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  • Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    A comment on outlier detection and skewed distributions2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems that a paper of mine appearing in Computational Statistics & Data Analysis (Carling, 2000) has prompted the development of outlier detection methods for highly skewed data. However, I wrote the paper in the spirit of Exploratory Data Analysis (Tukey, 1977) and I shared Tukey’s opinion, and I still hold it, that skewed data are better to be transformed for approximate symmetry prior to detection of outliers (or other data analyses).

  • Andersson, Robert
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    För- och nackdelar med mobprogrammering: En fallstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    I have in this case study evaluated advantages and disadvantages with mob programming, at a IT-company called CGM (CompuGroup Medical LAB AB), in Borlänge, Sweden.

    Mob programming is new way to work with computer code creation or system maintenance. A group of developers works together to solve problems, like computer bugs. Only one person sits at the keyboard at one time. Like an evolution of pair programming.

    I have interviewed a selected number of staffs at CGM.

    What are the pros and cons with mob programming for information systems engineers?

    I have also conducted a test, with university students that study information systems science at Dalarna University. The students tested to solve a problem with mob programming, and then evaluated the test in a questionnaire.

  • Olsson, Helén
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Socialt arbete.
    Porskrog Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mittuniversitet; Högskolan i Gävle.
    Violence Risk Assessment in Forensic Nurses’ Clinical Practice: Qualitative Interview Study2017Inngår i: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 9, nr 12, 56-63 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The legislation of Swedish forensic psychiatric care states that the risk of further violence must beassessed before a patient is granted release from a forensic psychiatric hospital. The aim of the study was todescribe the experiences of forensic nurses with in-patient risk assessment processes, and their implication fordaily clinical forensic praxis.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews with staff who were involved in the patients risk assessment process. Theinterview texts were analyzed using qualitative latent content analysis.

    Discussion: The forensic nursing staff has to deal with many contradictory realities. The description was aboutbeing able to balance between supporting their work with an EBP approach of risk assessment while trying toestablish interpersonal relationships and to allow for positive meetings with the patient. The study indicated thatstaff used a multiple sources of knowledge in order to make credible and accurate risk assessments.

    Conclusions: If the risk assessment process are to be used in a legally secure manner, the staff must receive regularsupport from team leadership that can provide both guidance and training. Based on a holistic approach, the linkbetween the instinct of staff and their work with structured risk assessment must be founded on routines and solidplatforms.

  • Tseli, Elena
    et al.
    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Boersma, Katja
    Enthoven, Paul
    Gerdle, Björn
    Äng, Björn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap. Karolinska institutet.
    Predictors of multidisciplinary rehabilitation outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis2017Inngår i: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, nr 1, 199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a major public health problem. Early prediction for optimal treatment results has received growing attention, but there is presently a lack of evidence regarding what information such proactive management should be based on. This study protocol, therefore, presents our planned systematic review and meta-analysis on important predictive factors for health and work-related outcomes following multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MDR) in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    METHODS: We aim to perform a synthesis of the available evidence together with a meta-analysis of published peer-reviewed original research that includes predictive factors preceding MDR. Included are prospective studies of adults with benign, chronic (> 3 months) musculoskeletal pain diagnoses who have taken part in MDR. In the studies, associations between personal and rehabilitation-based factors and the outcomes of interest are reported. Outcome domains are pain, physical functioning including health-related quality of life, and work ability with follow-ups of 6 months or more. We will use a broad, explorative approach to any presented predictive factors (demographic, symptoms-related, physical, psychosocial, work-related, and MDR-related) and these will be analyzed through (a) narrative synthesis for each outcome domain and (b) if sufficient studies are available, a quantitative synthesis in which variance-weighted pooled proportions will be computed using a random effects model for each outcome domain. The strength of the evidence will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation.

    DISCUSSION: The strength of this systematic review is that it aims for a meta-analysis of prospective cohort or randomized controlled studies by performing an extensive search of multiple databases, using an explorative study approach to predictive factors, rather than building on single predictor impact on the outcome or on predefined hypotheses. In this way, an overview of factors central to MDR outcome can be made and will help strengthen the evidence base and inform a wide readership including health care practitioners and policymakers.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016025339.

  • Makenzius, Marlene
    et al.
    Oguttu, Monica
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. Karolinska institutet.
    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina
    Odero, Theresa M A
    Faxelid, Elisabeth
    Post-abortion care with misoprostol - equally effective, safe and accepted when administered by midwives compared to physicians: a randomised controlled equivalence trial in a low-resource setting in Kenya2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 10, e016157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of midwives administering misoprostol to women with incomplete abortion seeking post-abortion care (PAC), compared with physicians.

    DESIGN: A multicentre randomised controlled equivalence trial. The study was not masked.

    SETTINGS: Gynaecological departments in two hospitals in a low-resource setting, Kenya.

    POPULATION: Women (n=1094) with incomplete abortion in the first trimester, seeking PAC between 1 June 2013 to 31 May 2016. Participants were randomly assigned to receive treatment from midwives or physicians. 409 and 401 women in the midwife and physician groups, respectively, were included in the per-protocol analysis.

