlingsplaner i relation till fokusområdena. Tre län förhåller sig friare till de angivna fokusområdena. Sveriges län skiljer sig åt på många sätt, vilket återspeglas i handlingsplanerna som varierar till form och innehåll. Vissa län har gjort behovsanalyser utifrån ett folkhälsoperspektiv på psykisk hälsa, medan andra behovsanalyser undersöker faktorer som är mer relaterade till ett perspektiv på manifest ohälsa och sjukdom. I vissa län finns detaljerade målsättningar som specificeras i långsiktiga mål och kortsiktiga delmål. I andra län har målformulerandet just påbörjats. I en del handlingsplaner finns detaljerade åtgärdsförslag medan det i andra län presenteras mer övergripande och generella åtgärder. Variationsrikedomen i handlingsplanerna är mycket stor. När det gäller beskrivningen av arbetsprocessen i samband med att handlingsplanerna utarbetats varierar graden av insyn i hur arbetet gått till. I vissa handlingsplaner beskrivs processen i detalj, och personer som deltagit är namngivna. I andra handlingsplaner går det inte att utläsa vare sig hur arbetsprocessen har gått till eller vilka som varit delaktiga. I ett län har ett ägarskap skrivits in i handlingsplanen som innebär att instanser utsetts som ansvariga för att handlingsplanen i sin helhet omsätts i praktik. I några län utses ansvariga inom respektive insatsområde, medan vissa län inte berör ansvarsfrågan alls. I såväl den nationella policyn som i handlingsplanerna finns en komplexitet när det gäller den tredelade målgruppsbeskrivningen om ”allas” psykiska hälsa, utsatta gruppers psykiska hälsa och personer med omfattande psykiatrisk problematik.

    Hur kommuner och landsting hanterat frågan om brukarmedverkan i arbetet med planerna varierar; alltifrån att inte ha någon brukarmedverkan dokumenterad alls, till att en brukarorganisation är en av tre jämbördiga parter. I ett län anläggs ett folkhälsoperspektiv på brukarmedverkan genom att representanter från ett brett spektrum av brukar- anhörig- och patientföreningar finns representerade, liksom representanter för skola. Att använda sig av länsnivån som avsändare för planerna innebär utmaningar. Vilken grad av struktur som finns varierar mellan länen – se Länsinventering Psykisk Hälsa (SKL 2015). Det finns ingen självklar politisk struktur vilket innebär att det är svårt att förankra handlingsplanerna i en politisk kontext. I 9 län beskrivs politisk förankring av varierande grad. I återstående 12 län framgår det inte om handlingsplanerna är politiskt förankrade eller inte. Graden av politisk förankring påverkar möjligheten att omsätta handlingsplanen i praktiken. En annan utmaning rör tillgången till tjänstemän på länsnivå som kan arbeta med länsgemensamma uppdrag. Även detta skiljer sig åt mellan länen och påverkar arbetet med länsgemensamma planer och målsättningar. När det gäller målsättningar presenteras det i drygt hälften (12 av 21) av handlingsplanerna långsiktiga mål som är nedbrutna i kortsiktiga delmål. I fyra län är långsiktiga och kortsiktiga målsättningar fristående ifrån varandra. Målsättningar strukturerats antingen utifrån de fem fokusområdena eller tematiskt utifrån prioriterade områden i länen. I fem av länen har man hanterat målsättningar på andra sätt. De slutsatser som dragits utifrån analysen av de 21 länens handlingsplaner är följande:

    • Strukturer för att arbeta på länsnivå ser mycket olika ut i länen. Därför skiljer sig handlingsplanerna åt, både till form och innehåll. I vissa län tycks arbetet med länsplanen innebära ett mervärde för de inblandade aktörerna, i andra inte. Om principen från regeringen och SKL att använda sig av länsnivån i kommunikationen ska bestå, bör strategier för stöd till länen övervägas.

    • Generellt sett rör länsplanerna utvecklingsarbete och endast i liten utsträckning organisationernas kärnverksamhet.

    • Länsplanerna handlar främst om kommunerna och landstingens gemensamma arbete och om samverkan mellan organisationerna. Detta innebär att de enskilda huvudmännens verksamheter endast uppmärksammas i mycket liten utsträckning. Följaktligen saknas en stor del av den reguljära kärnverksamhet som bedrivs av kommuner och landsting var för sig, som till exempel den specialiserade psykiatrins behandlingsarbete eller primärvårdens insatser. Inriktningen är särskilt tydligt under fokusområdet ”ledarskap och organisering” där handlingsplanerna företrädesvis rör samordning och samverkan.

    • Det finns en hög ambition i länen att främja psykisk hälsa hos barn och unga, och att samarbeta mellan huvudmännen kring barn och unga som har utvecklat någon form av psykisk ohälsa.

    • I länen finns en hög ambition att samarbeta huvudmän emellan och tillsammans med det civila samhället för att bli bättre på hälsofrämjande insatser riktade till asylsökande och nyanlända, samt att bli bättre på insatser som riktas till asylsökande och nyanlända som utvecklat någon form av psykisk ohälsa.

    • Två insatsområden som återkommer frekvent i länen är arbetet med suicidprevention och arbetet med att erbjuda dem som får stöd från de båda huvudmännen en samordnad individuell plan (SIP) samt att utveckla formerna för SIP.

    • I handlingsplanerna finns en ansats att främja den psykiska folkhälsan i länen. Detta sker parallellt med att insatser riktas till riskgrupper och grupper där psykisk ohälsa redan utvecklats. Detta innebär att kommuner och landsting tagit emot de nationella styrsignalerna, och fortsatt vidga sitt fokus från PRIO-satsningen till att omfatta folkhälsoperspektivet inom området psykisk hälsa. Dock sker detta endast i mindre utsträckning för grupperna vuxna och äldre personer.

    Avslutningsvis ges exempel på några aspekter utifrån vilka ”en lyckad plan” kan förstås. En lyckad plan kännetecknas av ett tydligt ägarskap, systematisk analys, realistiska mål och ett val av tydliga aktiviteter som kan implementeras och följas upp. Vi ger även tre rekommendationer till länen i det fortsatta arbetet med att formulera länsgemensamma handlingsplaner: 1, att skriva planerna för sin egen skull 2, att öka genomförbarheten i planerna genom aktiva prioriteringar mellan de breda och olikartade målsättningar som staten lanserat 3, att ta frågan om ansvar för planerna på allvar genom att klargöra vem eller vilka som ansvarar för handlingsplanen och dess implementering.

  • Boström, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Persson, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Web-baserat stöd i astmavården – en randomiserad kontrollerad studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact on asthma control and lung function of a web-based support program for asthma patients in primary care.

    Method

    The study was a quantitative, parallel, 2-arm, randomized controlled trial over a 6-month period.

    Both groups received asthma care based on how it was conducted at the health centers and the intervention group also gained access to a newly created web-based support program (Astmakollen) for asthma patients. In total, 83 participants completed the study, of whom 39 were in the intervention group and 44 in the control group.

    Results

    This study has showed significant improvement in asthma management in the sample group who had access to the web-based support program for 6 months. The mean score for asthma control test in the intervention group increased by 2,23 points while the score in the control group remained almost the same. The effect size for this change measured in Cohens

    d was 0,57. The mean score of lungfunction in the intervention group increased by 0,3% during the study period, while it deteriorated in the control group and the effect size amounted to 0,45. The difference between the groups were significant.

    Conclusions

    In this study, it appears that eHealth can provide improved asthma control and maintained lung function and be a complement in today's asthma care by increasing accessibility of personalized and evidence-based care.

  • Svensson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Games and Extramural Gaming in the Classroom: Teachers’ Perspectives on How They Perceive and Use Games and Extramural Gaming in the Upper Secondary Classroom2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing amount of people play games in their spare time, especially children and teenagers. Several studies have shown a positive correlation between gaming and ESL grades. It is therefore important to examine how teacher perceive and use games and extramural gaming in their classrooms, which is the aim of this thesis. In order to fulfil this aim, the research questions "how and to what extent are games used in the classroom", "how and to what extent is gaming as an extramural activity used in the classroom" and "what attitudes do teachers have towards using games or extramural gaming in the classroom" were used. Data was gathered using a mixed-methods design with a questionnaire and interviews. The questionnaire was distributed to 53 Swedish ESL teachers (47 of which completed the entire questionnaire), and three Swedish ESL teachers were then interviewed to provide further information. The results showed that games are not used in these teachers’ Swedish EFL classrooms, and students’ interest in games as an extramural activity is only used to a very small extent in their classrooms. The participating teachers’ attitudes were mildly positive to the possibility of students learning from games, and positive to the possibility of student becoming more interested if games were used or referenced in education. However, teachers could generally not see themselves using gaming to their advantage, and many claimed not to know how they would use games or their student’s extramural gaming in the classroom. This suggests a lack of knowledge among the teachers, and a need for further education on the subject so that the full potential of this increasingly popular extramural activity can be taken advantage of in the classroom.

  • Stefan, Vlad
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Discrete Event Simulation of a Sawmill Yard Using Multi-Agent System2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In direct reference to the saying “time is money”, nowadays scenario simulations play a key role in the tasks people perform. Optimizing the time length of tasks and synchronizing them properly is essential to increased profits in any line of business.

    In this thesis the Bergkvist-Insjön sawmill yard process will be computer simulated. As the number of trucks arriving at the sawmill is unknown, the unexpected arrival of trucks would produce a high pressure on internal resources and handling operations. The aim of this paper is to optimize the usage of the resources in the Bergkvist-Insjön sawmill, by running three different scenarios built based on the real system simulation.

    Scenario number three, in which a log stacker only has the tasks to unload the trucks and supply the measurement station, has been found most efficient. In the simulation of this scenario, the number of logs processed by the sawmill is the highest one. Also, the time spent by the log stackers between their tasks is the shortest one from all scenarios.

    The results of this thesis revealed that the most efficient improvement of the sawmill yard would be gained by a different tasks’ priority for the operating log stackers.

  • Söderqvist, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Perceptions of extramural English and English in the classroom: Swedish upper secondary students’ writing, reading, listening and speaking skills2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines, through the use of a quantitative questionnaire, to what extent Swedish upper secondary students are involved in receptive and productive extramural English activities and what their perceptions are of learning English inside and outside of school. Extramural English (EE) is a term referring to the English students encounter outside school as

    extra means ‘outside’ and mural means ‘walls’. This study also investigates if the students perceive that the extramural English activities facilitate their classroom learning of English, and more specifically in relation to the language proficiencies reading, listening, writing and speaking. The results showed that the students reported being involved in mostly receptive EE activities as the most common activities they reported being involved in daily were related to listening and reading. The listening activities involved watching English-language TV-programs, TV-series and movies with and without Swedish subtitles and reading English texts. 98% of the students perceived that they do learn English outside of school while 68.6% of the students perceived that the English that they learned outside school facilitated classroom learning. The language proficiency the students perceived they developed most outside school was listening as 39% reported they "developed very much". The majority of students also reported to be more comfortable speaking and writing in English outside of school, and 57% indicated that they have learned most of their English knowledge outside of the school environment.

  • Feutrel, Anita
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Une étude sur la corrélation entre la culture et la langue par l’emploi du wolof dans La grève des báttu d’Aminata Sow Fall2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between a language and its culture is highlighted in this study through the Senegalese writer Amin ata Sow Fall’s book La grève des báttu. The need of using a native language for all aspects connected to its culture is pointed out by the major characteristics of the Senegalese culture as well as the language used to describe these. The study also onsiders the difficulties that many of the foreign colonies, like Senegal, are experiencing regarding the language. Senegal is being stuck between an official language which in this case is French, representing modernity, and a local language such as Wolof representing tradition. We will show that both languages are being just as necessary for the author, aiming to be as trustworthy as possible telling her story.

  • Eriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Westblad, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Utevistelsens betydelse för personer med demenssjukdom boende på vårdhem – En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    : The number of people with dementia is increasing in Sweden and the rest of the world. The disease has major impact on life itself, quality of life and autonomy for the affected person. There is still no treatment that cures the disease, but much can be done to increase the quality of life and support for people with dementia. In general, outdoor stay has proven to be of great importance to well-being. However, due to the often restricted outdoor environment's availability and lack of time from the healthcare professionals, many people with dementia rarely outweigh those who can independently provide for their own ability for outdoor stay. Therefore, it is important to describe the knowledge of outdoor stay for people with dementia living at nursing homes. Aim: The purpose is to put together knowledge about the meaning of outdoor stay for people with dementia living at nursing homes. Method: A literature review based on 13 scientific articles, quantitative and qualitative. Result: Outdoor stay in the form of different types of gardens, outdoor activities and exposure of daylight have positive effects on persons with dementia disease, as increased well-being and physical and cognitive function, and need of medication. Health care professionals and family members have knowledge about positive effects of outdoor stay for people with dementia disease, and it is important to make outdoor stay possible and offer activities outdoors that are individually adapted by need and ability. Conclusions: For people with dementia outdoor stay had positive results and as a contributing factor to people with dementia disease feeling increased quality of life. The outdoor activities should be individually adapted to the greatest effect on their well-being.

  • Cahenzli, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hjort, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av och attityder till att vårda patienter med psykisk ohälsa inom somatisk vård- en litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Mental illness is increasing all over the world. Patients with mental illness also need treatment for physical affections. Because of this comorbidity and the increasing mental illnesses amongst the population, the number of patients with mental illness within somatic care increase. Previous research shows that patients with mental illness are avoided within somatic care and experience feelings of impotence. Patients with mental illness experience stigmatizing attitudes that had a negative impact on the important caregiving relation.

    Aim:

    The aim was to illustrate nurses’ experience of and attitudes caring for patients with mental illness within somatic care.

    Method:

    An outline containing fifteen scientific articles. The articles were searched for in the databases Cinahl, Pubmed and PsycInfo. The chosen articles for the literature review are ethically approved or that the authors of the studies made ethical consideration. The articles for this literature review achieve means with high standard after quality review. The result of the articles was analysed by the authors and sorted into categories based on similarities and differences.

    Results:

    Four main categories were found: emotions that nurses’ experience, nurses’ experiences of lack of knowledge that effects the care of patients with mental illness, nurses’ negative attitudes in care towards patients with mental illness, nurses’ and nurses’ experience of deficiency in the working environment.

    Conclusion:

    Nurses experienced different difficulties and negative attitudes caring for patients with mental illness within the somatic care and that might be a lack of knowledge. With more competence about patient with mental illness the nurses may experience more security and confidence in the care. Nurses’ emotions were insecurity, fear and frustration meeting with patients and that lead to negative attitudes. Expanded knowledge may give nurses confidence in care for this patients and that may lead to more positive attitudes to patients with mental illness.