    INTERVENTIONS: 600 µg misoprostol orally, and contraceptive counselling by a physician or midwife.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Complete abortion not needing surgical intervention within 7-10 days. The main outcome was analysed on the per-protocol population with a generalised estimating equation model. The predefined equivalence range was -4% to 4%. Secondary outcomes were analysed descriptively.

    RESULTS: The proportion of complete abortion was 94.8% (768/810): 390 (95.4%) in the midwife group and 378 (94.3%) in the physician group. The proportion of incomplete abortion was 5.2% (42/810), similarly distributed between midwives and physicians. The model-based risk difference for midwives versus physicians was 1.0% (-4.1 to 2.2). Most women felt safe (97%; 779/799), and 93% (748/801) perceived the treatment as expected/easier than expected. After contraceptive counselling the uptake of a contraceptive method after 7-10 days occurred in 76% (613/810). No serious adverse events were recorded.

    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol provided by midwives is equally effective, safe and accepted by women as when administered by physicians in a low-resource setting. Systematically provided contraceptive counselling in PAC is effective to mitigate unmet need for contraception.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01865136; Results.

  • Bergman, Sarah
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Personal och arbetsliv.
    Blomgren, Camilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Personal och arbetsliv.
    Kvinnornas status i en machokultur: En kvalitativ undersökning inom byggbranschen.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I tidigare intervjuer med fackförbundet Byggnads framkom det att byggbranschen präglas av något som kallas machokultur. Det vill säga att arbetsmiljön kännetecknas av manlighet, tufft arbetsklimat samt sexistiskt eller könsdiskriminerande språk. Byggnads startade tillsammans med Byggcheferna en kampanj 2015 som heter "Stoppa machokulturen" där de framför att byggbranschen är en av Sveriges minst jämställda bransch och att fler kvinnor behövs men också att machokulturen måste bort. Därför har vi i denna studie valt att undersöka just machokulturen och kvinnors status inom byggbranschen genom att intervjua både arbetsledare och medarbetare för att komma fram till ett resultat. Resultatet konstaterade att en machokultur existerar då både kränkande ord samt sexistiska och könsdiskriminerande ord förekommer i princip varje dag. Dock irriterar inte detta medarbetarna eller arbetsledarna på något vis då de poängterar att detta är så som byggbranschen fungerar. Intervjupersonerna anser även att kvinnor på arbetsplatsen är positivt, ingen av intervjupersonerna ser något hinder i könet utan snarare att kvinnan måste ha intressen som är mer manliga. De slutsatser vi kommit fram till är att utbildning är det som krävs och fattas, utbildning till både skyddsombud, arbetsledare och medarbetare. Detta för att bygga upp en medvetenhet om att kvinnor behövs inom branschen och att de kan utföra samma arbete som män kan.

  • Paul, Mandira
    et al.
    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina
    Kiggundu, Charles
    Namugenyi, Rebecka
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. Karolinska institutet.
    Barriers and facilitators in the provision of post-abortion care at district level in central Uganda – a qualitative study focusing on task sharing between physicians and midwives2014Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 14, nr 28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Abortion is restricted in Uganda, and poor access to contraceptive methods result in unwanted pregnancies. This leaves women no other choice than unsafe abortion, thus placing a great burden on the Ugandan health system and making unsafe abortion one of the major contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity in Uganda. The existing sexual and reproductive health policy in Uganda supports the sharing of tasks in post-abortion care. This task sharing is taking place as a pragmatic response to the increased workload. This study aims to explore physicians’ and midwives’ perception of post-abortion care with regard to professional competences, methods, contraceptive counselling and task shifting/sharing in post-abortion care.

    Methods

    In-depth interviews (n = 27) with health care providers of post-abortion care were conducted in seven health facilities in the Central Region of Uganda. The data were organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach.

    Results

    Post-abortion care was perceived as necessary, albeit controversial and sometimes difficult to provide. Together with poor conditions post-abortion care provoked frustration especially among midwives. Task sharing was generally taking place and midwives were identified as the main providers, although they would rarely have the proper training in post-abortion care. Additionally, midwives were sometimes forced to provide services outside their defined task area, due to the absence of doctors. Different uterine evacuation skills were recognized although few providers knew of misoprostol as a method for post-abortion care. An overall need for further training in post-abortion care was identified.

    Conclusions

    Task sharing is taking place, but providers lack the relevant skills for the provision of quality care. For post-abortion care to improve, task sharing needs to be scaled up and in-service training for both doctors and midwives needs to be provided. Post-abortion care should further be included in the educational curricula of nurses and midwives. Scaled-up task sharing in post-abortion care, along with misoprostol use for uterine evacuation would provide a systematic approach to improving the quality of care and accessibility of services, with the aim of reducing abortion-related mortality and morbidity in Uganda.

  • Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Westin, Jerker
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    Verification of a method for measuring Parkinson's disease related temporal irregularity in spiral drawings2017Inngår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, nr 10, E2341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

  • Disputas: 2017-11-10 13:00 Clas Ohlson, Borlänge
    Thomas, Ilias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Optimizing levodopa dosing routines for Parkinson’s disease2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis in the field of microdata analysis aims to introduce dose optimizing algorithms for the pharmacological management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenerative disease that mostly affects the motor functions of the patients and it is characterized as a movement disorder. The core symptoms of PD are: bradykinesia, postural instability, rigidity, and tremor. There is no cure for PD and the use of levodopa to manage the core symptoms is considered the gold standard. However, long term use of levodopa causes reduced medication efficacy, and side effects, such as dyskinesia, which can also be attributed to overmedication. When that happens precise individualized dosing schedules are required. The goal of this thesis is to examine if algorithmic methods can be used to find dosing schedules that treat PD symptoms and minimize manifestation of side effects. Data from three different sources were used for that purpose: data from a clinical study in Uppsala University hospital in 2015, patient admission chart data from Uppsala University hospital during 2011-2015, and data from a clinical study in Gothenburg University during 2016-2017. The data were used to develop the methods and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.The first algorithm that was developed was a sensor-based method that derives objective measurements (ratings) of PD motor states. The construction of the sensor index was based on subjective ratings of patients’ motor functions made by three movement disorder experts. This sensor-based method was used when deriving algorithmic dosing schedules. Afterwards, a method that uses medication information and ratings of the patients’ motor states to fit individual patient models was developed. This method uses mathematical optimization to individualize specific parameters of dose-effects models for levodopa intake, through minimizing the distance between motor state ratings and dose-effect curves. Finally, two different dose optimization algorithms were developed and evaluated, that had as input the individual patient models. The first algorithm was specific to continuous infusion of levodopa treatment, where the patient’s state was set to a specific target value and the algorithm made dosing adjustments to keep that patients motor functions on that state. The second algorithm concerned oral administration of microtables of levodopa. The ambition with this algorithm was that the suggested doses would find the right balance between treating the core symptoms of PD and, at the same time, minimizing the side effects of long term levodopa use, mainly dyskinesia. Motor state ratings for this study were obtained through the sensor index. Both algorithms followed a principle of deriving a morning dose and a maintenance dose for the patients, with maintenance dose being an infusion rate for the first algorithm, and oral administration doses at specific time points for the second algorithm.The results showed that the sensor-based index had good test-retest reliability, sensitivity to levodopa treatment, and ability to make predictions in unseen parts of the dataset. The dosing algorithm for continuous infusion of levodopa had a good ability to suggest an optimal infusion rating for the patients, but consistently suggested lower morning dose than what the treating personnel prescribed. The dosing algorithm for oral administration of levodopa showed great agreement with the treating personnel’s prescriptions, both in terms of morning and maintenance dose. Moreover, when evaluating the oral medication algorithm, it was clear that the sensor index ratings could be used for building patient specific models.

  • Kristoffersson, Emil
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Föräldrars uppfattning kring vad som bedöms iämnet idrott och hälsa: - en enkätundersökning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this essay is to examine the knowledge among parents to students, from grade 9

    of upper level lower secondary school, about what is assessed in the school subject physical

    education. This is done by distributing a postal questionnaire to 89 parents. 42 of them chose

    to take part in the survey and the results show that parents are having different opinions about

    assessment and what the base is for assessment in the school subject physical education.

    When looking at the result of the study from a gender perspective it shows that the women

    rate their knowledge about the base for assessment higher than the men. The parents were also

    asked to rank what they think is the most essential part when it comes to assessment. The

    result shows that both women and men think it is the active participation of the pupil during

    lessons. When the parents rank which element of the school subject physical education is

    most and least important, when it comes to assessment, the result shows that dance is seen as

    one of the less important elements. The results of the study can overall be seen as quite

    fragmented. One explanation concerning the fragmented results could be the question about

    what knowledge really is in the school subject physical education.

  • Lindell, Viktor
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Bahceci, Özgur
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Utvärdering av kravhanteringsmetod: Täcker Stjärnan viktiga delar av kravhanteringsprocessen i ensystemarkitektonisk kontext ?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens IT-verksamheter är anskaffning av ny IT- plattform ett sätt att utveckla ett företag och dess affärsverksamhet. Plattformar kan köpas eller byggas av företaget själv. Om företaget bestämmer att köpa in ett standardsystem finns det ett enormt utbud av standardiserade plattformar att välja mellan.

    Dock ger många standardsystem inte önskat resultat för verksamheten eller förblir i vissa fall oanvända.

    Det är då av stor vikt att utföra ett kravarbete där man identifierar och beskriver en verksamhets behov på rätt sätt för att undvika inhandling av ett standardsystem som inte ger resultat.

    Genom att använda sig av kravmetoder får företag en sorts ramverk de kan jobba efter och det finns idag många olika kravmetoder såsom RUP (Rational Unified Process) eller ISO/IEC 25000 som kallas SQuaRE (System and Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation ).