  • Fjägerås, Ida
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Villman, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Måltidssituationer hos personer med demenssjukdom – en litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Dementia is a global disease that increases for every year. Physical and psychological abilities reduce continuously during the disease course. It is usual that people with dementia is affected by malnutrition since they forget how and when to eat. Healthcare professionals’ need more knowledge about mealtime situations for people with dementia and how to customize their needs about increasing food intake.

    Aim:

    To illustrate aspect of healthcare professional’s knowledge about mealtime situations for people with dementia in nursing homes.

    Method:

    A literature review based on 15 research articles. Eleven articles were qualitative design and four were mixed design. Used databases were CINAHL and PubMed.

    Results:

    A main result showed that healthcare professionals needed more knowledge about mealtime situations and how to provide increased food intake. Healthcare professionals adjust mealtime situations according to the abilities that people with dementia had. Healthcare professionals did consideration about different kind of arrangement to reduce stimuli in mealtime situations for people living with dementia.

    Conclusion:

    Healthcare professionals had knowledge about nursing for people with dementia but not enough. The needs among people living with dementia are many and the lack of knowledge in healthcare professionals' work is not approval. In mealtime situations the lack of knowledge about optimal nutrition status among people with dementia and surrounded by healthcare professionals' is not clearly to sustain.

  • Nielsen, Madelene
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Samuelsson, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Möjliga faktorer som kan påverka omvårdnaden till personer smittade med HIV – en litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    :

    Human immunodeficiency virus is shortened to HIV, it is a viral disease that infects through blood and body fluids. An untreated HIV infection develops into acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which shortens AIDS. The nurse must respect and care for all persons on equal terms and promote the sense of context (SOC) in all patients through a salutogenic approach.

    Aim

    :

    The aim is to describe possible factors that may affect nurses` care towards adult patients with HIV or AIDS.

    Method

    :

    Literature overview. PubMed and CINAHL were databases used in the article search, 15 articles were found that had qualitative and quantitative approach. In the data analysis, the results of the articles were compiled, which in the literature overview formed 5 different categories.

    Result:

    The factors affecting nurses care to care for adult persons infected with HIV or AIDS are "Knowledge, education and personal experience", "Nurse's approach to people affected by HIV or AIDS", "Fear, insecurity and inadequate resources" and "Sociodemographic factors".

    Conclusion:

    This literature review has shown that there are factors that affect the nurse's attitude and willingness to care for those who are HIV or AIDS-infected. The factors that where found were knowledge, education and personal experience, attitudes about people affected by HIV and AIDS, as well as stigmatization of this group, fear and insecurity, inadequate resources and sociodemographic factors.

  • Johansson, Michaela
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Larsson, Mattias
    Faktorer som kan påverka patienters följsamhet av egenvård vid diabetes typ 2: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Patients can reduce their risk of further complications from their type 2 diabetes disease, such as sequelae, by their self-care. This is linked to current legislation and a self-care theory by Orem. It is further described that type 2 diabetes is a very big problem for society, where there are still great benefits to get for the patient and for the health and medical care. If more patients take care of their self-care, these problems will decrease and the disease and suffering of type 2 diabetes will be reduced.

    Aim:

    To describe factors that can affect the patient's adherence to self-care in type 2 diabetes.

    Question formulation:

    In what way can the nurse influence the patient's adherence to self-care?

    Method:

    The graduate thesis is a literature review. Literature search has been done via the scientific databases Pubmed and Cinahl where articles are of high quality and with an ethically correct content chosen.

    Result:

    The result shows that the patient’s knowledge of type 2 diabetes greatly affects adherence to self-care. Self-care support was an important factor that seems to protect against poor adherence to self-care in type 2 diabetes. Other factors that arise are duration, motivation, gender and inheritance, mental factors and lifestyle. The nurse is shown in several different ways to be able to help the patient well in order to fulfill care for self-care.

    Conclusion:

    Knowledge, education and self-care support are important for patients with type 2 diabetes to minimize the factors that negatively affect the adhesion of the disease. The results show examples of areas that the nurse should have knowledge of and where he or she can support patients in the process to good compliance in their self-care. Further research is needed in this area to further strengthen the patient's self-care.

  • Hillring, Sanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ljudén, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans möjlighet att ge god palliativ omvårdnad inom slutenvården. En litteraturöversikt.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Today's healthcare is usually cure focused and therefore palliative nursing can be challenging for a nurse who is new to work close to death. The nurse has a responsibility in achieving good nursing care, including palliative situations. The need of pallitaive care is expected to rise which means there is a great importance in studying how the nurse can provide good care for patients transitioning from curative to palliative care. Aim: To describe factors that enable the nurse to provide good care to patients who are in transition from curative to palliative care in the end stage of life in the inpatient care. Method: A literature review based on 14 scientific articles who were found at Pubmed, Cinahl and PsycINFO. Results: The importance of identifying and diagnosing dying was important for enabling a good palliative care as it was considered to be significant in order to start palliative care. A well-functioning team-based collaboration also had significance to enable a good communication in the care process. The nurse's attitudes to palliative care and their relationship with the patient were also important factors for enabling good care for palliative patients. Conclusion: The result shows that good communication within the team were of great importance to deliver quality care in a palliative situation. To enable good communication the team should have a common goal, set up goals of care, and be sure to document those in order to maintain continuity. It has been shown that palliative education in the workplace can make a difference so that the patient gets better care.

  • Strömberg Hedman, Alexander
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Pettersson, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Datorer och tv-spelsanvändningsområden inom demensvården ur ett omvårdnadsperspektiv.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Dementia is a growing disease in the society. In Sweden there are approximately 130-150 thousand people living with dementia. There is no cure for dementia, and with pharmaceuticals you can only prolong the decease. People who suffer from dementia tend to have other illnesses prior to the main dementia. These complications often lead to death. With the usage of videogames and computergames where the user is utilizing the body and bodymovement as a tool for progress there are beneficial effects to the motor skills and cognitive functions for the elderly living with dementia and cognitive decline.

    Aim:

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utilization of computers and video games in the dementia care.

    Method:

    Done as a literature review where 14 articles was included. Searches have been made through databases Pubmed, Cinahl and Psycinfo. The 14 articles where systematically analyzed and differences and similarities were compared between the articles

    Results:

    Four categories were made, physical health, psychological health, cognitive function and usability of technology by the dementia suffers.

    Conclusions:

    Computer and videogames utilization have beneficial effects for the people who suffers from dementia. Enhanced physical, psychological and cognitive function were found in the studies. Due to the relatively new subject further research is required in the area.

  • Toivainen, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östlund, Maja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser av personcentrerad vård inom demensomsorgen – En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Dementia is a common disease which is expected to extent in the coming years. In today´s society people with dementia are stigmatized and the perception of dementia are often negative. In order to improve the person-centered care for people with dementia, the nurse´s difficulties in working with this needs to be explored.

    Aim:

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe the difficulties nurses experience working with person-centered care in care of people with dementia.

    Method:

    A literature review with a result based on 15 scientific articles. The articles were searched on the databases PubMed and CINAHL with the keywords Person centered, Dementia, Nursing and Approach. The articles were quality checked using quality review templates. The result sections of the articles were analyzed by searching for differences and similarities. These differences and similarities were sorted into categories.

    Results:

    The results is based on these four categories: Nurse´s difficulties in communication to the person with dementia, Nurse´s and other career´s negative attitudes, Lack of experience and knowledge, and How the nurse are affected by the structure of the organization – such as lack of time and lack of organizational support.

    Conclusion:

    This literature review has identified what difficulties the nurse experience in the work of person-centered care in dementia care. The difficulties identified were at individual-, team- and organizational levels. The conclusion of this is that it requires a change in these levels to improve person-centered care in dementia care.

  • Hård, Arthur
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    The Past Tenses of Early Middle Japanese2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Early Middle Japanese is one of the oldest attested stages of Japanese.

    Its rich legacy consists of several literary works from the Heian era (7

    th

    to 11

    th centuries), some of which are still appreciated and widely read

    today. Despite a long tradition of research both within and outside

    Japan, quite a few details of the language remain incompletely

    understood. The present study addresses a long-standing question in

    the verbal domain of Early Middle Japanese, namely the semantics of

    the two so-called “past tenses” in

    -ki and -ker-. I tested the major

    hypotheses regarding their use by means of qualitative, corpus-based

    methods. Specifically, I trained a machine learning algorithm to

    predict which is likeliest of

    -ki and -ker- given a set of grammatical and

    semantic variables. Analysis of the results indicates that the suffixes

    likely embody a contrast between witnessed and non-witnessed past

    tense. It is also possible that mirativity—the grammaticalized

    expression of surprise at learning something unexpected—and aspect

    influence the choice of past tense suffix.

  • Barakat, Serena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Chathuranga, Mahesh
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Improving Hashtag Recommendation for Instagram Images by Considering Hashtag Relativity and Sentiment.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Extracting knowledge from user-generated content (UGC) in social media platforms is a very hot research topic in the area of machine learning, nonetheless, the main challenge resides in the fact that UGC carries inference, abstraction and subjectivity alongside objectivity. With the aim of recognising the importance of subjectivity as an influential aspect for providing humanoid results from a machine learning algorithm, this study proposes a novel approach to improve Instagram hashtag recommendation by considering sentiment that can be expressed for images. Two main points are studied in this thesis; evaluating the relativity of Instagram image to hashtag for both objective and subjective features of an image and the effect of sentiment on said relativity. This work examines three machine learning methods for hashtag recommendation: AWS service, developed algorithms with and without sentiment considerations. The models are tested on a collected dataset of de-identified Instagram posts in location London gathered from public profiles. The results show that considering sentiment significantly improves Instagram hashtag recommendation.

  • Agerberg, Alexandra
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, German.
    Digitale Kompetenzen auf dem Stundenplan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    the paper at hand has four aims. Firstly, it examines teachers’ own understanding of the term digital competence. Secondly, a closer look is taken at how teachers assess their own digital competence. For this purpose, the term digital competence was divided into three aspects: technical, didactical and theoretical competences all of which shed a different light on the main term digital competence but are equally important in the implementation of digital competence in successful teaching and as according to the changes made to the Swedish curriculum in 2018. Thirdly, this paper tries to investigate how often digital competence and digital tools and media are implemented in language teaching and fourthly, a look is taken at what digital tools and media are at the teachers’ disposal and how their use is applied.

    Design/methods/ approach:

    Empirical study made with the help of an online questionnaire which was sent do different secondary schools in Sweden inviting language teachers to participate. The answers given in the survey are analysed and quantitatively and qualitatively presented. The results found are discussed and compared with other recent literature and research papers in the field of ICT and digital competence in teaching.

    Findings:

    according to the results, the author of this paper found that the teachers who participated in this study have a very varied understanding of the term digital competence. The definitions given reflect the terms complexity and the individual relations to the term itself and what importance is given to the digital tools and media associated. When asked to assess their own digital competences, which were divided into technical, didactical and theoretical digital competences, the participating teachers gave their own competences a generally high rating. Nevertheless, differences can be noted and the assessment, although generally high for all the competences involved, does show a falling curve in which the participants rate their technical digital competence at the highest and their theoretical digital competence at the lowest.

    According to the results analysed, digital tools and media are implemented in teaching on a regular and even daily basis and teachers generally have a broad variety of tools and media at their disposal. However, the study shows that the frequent use of these tools does not seem to have had an impact or changed the basic way they are applied in language teaching. A comparison with earlier studies and literature shows that a lack of methods may be the reason for the stagnation of development in this field.

  • Erkers, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Rupertsson, Elisabet
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Missbruk och beroende hos legitimerad vårdpersonal – En enkätstudie.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    : The purpose was to investigate what awareness and management of routines as well as the preventive work that registered healthcare personnel in leadership position in primary care have regarding abuse and addiction to employee- registered healthcare personnel.

    Method:

    The study has been conducted as a descriptive survey. A quantitative method was chosen to reach a larger population for a short period of time.

    Result:

    The study found that the majority of respondents in leadership positions had leadership training and most of them had education about addiction and abuse. The study shows that they work more or less preventively with addiction and abuse to their staff. It appears that legitimate healthcare personnel in management positions consider themselves sufficiently knowledgeable about addiction and abuse. They highlight the importance of further training in the field and that they are needed to discuss more at workplace meetings about addiction and abuse.

    Conclusion:

    The study shows that they work preventively by using the local policy regarding alcohol and addiction. The local routines are different between council and the communities and differences are that the council has a common policy for the whole of Dalarna, while the communities have their own policies. Furthermore, it appears that registered healthcare personnel in management positions have knowledge of addiction and abuse.

  • Lok Hansson, Caroline
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Olsen, Wenche
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Distriktssköterskans motivationsarbete för livsstilsförändringar hos patienter med svårläkta bensår – en kvalitativ intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the study was to explore district nurses' use of MI for lifestyle changes in patients with severe leg ulcers.

    Design

    Qualitative interview study with an inductive approach.

    Method

    The authors interviewed eight district nurses working at the health center. These district nurses worked with patients with leg ulcers. The authors used a qualitative design and data was gathered through semi structured interviews that were recorded on tape and transcribed.

    Results

    The study found that according to the interviewed nurses, patients who receive advice about lifestyle changes experience a higher quality of life. Patients with a lot of pain due to leg ulcers, experience a lower quality of life even after undertaking the advice of life style changes. District nurses worked with person-centred care and use MI in their conversations during patient appointments. However, only certain parts of the MI is used and not the entire concept. The parts used are open questions, confirmation and summary.

    Discussion

    The study found that it is of great importance to use person-centred care in the treatment of wounds, as well as to motivate the patient to be involved in his treatment for best results. The authors believe that increased education on the use of MI and actual increased use of MI provide a big opportunity to get the patients more motivated, involved in their own care and thereby an improved quality of life and improved healing of the severe leg wound.

  • Cato, Cristin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ödman, Stefan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenhet av förebyggandeomvårdnadsåtgärder mot trycksår och undernäring: - En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    There is an established correlation between malnutrition and

    development of pressure ulcers. The incidence of malnutrition among patients has

    increased in recent years despite that risk assessment instruments exist in the

    organisations. Pressure ulcers remain one of the most common adverse event with a

    negative impact on the patients

    ’ quality of life and lack of patient-safety.

    Aim:

    The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ work on preventive measures

    against pressure ulcers and malnutrition.

    Method:

    The study was conducted as a literature review including 19 articles,

    published between 2008-2018, with quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods

    approaches. Searches were made in the PubMed and CINAHL databases. The

    articles were quality-reviewed, analyzed and compiled into a result.

    Results:

    : Nurses appear to have positive attitudes to preventive measures towards

    pressure ulcers and malnutrition while the level of knowledge was generally low.

    Nurses valued their own clinical judgement high and felt that lack of time, high

    workload and severely ill patients constituted obstacles to adequate application of

    preventive measures. Organisational shortcomings emerged for the adequate use

    and implementation of risk assessment instruments. Lack of guidelines and work

    routines for preventive work could result in a deficient patient safety.