    En av dessa kravmetoder är Stjärnan som är en svenskutvecklad metod att använda i Sverige.

    Stjärnan baseras ursprungligen på den internationellt erkända kravmetoden RUP. Stjärnan har tagit delar av RUP och skalat ner vissa delar för att skapa en kravmetod anpassad till svenska verksamheter.

    Stjärnan används generellt för att fånga in och strukturera kravarbeten i ett systemutvecklingsprojekt.

    Vi har utvärderat Stjärnan i en systemarkitektonisk kontext för att se hur välanpassad den är till IT-verksamheter . Vi har i vår kravprocess framställt en kravspecifikation, denna utgör en praktisk del av den utvärdering vi utför.

    I vår utvärdering har vi använt oss av en utvärderingsmodell vi valt att kalla Bass-modellen. Denna modell mäter hur väl en kravmetod uppfyller kriterier inom kravprocessen.

    Rapportens empiri är baserad på intervjuer och mailkorrespondens samt dokumentinsamling.

    Detta har genomförts för att besvara vår frågeställning “Täcker Stjärnan viktiga delar av

    kravhanteringsprocessen i en systemarkitektonisk kontext ?”

    Resultatet i vår rapport visar på att Stjärnan täcker viktiga delar av kravhanteringsprocessen i en systemarkitektonisk kontext . Detta resultat framkommer ur vår analys där vi genom en matris visar huruvida Stjärnan uppfyller de kriterier Bass-modellen efterfrågar

  • Jansson, Peter M.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Socialt arbete.
    An Explorative Integration of Factors Causing Men's Violence against Women2017Inngår i: Journal of Psychology and Clinical Psychiatry, ISSN 2373-6445, Vol. 8, nr 2, 2-11 s.Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the great progress in individual disciplines studying men’s physical violence against women, the various disciplines have developed much different approaches that by themselves are insufficient for understanding the processes that lead to men’s violence against women. Moreover, they also tend to neglect the equally important issue of understanding why some men are not violent toward women. The aim of this work is to integrate former research on socially modifiable factors and therefore does not include theories relating genetics and neurochemistry that may also play an important role. It shows how the psychological approach within criminology can be integrated with the feminist masculinity perspective. The work illustrates that it is both theoretically and methodologically possible, through an integration of previous research, to make hypotheses about under which conditions men are likely to be violent against women, as well as make hypotheses about under what conditions men are unlikely to be violent against women. This study also emphasizes methodologically important non-dichotomous forms where both enabling and reactive conditions are mixed at various levels. Despite the methodological problems, an integrated perspective on men’s violence against women is the most promising way forward today.

  • Jansson, Peter M.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Socialt arbete.
    Emotioners betydelse för psykisk hälsa och ohälsa2017Inngår i: Mind: för psykisk hälsa, ISSN 2002-4282, Vol. 58, nr 3, 30-35 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen visar entydigt att personer som utsatts för våld, kränkningar, övergrepp och förnedringar i barndomen är mer skambenägna än andra. Känsligheten är störst för händelser i vuxenlivet som påminner personen om att denne varit oälskad som barn.

  • Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan Dalarna, Ej akademianställd.
    Protolanguage possibilities in a construction grammar framework2016Inngår i: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference (EVOLANG XI) / [ed] S.G. Roberts, C. Cuskley, L. McCrohon, L. Barceló-Coblijn, O. Fehér & T. Verhoef, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying possible stages of protolanguage critically depends on the underlying nature of language. Theories of language differ in evolvability, and in whether they permit protolanguage stages. In this presentation, I will study the protolanguage potential and evolva­bility of Construction Grammar. Postulating that CG is a biologically real description of language, its evolvability through a sequence of intermediate protolanguages is investigated.

  • Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan Dalarna, Ej akademianställd. Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Did language evolve incommunicado?2014Inngår i: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference (EVOLANG 10) / [ed] Cartmill et al, Singapore: World Scientific, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly assumed in evolutionary linguistics that language evolved for communication.But much recent work in biolinguistics, e.g. Chomsky (2010), proposes instead that languageevolved for purely internal use, as a cognitive tool, with no externalization until at a later stagein language evolution.How well supported is really our general assumption of communicative language origins? Doesit make sense to have instead an early stage with internal language only? I will review the argumentsinvoked in favor of the incommunicado hypothesis, and critically evaluate their strength.

  • Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    The Cathedral of Physics1997Inngår i: Vetenskapens ansikten / [ed] Hans-Albin Larsson, Jönköping: Jönköping University Press , 1997Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Wide, Sverre
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Sociologi.
    Causation and reason: R.G. Collingwood and causal analysis as the essence of social thinking2017Inngår i: Distinktion Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory, ISSN 1600-910X, E-ISSN 2159-9149, Vol. 18, nr 2, 173-195 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How are we to understand causal relations and analysis in socialscience? This paper takes R. G. Collingwood’s writing aboutcausation as its point of departure for the answering of thisquestion. Two different kinds of causal relations are distinguishedfrom pseudo-causality; of the former, one is directly connected toreason, the other to our ability to manipulate the world. Theirinterconnection and significance are discussed and theconclusions are drawn that (a) causality belongs to the realm ofhuman praxis and that (b) causal analysis proper is well suited forthe social sciences. It is further showed that some importantexplanations are not causal in any of the above-mentionedsenses. These explanations could conceivably be calledinterpretative descriptions, but it is suggested that perhaps theycan be understood as examples of causa sui, of something selfcaused.