    Conclusion:

    The results show that the majority of nurses value nutrition in the

    preventive work but the level of knowledge and the application of measures were

    generally low. Introduction of guidelines could lead to increased knowledge and

    implementation of pressure ulcers and nutritional treatment in clinical work.

  • Björk, Mikaela
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Pers, Elina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Fria och lärarstyrda bildaktiviteter: En studie om fem pedagogers förhållningssätt inom bildskapande i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att bidra med ökad kunskap om hur pedagoger arbetar med barns bildskapande. Studien innefattade även att få en inblick i hur pedagogerna arbetar för att minska könsstereotypa skillnader i barns bildskapande. Vi använder oss av kvalitativa gruppintervjuer på två förskolor för att synliggöra pedagogernas erfarenheter och uppfattningar om deras arbete inom bildskapande. Den sociokulturella teorin samt teorin om genusordning är verktyg för att analysera pedagogernas uttalanden och därmed få syn på olika förhållningssätt som råder på dessa förskolor. Resultatet visar att pedagogerna har en medvetenhet om att barns bildskapande är en viktig kommunikationsform, samt att det kan användas för att tillägna sig kunskaper i andra ämnen men även för att bildskapandet har ett värde i sig. Därför är bildskapande i olika former någonting som ingår i förskolornas vardag, både som fria och lärarstyrda aktiviteter. Vidare uppvisar pedagogerna en medvetenhet om att det råder olikheter i flickors och pojkars bildskapande, vilka de försöker minska genom att ha ett jämställt förhållningssätt.

  • Lönegren, Amelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Stoor, Angelica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Barns inflytande i planerade aktiviteter i förskolan: En kvalitativ studie om några förskollärares resonemang om barns inflytande2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge of how power and norms affect children's influence in preschool. We have chosen to focus on how preschool teachers give children influence in planned activities indoors. The study is based on a qualitative method in which we interviewed six different preschool teachers right after the observations we did of the planned activities. In this study planned activities mean those activities that preschool teachers plan and lead with a clear didactic goal. The collected material has been analyzed on the basis of different power concepts derived from Michel Foucault's understanding of power. Our analytical tool for processing the collected material has been interpreted on the basis of Harry Shier's participation model, which is based on Roger Hart's "Ladder of participation". Together with Paulo Freire's theories these participation models are pointed out as useful in the work with children's influence. Previous research suggests that children can only have full real influence in the free play. While there is room for free play in the preschool, much of the children's time at preschool is planned with activities that the preschool teacher and / or the work team leads. Our study shows that children get influence in planned activities, but that power and norms can limit children's influence when preschool teachers have a tendency to direct children in a desirable direction. At the same time, there is a desire among preschool teachers to contribute to an activity that allows children, in both a verbal and non-verbal manner, to take their place and be able to influence.

  • Ekman Källkvist, Isabella
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Rothman, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Arbetsrelaterade stressfaktorer hos sjuksköterskor– En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Working as a nurse is a stressful job today, where nurses meet work-related stress

    factors in their daily work. Regardless of the fact that work

    requirements have increased, the

    nurse must be able to carry out good care and have knowledge in several areas. It is important

    to highlight which stress factors affect the nurse's work in order to provide good and safe care

    and to reduce the stress of nurses.

    Purpose: The purpose was to describe work-related stress

    factors in nurses.

    Method: A literature study was conducted using quantitative and qualitative

    articles, fifteen articles were included.

    Results: Work-related stress factors in nurses were

    identified as high workloads, collaborative problems and conflicts, and emotional stressors,

    which negatively affected the nurse's nursing work.

    Conclusion: It is important to highlight

    work-related stress factors to prevent stress at work and to give nurses a better working

    environment.

  • Hirsi, Sucdi
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Deeg Jimcaalle, Farhia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Våldsutsatta kvinnor och sjuksköterskans beredskap- En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Studies show that one of three women worldwide is expose to partner violence. The study slagen dam shows that almost half of the women in Sweden have been exposed to sexual and physical threats sometime after they reach the age of 15. Violence upon women is major public health problem that you can find in every social group in society. Women who are expose to partner violence are more likely to seek hospital help.

    Purpose:

    The aim of the literature review was to collocate knowledge and preparedness of nurses when they are encountering women who are exposed to violence.

    Method:

    The method is a literature review. Data collection has taken place in databases Cinahl and PubMed and Web of science.

    Results:

    The finding is based on 15 scientific articles and 3 key areas: The importance of education, nurse’s preparation for meetings regarding abused women, and organization elements.

    The result articles illustrate that health-care professional has limited knowledge and preparedness to help and counting women who were victims of abuse. Lack of time and lack of communication between different authorities created a barrier to identify women who were exposed to violence.

    Conclusions:

    From this study, the clue can drown that guidelines, knowledge, and training are need, in order to help women who are living with partner violence.

  • Nestler, Grit
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Wigg, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kommunikationshjälpmedel vid språkbarriärer i vården – En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Good communication between patient and healthcare professionals is a prerequisite for good nursing with person-centering. The patient report is an important basis for person-centered care. There is an increasing number of patients who do not speak or understand neither Swedish nor English. This makes verbal communication impossible. The problem can become more apparent in the future as globalization leads to increased mobility between countries and conflicts, natural disasters and climate change lead to large migratory flows.

    Aim:

    The present review aims to investigate patients and healthcare professionals’ perception of using communication tools in situations with language barriers.

    Method

    : The study was conducted as a literature review by searching the databases CINAHL and PubMed which resulted in 15 scientific articles.

    Results

    : Following eight categories were identified as communication tools: bilingual professionals, interactive communication programs, bilingual cards, audio cards, audio records, books, information sheets and family member interpreter. This literature review showed that both patients and healthcare professionals appreciated the identified communication tools positively in language barriers. It turned out that the interactive communication tools and bilingual cards were the most appreciated communication tools.

    Conclusion

    : The present review showed that communication tools enable communication between patients and healthcare professionals in the absence of professional interpretation. However, it is emphasized that alternative communication tools cannot replace a professional interpreter and the healthcare professionals has to determine what is most appropriate depending on the situation.

  • Pettersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sveningsson, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans förebyggande av vårdrelaterade urinvägsinfektioner - en litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections in Swedish health care. Each year, 65 000 people suffer from a nosocomial infection, of which 14 % are urinary tract related. This problem causes unnecessary suffering for the patient, prolonged waiting times and increased costs for health care.

    Aim:

    The aim of this study was to describe how nurses could prevent nosocomial urinary tract infections. Methods: This was a literature review based on 15 articles. Of these, 13 studies had a quantitative approach and two studies had a qualitative approach. The data collection has been done by searching in the databases PubMed and Cinahl. Chosen articles were reviewed by using reviewing templates, analyzed and were compiled in the result.

    Results:

    The result showed that proactive work regarding routines when catheterize amounted to less risks for patients suffering from urinary tract infections. Education and increased awareness around hygiene turned out to have a positive effect on patients in decreasing urinary tract infections and on staff behavior. There was also a positive correlation between an increased fluid intake and cranberry capsules as a supplement.

    Conclusion:

    To reduce nosocomial urinary tract infections it is required that the nurse is involved in the proactive work. Education for staff and patients, greater awareness around basic hygiene routines and correct routines when catheterizing has a big impact on the proactive work.

  • Bohlin, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Johansson, Eleonore
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Personcentrerad vård i praktiken: Identifiering avbarriärer ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Research suggests that care based on a person-centered basis

    contributes to a higher quality of care, and has a positive impact on the patients and

    the healthcare profession. At the same time, studies point out that health care is facing

    a variety of challenges in order to introduce a person-centered approach into daily

    care.

    Aim:

    To describe which barriers prevent the nurse to work person-centered in the

    healthcare meeting with the patient.

    Methods:

    The study was conducted as a literature review, the result is based on 16

    scientific articles.

    Results:

    Several factors that may constitute difficulties for the nurse to work personcentered

    in the healthcare meeting with the patient were identified and generated four

    categories:

    Collaboration and Teamwork, Attitude and Culture, Time and Resources,

    and

    Communication and The patient Narrative. The result indicates cooperation

    difficulties between different health care professions, contradictory attitudes and

    routines that not lie on a scientific basis. Lack of educational opportunities and

    knowledge about what person centered care means and how a person-centered

    approach should be applied in clinical practice. High workload and lack of time

    affected the nurse's ability to establish a relationship with the patient, and contributed

    to stress and feelings of inadequacy.

    Conclusion:

    Summary the literature study indicates that there are several barriers that

    make it difficult for the nurse to work person-centered in the meeting with the patient.

    In order for a person-centered approach to be practiced, active work is required

    individually and collectively at different levels within an organization to become part

    of the daily practice.

  • Andersson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Forslund, Catrine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som påverkar patientens följsamhet tillkompressionsbehandling av venösa bensår – Enlitteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The incidence of venous leg ulcers in the adult population in the

    EU countries are estimated to be between 490,000 and 1.3 million. The main

    treatment for the prevention of recurrent leg ulcers is compression stockings. For

    those patients who don´t use compression stockings, the recurrence has been

    calculated to be 100% and for those who used the socks 16%. Patient's quality of

    life is affected by the fact that it is usually required long care and treatment of the

    leg and that it is usually a recurring problem.

    Aim

    :

    To describe factors that affect patient compliance with compression therapy

    to prevent and treat venous leg ulcers.

    Methods:

    The study has been carried out as a litterature review. Data collection

    has been done through searches in the CINAHL and PubMed databases.

    Results:

    In summary, the result shows that there are several factors that

    affected the patient's compliance. Patient compliance decreased as a result of

    the pain caused by the compression bandage or by the wound dressing. At

    new inexperienced nurses were lacking in knowledge of how the compression

    bandage should be applied, in several patients there was a lack of knowledge and

    understanding why compression treatment was important to prevent new venous

    leg ulcers. Difficulty in applying and removing the compression socks, trust

    in the nurse and the appearance of the compression socks / bandage were other

    factors that affected compliance.

    Conclusion:

    The patient's adherence to compression treatment is affected by

    both inhibitory and promotional factors. What the nurse can do, among other

    things to influence the patient's adherence to compression therapy is to inform

    about how compression treatment helps with the healing and self-care advice to

    prevent recurrence.

  • Hussein Elmi, Ifraax
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Palomaa, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kommunikationssvårigheter inom transkulturell omvårdnad – en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Sweden has become a multicultural country. Which may lead to

    communication difficulties between the nurse and the patient. These barriers can

    lead to misunderstandings and misdiagnosis.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to

    describe transcultural care and communication.

    Method: The study was

    conducted as a literature review were 13 scientific articles were found via the

    databases PUBMED and CINAHL. Articles were quality-reviewed, analyzed and

    compiled in the result.

    Results: The analysis of the articles emerged three

    categories and five subcategories. The experience of transcultural care with the

    subcategories: Patient experience and nurse experience. Language barrier without

    subcategories. Strategies for creating good communication with the subcategories:

    professional interpreter, family members as interpreters and bilingual nurses.

    There were difficulties in getting knowledge about the different cultures. The lack

    of communication led to the patient not experiencing involvement and autonomy.

    Interpreters and bilingual nurses was considered to break the languagebarrier.

    Conclusion:

    Nurses experienced lack of knowledge about the patient's culture,

    which lead to a fear in nurses to make mistakes and cause insults. The bilingual

    nurses and family members were used as interpreter, instead of taking in a

    professional interpreter. The language barriers created obstacles in the

    communication between the patient and the nurse as, for example the outcome of

    identity checks during distribution of pharmaceutical. Even the patients felt limited

    by the language barrier, as they could not convey their feelings about their

    situation.

  • Annerberg, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Fändrik, Anna Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Att vetenskapligt förankra ett yrkeslärarprogram: Erfarenheter från ett utvecklingsprojekt2018In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 124-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands on the scientific foundation of Swedish Vocational Teacher Education has led to a development project on academic competence at Dalarna University in 2018. The project contained two sub-projects; the construction of a matrix, to display the progression of students’academic competence; and the implementation of a series of seminars on VET research. This article presents the point of departure and the methods used, together with the results of mappings and analysis of four different aspects of academic competence. This inventory of features of academic competence in teacher education, evokes a wide range of questions onthe meaning and consequence of scientific foundation, the research-practice relationship and concrete questions concerning course content.

  • Bergendahl, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lövstrand, Madelene
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans preoperativa information för patientens postoperativa smärtupplevelse: - En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hip surgery is a common operation, for both elective and acute approach. Nurses’ duties includes pain prevention and information to the patient. This with the patient always in focus. Studies have shown that it is most common to give the information verbally, and that patients want to know more preoperative about the postoperative phase to be more involved.

    Aim

    : The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the importance of nurses’ preoperative information for postoperative pain management.

    Methods

    : For the research the database CINAHL and PubMed was used. A review template was used, and only the articles with a medium high score has been used. This work is based on 17 articles which has been divided in main categories that was elective, acute, information and pain.

    Results

    : A relationship between preoperative information and postoperative pain was found in 13 of the articles. This connection indicate that the given information provided the patients to manage their postoperative pain. Patients undergoing elective surgery was better prepared and was given more patient activated education preoperative than acute surgery. Preoperative individual strategies was identified.

    Conclusion:

    Most of the studies showed that preoperative information is used to reduce postoperative pain by increasing patients’ participation and their ability to cope better. Since a connection was found between most of the articles in this work it increases the likelihood that there is a relationship between nurses’ preoperative information and patients’ postoperative pain experience.

  • Lilliestam, Susanne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Digital glosinlärning i ämnet moderna språk: En studie i vilka attityder, erfarenheter och kunskaper en grupp elever och lärare har vad gäller digital glosinlärning imoderna språk2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom en kvantitativ enkätundersökning och en kvalitativ intervjustudie undersöks här vilka attityder, erfarenheter och kunskaper en grupp elever och lärare har vad gäller digital glosinlärning i ämnet moderna språk. Bakgrunden är Skolverkets vision om att grundskolan år 2022 ska ge eleverna en adekvat utbildning inom digital kompetens. Den teoretiska ramen behandlar det sociokulturella perspektivet på lärande. Forskningen som presenteras behandlar olika perspektiv på och strategier för ordinlärning samt hur man lär ut ord i språkundervisningen. Resultatet i undersökningen visar att den undersökta gruppen är väl insatt i digital ordinlärning. Resultatet pekar också på att digitala glosinlärningsprogram är användarvänliga verktyg som passar många olika elever, svårighetsgrader, lärandestilar och inlärningssätt. Inlärningen blir tidseffektiv, eleverna hinner träna fler gånger under samma tidsperiod jämfört med analog glosträning. Eleverna får dessutom omedelbar feedback och läxan kan inte tappas bort, eftersom den finns tillgänglig i molnet och inte på lösa lappar eller i boken. Digital glosinlärning kan även höja motivationen hos eleverna men det är inget självändamål. Nackdelar som synliggjordes var att orden inte lärs in i en kontext vilket kan göra att orden glöms snabbare. Glosinlärningsprogrammen rättar dessutom strängt vid stavning vilket kan vara problematiskt för elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Koncentrationen på glosinlärningen kan även sjunka för de som inte har självdisciplin att hålla sig borta från andra sajter. Studien visar att elever med högre betyg var något mer benägna att använda digitala glosinlärningsprogram. Ett fåtal elever ansåg sig ha sämre IT-vana, och samtliga dessa var flickor. Undersökningen visar också att de digitala programmen ställer höga krav på lärarnas språkliga kompetens och noggrannhet så att orden skrivs in rätt i programmen. Skolan behöver också se till att en god trådlös uppkoppling finns så att eleverna kan använda de digitala programmen utan avbrott.