  • Joly, M.
    et al.
    Ruiz, G.
    Mauthner, F.
    Bourdoukan, P.
    Emery, M.
    Andersen, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    A methodology to integrate solar thermal energy in district heating networks confronted with a Swedish real case study2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 122, 865-870 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Among other solutions, the integration of solar energy in district heating networks can contribute significantly to the increase of the renewable energy fraction in an urban area. This article describes the methodology developed in the framework of IEA Task 52 to help stakeholders during early phases of new or refurbishments projects. This methodology integrates a tool which is capable to assess the main solar indicators of the project with only two inputs: the solar installation area and the building heated area. The tool outputs are compared to the measured values of a Swedish case study.

  • Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialteknik.
    Oikonomou, Christos
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Olsson, Mikael
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialteknik.
    Pejryd, Lars
    In-situ Micro-tensile Testing of Additive Manufactured Maraging Steels in the SEM: Influence of Build Orientation, Thickness and Roughness on the Resulting Mechanical Properties2017Inngår i: Euro PM2017 Congress Proceedings: Session 30: Mechanical Behaviour of AM Materials, 2017, Session 30Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is frequently used additive manufacturing technique capable of producing various complex parts including thin-wall sections. However the surface roughness is a limiting factor in thin sections produced by SLM process when strength is the main criterion. In this study, the influence of build orientation, thickness and roughness on the resulting mechanical properties of as-built test samples was investigated. Various thin sheets of EN 1.2709 maraging steel built in horizontal and vertical orientations produced by SLM were investigated using in-situ micro-tensile testing in a scanning electron microscope. The mechanical strength and deformation mechanisms were analyzed and explained based on thickness and build orientation. Increased ductility was observed in thicker samples as well as in the horizontal build samples. The results illustrate the potential of the in-situ test technique and aspects important to consider in design guidelines for thin AM structures.

  • Petrovich, Ingrid
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Spanska.
    La interacción oral y las TIC en el aula de ELE: Un estudio sobre el uso de las nuevas tecnologías como herramienta didáctica2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Las nuevas tecnologías forman hoy en día parte de la vida cotidiana de la sociedad en general. Estas herramientas utilizadas como recurso educativo nos ofrecen una multitud de posibilidades para fomentar la interacción oral de los alumnos de español como lengua extranjera.

    Los resultados presentados en este estudio indican el potencial de los entornos digitales, que acompañados de propuestas didácticas apropiadas, pueden contribuir a la motivación y el desarrollo de los alumnos en el proceso de aprendizaje.

    Algunos recursos digitales gratuitos como

    Skype o Voxopop son algunos ejemplos de plataformas que pueden utilizarse en el aula de ELE y que pueden contribuir al desarrollo de la comunicación entre estudiantes de cualquier parte del mundo y mejorar las competencias comunicativas. Otros recursos útiles y significativos pueden ser también Youtube o Kahoot discussion para crear actividades colectivas e iniciar temas de conversación en el aula.

  • Bergman, Malin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder som kan stödja nutritionsintaget för personer med demens – en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    I Sverige lever runt 160,000 människor med demens, vilket är ett neurologiskt tillstånd där hjärnvävnad förtvinat. Detta leder till att fysiologiska och kognitiva funktioner försvagas. Omvårdnadsåtgärder relaterade till en person med demens fokuserar på att lindra symtom och tillhandahålla assistans gentemot den funktionella nedsättningen. Detta kan appliceras vid nutritionsintag då måltidssituationer kan bli en komplex uppgift för personer med demens, dessa åtgärder kan utföras ur ett personcentrerat spektra för att tillgodose individen.

    Syfte

    Syftet med litteraturöversikten var att utforska personcentrerade omvårdnadsåtgärder som en sjuksköterska kan applicera till olika omständigheter för att optimera nutritionsintaget hos personer med demens.

    Metod

    En litteraturöversikt sammanställd genom 11 stycken vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Resultat

    Fem omvårdnadsåtgärder som främjade nutritionsintag hos personer med demens var att under måltid lyssna till musik, erhålla personlig assistans för att underlätta måltidsintag, muntlig uppmaning som stöd, hur maten presenterades, träningsprogram vid måltid.

    Konklusion

    Ur denna översikt har omvårdnadsåtgärder framkommit som är till fördel för personen med demens i samband med nutritionsintag. När inte omvårdnadsåtgärder appliceras för måltidssituationen kan tillståndet hos personen med demens förvärras drastiskt genom exempelvis sjukdom och orörlighet, vilket ger försämrad livskvalitet. De omvårdnadsåtgärder som presenteras skulle genom enkla tillvägagångssätt kunna tillhandahållas av vårdgivare och anhöriga.