  • Wolters, Paula
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Inlärarstrategier i franska som andraspråk enligt Oxfordmodellen: En intervjustudie med andraspråksinlärare i Frankrike2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att studera förekomsten av strategier hosandraspråksstuderande i franska. Den syftar även till att utveckla och analyserafaktorer som kan påverka valet av strategi.Den teoretiska förankringen är en kategorisering av inlärarstrategier utifrånden amerikanska språkprofessorn Rebecca L Oxfords modell. Frågeställningen idetta arbete är vilka direkta och indirekta strategier som är vanligt förekommandehos andraspråksinlärare (L2) och på vilket sätt de beskriver dessa som användbaraoch effektiva. I analysen belyses faktorer som kan påverka val av strategi.Resultatet visar att L2 använder ett stort antal direkta och indirektastrategier för att lära sig andraspråket. De har en instinktiv och medveten förmågaatt välja strategi utifrån uppgift och mål. Högmotiverade och studievana L2använder inlärarstrategier som har fungerat väl i tidigare studiesammanhang. Demindre studievana finner instinktiva vägar, metoder och strategier tillandraspråket. Extroverta L2 använder fler indirekta strategier medan introverta flerdirekta.Studiematerialet består av kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med sexstuderande L2 och två undervisande andraspråkslärare. Samtliga intervjuer ärutförda i Frankrike i juli månad 2018.

  • Joons, Caroline
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Hur undervisar man i moderna språk elever som har diagnostiserade Neuropsykiatriska Funktionsnedsättningar?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att presentera de olika utmaningar som elever med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar ställer på Sveriges utbildningsystem och i synnerhet när det handlar om att undervisa dem i moderna språk. Studiens frågeställning är hur lärarna i moderna språk undervisar elever med olika typer av inlärningssvårigheter. Vad säger neurovetenskapen, svenska skollagen och finns det didaktiska metoder för att hantera dessa barn på bästa sätt? Studien, fokuserad på lärarna i moderna språk, har genomförts för att undersöka hur dessa upplever sitt arbete med elever med neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar. Metoden som använts i examensarbetet är en kvalitativ undersökningsform och tekniken för att samla information är intervjuer. Vi konstaterar olika slutsatser efter studiens resultat som alla pekar på en rad brister: ingen tillgång av lärare inom specialpedagogik för att hantera elever med specialbehov; ingen tillgång till specialmaterial; ingen tid att förbereda/söka specialmateriel/skapa anpassningar; inget stöd från skolledning/specialpedagog; inget ämnesdidaktiskt stöd för språkundervisning. Slutligen har olika lösningar föreslagits.

  • Hermansson, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Östman, Gabriella
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Psykiatrisjuksköterskans personcentrerade vård av vuxna med föräldrar som har alkoholmissbruk – En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness that may be due to having grown up with alcohol addicted parents is problematic. The psychiatric nurse should be aware of how a promoted mental health for this target group can be achieved in psychiatric careIt is therefore important to describe how psychiatric nurses work person-centered with this patient group in care situations. Aim: To describe how nurses within adult psychiatric care throw Person-Centered care can promote continuous development of psychiatric health regarding adults with parents who have an alcohol abuse. Method:Data was collected from six semi-structured interviews and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Result: The result material presented the following categories; Create Confidence and trust, Identify need for efforts, Work in team around patient, Get patient to take responsibility for their own choices, and Let the patient affect planned efforts. Conclusion: The nurses who participated in the study argued that the motivation and strengthening of the patient to take responsibility were central aspects.

  • Björnemalm, Victoria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Grip, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kvinnor med bröstcancer och deras erfarenheter av omvårdnad efter genomförd mastektomi: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in middle-aged women in Sweden after lung cancer. Treatment of breast cancer usually consists of surgery, where the affected breast is removed, mastectomy. Diagnosis with breast cancer and walking through mastectomy can lead to complex changes in the woman's identity, as well as suffering, anxiety and altered self-esteem. The purpose of the nursing care must be that the woman being cared for should be independent, and experience health. The nurse must have communicative skills to maintain person-centered care.

    Purpose:

    To compile knowledge of what experiences women with breast cancer have of nursing after completed mastectomy.

    Method:

    A literature review. The result is based on 14 scientific articles.

    Results:

    In summary, healthcare staff had difficulty meeting the needs of women after completion of mastectomy. The results show that the women had experience of inadequate information from healthcare professionals about rehabilitation and complications after mastectomy. Nursing staff lacked knowledge of complications that may arise after mastectomy to meet the needs of women. The results of the studies indicated that women lacked follow-up after mastectomy. The women were pleased with the emotional support of healthcare professionals and that the healthcare staff were supportive, provided information and that they were available for questions. The women wished the care staff to provide a person-centered approach.

    Conclusion:

    Both positive and negative experiences were found in the results of the literature review regarding women's experiences of nursing after mastectomy. Most women in the chosen studies felt that healthcare staff could not meet their needs.

  • Larsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Andraspråkselevers syn på användandet avmodersmål i svensk skola: En intervjustudie av fyra elever på högstadiet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka andraspråkselevers attityd till

    modersmålsundervisning, samt andraspråkselevers syn på användandet av

    modersmål i den svenska skolan. Studien består av fyra intervjuer med

    andraspråkselever som belyser modersmålet som en resurs för språkinlärning.

    Undersökningens resultat stärker det som tidigare forskning kommit fram till

    gällande erkännandet av elevers språk, kultur och identitet för skolframgång.

    Denna studie bekräftar att modersmålet stärker elevernas andraspråkutveckling,

    studien visar även att eleverna upplever modersmålet som det främsta verktyget

    för att utveckla språk och ämneskunskaper inom svensk skola. Resultatet i denna

    studie bekräftar även att språk och identitet är starkt sammankopplade.