  • Sunesson, Måns
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Professionella idrottares kommunikation via sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta professionella idrottare har förstått hur viktigt sociala medier har blivit för att bygga en stark image för sitt personliga varumärke. Få vet dock hur de ska gå till väga för att lyckas med detta. Denna studies syfte är att försöka beskriva hur idrottare kan gå till väga för att lyckas genom att beskriva genom vilka sociala mediekanaler fans föredrar att följa idrottare på samt vilken typ av innehåll de föredrar att idrottaren publicerar. För att försöka beskriva detta har en kundundersökning i form utav en enkät genomförts. Resultatet av enkätundersökningen visade att kvinnliga fans helst följer professionella idrottare via bildbaserade sociala medier medan männen i större utsträckning föredrar textbaserade eller kombination av bild och text. Det mest uppskattade innehållet bland fansen var motiverande och/eller inspirerande budskap tätt följt av innehåll kopplat direkt eller indirekt till idrottarens yrkesroll som professionell idrottare. Ämnet visade sig dock vara mer komplext än vad utgångspunkten till denna studie baserat på den lilla mängd tidigare forskning pekade på vid formulerandet av frågeställningen. Då resultatet analyserades med den teoretiska referensramen som bakgrund tyder det på att fler parter har stora intressen i den professionella idrottarens sociala mediakommunikation än vad utgångspunkten för denna studie var. Slutsatser från denna studie är att det är viktigt att idrottaren sätter sina fans/följare i centrum för att lyckas bygga en stark personlig image på sociala medier. Att idrottaren också interagerar med och har en personlig kommunikation med fansen tycks även det vara en viktig i varumärkesbyggandet. Samt att vidare studier inom ämnet skulle behövas för att kunna dra slutsatser om hur de olika parternas intressen påverkar varandra och hur intressekonflikter kan undvikas.

  • Tegelberg, Linda
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Kallo, Juliana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Neuromarketing: En kvalitativ studie, där svenska marknadsföringsexperters förhållningssätt till neuromarketing behandlas.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett samhälle där konsumenter översköljs av information, har marknadsförare tvingats hitta nya vägar att nå ut med sitt budskap. Marknadsförare måste förutom att tränga igenom ett massivt brus av reklam, söka djup förståelse kring konsumenters beteenden. Ett sätt att göra detta på, är genom ämnet neuromarketing som är en kombination av neurovetenskap och marknadsföring. Neuromarketing äntrade världen så sent som 2002.

    Neuromarketing består av tre stora forskningsområden: neurovetenskap, beteendeekonomi och socialpsykologi. Genom att kombinera dessa forskningsämnen, är det idag möjligt att studera konsumenters hjärnor och kroppar, för att skaffa kunskap och förståelse kring konsumenters beteende och beslutsfattande.

    När det kommer till Sverige så är neuromarketing fortfarande okänt. Människor lyfter frågande på ögonbrynen när ämnet kommer på tal. Detta trots att teknologiutvecklingen tvingar marknadsförare att hitta nya sätt att kommunicera med sin omvärld på och trots att Sverige placeras på tredje plats i rankningen av mest digitaliserade länder. Vad beror detta på? Varför finns det inga studier gjorda i Sverige om neuromarketing?

    Syftet med denna studie är att bidra med ökad kunskap om ämnet neuromarketing, genom att lyfta fram svenska experters förhållningssätt till detta forskningsämne. Studiens insamling av empiri bestod av intervjuer med experter inom marknadsföring. Resultatet av denna studie står i kontrast till tidigare studier, där neuromarketing benämns som något nytt och revolutionerande. Svenska experter hävdar motsatsen, marknadsförare har alltid studerat och fascinerats över beteende, emotioner och reaktioner hos konsumenter. Svenska experter anser också att teknologin som används inom neuromarketing är bristande och kommer med stora begränsningar. De påstår också att annan teknologi är mer betydelsefull än den som läser av hjärnaktivitet, ögonrörelser och ansiktsuttryck.

    Ämnet för även med sig en rad etiska frågeställningar och svenska experter tror inte att konsumenter vill övervakas i ett kommersiellt syfte.

  • Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Framing the Gaze: (Audio-) Visual Design Intentions and Perceptual Considerations in Film Editing2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme for this doctoral thesis focuses on how a film editor strives actively to perceptually frame and direct the film viewer’s gaze across film edits. The editor’s (audio-)visual intentions concerning the film viewing correspond to perceptual considerations that the editor makes during film editing.

    Film editing in this thesis is considered as a kind of design work, foremost motivated by the possibilities of many new approaches, questions, and answers that a design perspective brings, stretching well beyond what previously adopted perspectives have done.

    The research questions asked, as well as the presented results, are discussed with regard to design theory, established film production field knowledge, and perception research. Apart from considering audiovisual perception in a film editing context, film editing is also discussed as audiovisual design, and tentative implications for the role of perception in other kinds of design work are pointed out.

    The results of my analyses are that there is reason to consider parts of film production as design work; that properties of an audiovisual material affect the creative space; that perceptual considerations are a significant part of the film editor’s treatment of the audiovisual material; that film viewers’ response to film edits varies with the shape of the edits; and that this variation is possible to link with the film editor’s intention regarding the edits, as well as to the degree of fulfillment of the intention.

    I conclude that perceptual precision at the edit point is decisive for attaining a desired film-viewing decoding of a film sequence, and that when the perceptual precision is low, it is likely that the perceived continuity of the film fails.

    The contribution of this doctoral thesis is that it drives the investigation of actual appliance of perception as audiovisual knowledge in film editing. Hence, it also adds to the more general discussion on perception as part of audiovisual thinking, and how audiovisual knowledge is formed.

    The thesis contributes to the area of Innovation and Design through its mix of methods, since the main study considers the creation of new artefacts, the thinking going on during that process, as well as human responses to the artefacts. Conclusively, the thesis provides a thorough example of how a design research perspective can add to the understanding of film production, and its trades and activities.

  • Recensioner1995Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, nr 2, 105-114 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Svallfors, Stefan
    Umeå universitet.
    Debatt: Inkonsistenta flyktingvänner eller inkompetent forskning? Kommentar till José Alberto Diaz1995Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, nr 2, 101-104 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Klintman, Mikael
    Lunds universitet.
    Miljöhandlingars socialpsykologiska förutsättningar och hinder - ett teoretisk tperspektiv1995Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, nr 2, 82-100 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The social-psychological conditions and obstacles to environmentally responsible agency - a theoretical perspective

    The aim in this article has been to go beyond the individual level in theoretically analyzing the preconditions for people to adopt a more environmentally responsible behavior within daily activities. In the first part, I have examined some overlapping social characteristics of modernity. The chief concepts here have been risk, time-space distanciation, disembeddedness and reflexivity. Anthony Giddens (1990) and Ulrich Beck (1986/1992) are referred to in this part. These modem characteristics have been put in relation to the motivational factors of behavior change offered in modem urban society. In the second part, the question of environmentally related agency has been placed into three social-psychological contexts: the public, the private, and the parochial realms of social life. I have argued that the different realms to various extents are affected by the modem characteristics, and that the different realms, therefore, offer different conditions for the environmentally responsible behavior to be supported by socially, ethically and, practically motivating factors. Emphasis has been given upon motivating factors within the local realm, mainly within neighborhoods. In neighborhoods, I have claimed, social ties, trust between neighbors, and a shared interest for the neighborhood may be used as an intermediate variable between the leading institutions of society and the individual lifestyle in solving environmental problems. This is true both when the environmental goals of the leading institutions, are communicated to the parochial sphere and vice versa. I have also suggested further theoretical analyses as well as possible empirical applications to the theoretical framework of the article.

  • Lindquist, Per
    Lunds universitet.
    Samhällsvetenskapen och miljöproblemens sociala ekologi1995Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, nr 2, 64-81 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of the problems of the natural environment, presently taking a central part of the societal agenda, reveals a situation in which social science in general, and sociology in particular, is confronted with two major questions: the first one concerns how environmental problems are to be conceptualized from a strict social scientific, as distinguished from a natural scientific point of view; the second one has to do with the normative relation of social science to the political problematization of environmental concerns. Taking a communication theoretical point of departure, mainly following the ideas of Niklas Luhmann and Ulrich Beck, it is argued in this article that the environmental problem may be conceptualized in terms of the internal, social, as opposed to the external, natural ecology of the functionally differentiated modem society. As sociologists we are returned to the original intention of the discipline, namely, that social facts can be explained only by social facts. In this context the notion of risk - conceived of as the problem of decision-making in the face of a spatially and temporally contingent and uncertain environment - will be of central importance. The perspective presented here suggests a sociological reconceptualization meant to grasping the idea of a societal system no longer having the achievement of security as its primary goal, but rather the exploitation of uncertainty and contingency itself: scientifically, ethically and politically.

  • Sungqvist, Göran
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Risk och kärnavfall - en studie av det moderna samhällets experter1995Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, nr 2, 37-63 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk and nuclear waste - a study of the experts in modern society