  • Logara, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Flerspråkighet, etnicitet och kultur i läromedel: En studie av två SVA-läroböcker2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka flerspråkighet, etnicitet och kultur i tvåläroböcker i svenska som andraspråk för gymnasiet. Tidigare forskning har visat påförekomsten av etnocentrism i läromedel, men forskningen kring SVA-läromedel ärbegränsad. Den här studien ämnar därför att undersöka innehållet i SVA-läroböckermed hänsyn till de andraspråkselever som ska använda dem.En kombination av analysmetoder används i undersökningen: innehållsanalys ochdiskursanalys. Innehållsanalysen visar att majoriteten av de personnamn somförekommer i läroböckerna är svensketniska. Ytterligare en analys av data visar enstor övervikt av namn från Europa och Nordamerika. Resultaten pekar på etnisk ochkulturell homogenitet.Diskursanalysen visar på förekomsten av två diskurser i vardera läroboken. Den enakallas i uppsatsen för diskursen om flerspråkighet som resurs. Flerspråkighet beskrivsi läroböckerna som en tillgång för individ och samhälle, vilket skulle kunna stärkaandraspråkselevers flerspråkiga identiteter. Den andra diskursen kallas för vi ochdom-diskurs. Det som beskrivs som svenskt utgör ofta utgångspunkten för texternaoch står för det normativa vi. Det sätts ibland i kontrast till de andra, som representerasav andra kulturer och etniciteter än svensk. Analysen visar således på att etnocentrismoch andrafiering förekommer i innehållet. De här dragen är starkare i den ena avläroböckerna.En samhällelig vi och dom-diskurs reproduceras i läroböckerna, vilken underordnardem som inte passar in i den svenska normen. Det är problematiskt med tanke påmålgruppen andraspråkselever, eftersom många har utländsk bakgrund och/ellerannan kultur än svensk.Ytterligare en slutsats som dras är att läroböckerna delvis missar att dra nytta avandraspråkselevernas tidigare kunskaper och erfarenheter. Dessutom behöver lärareha kunskap så att de kan granska läromedel med kritisk blick.

  • Frisk Torell, Matilda
    et al.
    Strömsöe, Anneli
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Claesson, Andreas
    Svensson, Leif
    Börjesson, Mats
    Outcome of exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is dependent on location: Sports arenas vs outside of arenas.2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0211723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) seems to be increased if the cardiac arrests occurs in relation to exercise. Hypothetically, an exercise-related OHCA at a sports arena would have an even better prognosis, because of an increased likelihood of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and higher availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). The purpose of the study was to compare survival rates between exercise-related OHCA at sports arenas versus outside of sports arenas.

    METHODS: Data from all treated exercise-related OHCA outside home reported to the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) from 2011 to 2014 in 10 counties of Sweden was analyzed (population 6 million). The registry has in those counties a coverage of almost 100% of all OHCAs.

    RESULTS: 3714 cases of OHCA outside of home were found. Amongst them, 268(7%) were exercise-related and 164 (61.2%) of those occurred at sports arenas. The 30-day survival rate was higher for exercise-related OHCA at sports arenas compared to outside (55.7% vs 30.0%, p<0.0001). OHCA-victims at sports arenas were younger (mean age±SD 57.6±16.3 years compared to 60.9±17.0 years, p = 0.05), less likely female (4.3% vs 12.2%, p = 0.02) and had a higher frequency of shockable rhythm (73.0% vs 54.3%, p = 0.004). OHCAs at arenas were more often witnessed (83.9% vs 68.9%, p = 0.007), received bystander CPR to a higher extent (90.0% vs 56.8%, p<0.0001) and the AED-use before EMS-arrival was also higher in this group (29.8% vs 11.1%, p = 0.009).

    CONCLUSION: The prognosis is markedly better for exercise-related OHCA occurring at sports arenas compared to outside. Victims of exercise-related OHCA at sports arenas are more likely to receive bystander CPR and to be connected to a public AED. These findings support an increased use of public AEDs and implementation of Medical Action Plans (MAP), to possibly increase survival of exercise-related OHCA even further.

  • Blomstrand, Lisa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Mattsson, Josefin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Olika informationskällors betydelse för kunskap inom sexoch samlevnadEn kvantitativ enkätstudie om ungdomars inhämtande av kunskap: inom sex och samlevnad2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The whole society is affected by the lack of knowledge and poor attitudes about sexuality and

    sexual health. The purpose of the study was to describe young people's use and experience of

    information sources among different areas of knowledge in sexuality and sexual health, with

    a questionnaire. The result showed that friends/partners are the most valuable source of information.

    Pornography is a valuable source of knowledge about ways of having sex, and social

    media is a valuable source of knowledge for LGBTQ+. The most reliable sources of information

    are parents, youth clinics and friends/partners. The perceived knowledge of sexuality

    and sexual health in general achieved the level “moderate”, with the best knowledge

    about contraception and safer sex, and the most important knowledge areas were perceived as

    relationships. The most significant results showed that young people's perceived level of

    knowledge in one area and perceived reliability of a source correlate with how valuable

    young people experience the information source, not to what extent the source of information

    is used.

  • Dahl, Rebecca
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Gillström, Josefine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Integrering och inkludering genom föreningslivet: En intervjustudie om föreningslivets möjligheter till integration av nyanlända och ensamkommande barn och ungdomar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few years, children and youths have been forced to escape their homes. On arrival in Sweden it is important that they become included into the Swedish society. The organization ‘Save the Children’ has developed a project to include these newly arrived children through organized sport activities. The main purpose of this study is to examine whether the leaders involved in this project experience that sport can promote integration for these newly arrived children. This qualitative study is based on 5 semi-structured interviews with the leaders. The main results are as follows: Most of the leaders find that this contributes to a certain level of integration in the society, the project contributes with knowledge despite some obstacles and the leaders have gained a greater cultural understanding and are assisting these children and youths in their everyday life.

  • Djuse, Åsa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Nordqvist, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Att möta dubbel problematik: En kvantitativ studie om våldsutsatta kvinnor med missbruksellerberoendeproblematik utifrån missbrukshandläggaresperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most women with substance-abuse problems are also subjected to violence, constituting a

    serious societal challenge. The social support they receive has been found insufficient and a

    need to strengthen knowledge/skills within social services has been highlighted. Using Christies

    (1986) ’ideal victim’ theory as a framework, the purpose of this study was to describe social

    workers self-perceived competence in relation to female clients subjected to violence, and to

    explore their attitudes regarding women with substance-abuse problems. Social workers

    managing female substance-abuse cases were recruited from all municipalities of Dalecarlia,

    Sweden. The study was conducted based on a quantitative approach and questionnaires were

    used for data collection. Participants’ responses indicated that the majority perceived their

    competence to be good. Furthermore, participants tended to endorse non-ideal victim

    descriptors of women with substance-abuse problems, and while the largest proportion (47,4%)

    agreed with the statement that violence should be considered secondary to substance-abuse, a

    similar proportion (42,1%) disagreed. These findings suggested that inadequate competence

    within social services does not serve as an explanation for the insufficient social support.

    Instead the study highlights attitudes and organizational conditions within social services in

    relation to the women.

  • Jonth Axelsson, Petra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Knight, Emily
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    "Du är min lilla danstjej du!": Förskollärares roll i konstruktionen av kön i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet handlar om hur några förskollärare samt pedagoger i dialog och handlingar med barn konstruerar kön i förskolan. Vi har fokuserat på hur förskollärare arbetar utifrån ett genusperspektiv, utifrån tal och handlingar. Vi har genomfört en kvalitativ studie med fyra observationer och påföljande intervjuer för att höra hur förskollärarna talar om genus och vilka föreställningar de har om kön, samt hur de gör i praktiken med barn. Den tidigare forskningen tar upp de normer och strukturer som är kopplade till kön samt hur barn påverkas av dessa. Arbetet utgår från den feministiska poststrukturalistiska teorin. Resultat och analys kopplas sedan till den teoretiska bakgrunden, både med hjälp av den feministiska poststrukturalismen och tidigare forskning, samt med våra egna tankar. Resultatet av våra observationer och intervjuer visar att det som sägs och det som görs, ofta är två olika saker. Förskollärare har medvetenhet om dessa frågor men har svårt att omsätta dessa i praktiken.