    Modem societies are characterized by their extensive expert systems, which penetrate all aspects of social life. The point of departure in this article is Anthony Giddens’ theory of expert systems. The theory is criticized and said to be both wide and vague, and depend too much on the notion of trust. It is in the article argued that there are life worlds outside the expert systems, with their own rationalities, which possibly can work as counter forces and sometimes also are able to change the expert systems. Giddens’ theory, based on the notions of trust and weak inductive knowledge, ignores the independent cognitive capacities among the laymen. Supplementing Giddens’ theory with some results from the sociology of science it is argued that both the experts’ and the laymen’s relations to the expert systems should be understood as alternating between trust and a cognitive attitude. The theory of expert systems is illustrated by the history of nuclear waste management in Sweden, which is an activity highly dependent on trust and legitimacy among the general public. The opposition to nuclear waste among lay persons during the last decades have in some respect changed the expert systems involved.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    Högskolan i Örebro.
    Mellan sociologi och ekologi? Om det sociologiska studiet av miljöfrågan1995Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, nr 2, 7-36 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociology, as it came to be constructed from the late 19th century onwards, deliberately concentrated on human societies, giving little attention to the natural world which constitutes the very condition of its existence and development. Today, some sociologists claim that the environmental problems of today constitute a challenge to this classical sociological understanding. By critically discussing environmental sociologists’ claim for the necessity to include biophysical facts in sociological analysis, this article seeks to elaborate a sociological perspective on environmental problems. From the point of view of epistemology and the sociology of knowledge, the article contrasts naive realism with social constructivism. It is here stated that even though social constructivism seems to be more in line with sociological thought a realistic standpoint regarding the environmental threat seem to be a necessity. By way of conclusion it is stated that a proper sociological understanding has to take into account nature’s constructedness as well as realistic side. Thus nature cannot be understood outside of society or society outside of nature.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    Högskolan i Örebro.
    Miljö och risk: en kort introduktion1995Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, nr 2, 5-6 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Från redaktionen1995Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 32, nr 2, 2-3 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Johansson, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1995:21995Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Lindh, Anne-Sophie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Historiemedvetande i läromedel för åk 7-92017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har gjort en läromedelsstudie med syfte att analysera relativt nyproducerade läroböcker i historia utifrån frågor om de har potential att utveckla elevers historiemedvetande.

    När jag analyserar de tre läroböckerna i historia för åk 7-9 som jag har valt så studerar jag texter, bilder och arbetsuppgifter utifrån några av de perspektiv som svenska historiedidaktiker anser har störst möjlighet att påverka elevers historiemedvetande.

    Jag fokuserar på aspekterna som rör reflekterande berättelser, identitets och värdeskapande innehåll. En central fråga är om innehållet är multikronologiskt och visar eleverna att vi är både skapade av och skapare av historia.

    Läroböckerna har innehåll som bör kunna hjälpa till att utveckla elevernas historiemedvetanden, men inte i tillräckligt stor utsträckning. Jag anser utifrån min studie att alla tre böckerna har brister. De motsvarar inte på egen hand historieundervisningens behov utifrån kunskapskraven i Lgr11.

  • Racine, Sylvain
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Franska.
    Analyse thématique de L’hiver de force : Déterminisme social et invectives2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [fr]

    Le roman à l’étude dans cette analyse littéraire est

    L’hiver de force de Réjean Ducharme, publié chez Gallimard en 1973. L’objectif de ce travail a consisté à chercher à comprendre pourquoi les personnages principaux André et Nicole, des mécontents intelligents et éduqués, ont choisi de vivre une vie les menant à rien, le tout en invectivant à peu près tout autour d’eux. Nous suggérons également une réponse, dans le contexte du récit, à la question « pourquoi l’hiver débute un 21 juin? » Pour réaliser ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à l’invectif, théorie littéraire développée par Marie-Hélène Larochelle, ainsi qu’à la notion de déterminisme social.

  • Sociologförbundet har ordet. Sociologidagarna 2018: Sociology in a polarized world2017Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, nr 3, 267-268 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Recensioner2017Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, nr 3, 245-265 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Heidegran, Carl-Göran
    Lunds universitet.
    An interview with Hans Joas2017Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, nr 3, 233-243 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An interview with Hans Joas

    This interview took place at Lund University on January 18, 2017. In the interview Joas talks about the continuities and orientations of his own work, explains some of his key conceptual and theoretical insights, and comments on the state of sociology today.

  • Westerstrand, Jenny
    Kontextualiseringens svåra konst: Kunskap, kön och förbindelselinjer i en förundersökningom ”hedersvåld”2017Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, nr 3, 209-232 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Contextualizing Violence: Knowledge, gender and lines of connection in apreliminary investigation on “honour violence”

    I discuss some practical and theoretical problems related to the feminist project of re-contextualizing law in order to acknowledge women’s experiences. Nicola Lacey warns us that re-contextualization might result in existing misogynist presumptions being re-inscribed in “new” lines of thoughts, making the problem of gender inequality even harder to address. In this article my analytical focus is set on two cultural contexts constructed as different – a “Swedish gender equal context” and a “non-Swedish honour related context” – and the attempts made by the prosecutor and the police “to contextualize” the latter. I highlight, in the light of Lacey’s warnings, the need for a careful and grounded analysis of the issues being “contextualized” as well as a careful analysis of the norms that are supposed to guide the process of contextualization. I take my point of departure in the example of a police investigation of suspected honor related violence, committed in the context of a compulsory school.

  • Lindblom, Jonas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Qaderi, Josef
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Massmedias hantering av vetenskaplig kritik mot Ritalin, Concerta och Strattera: Ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv på psykofarmaka2017Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, nr 3, 181-208 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass media’s handling of scientific critique of Ritalin, Concerta and Strattera: a social constructionist perspective on psychotropic agents

    This article aims to examine how scientific critique of pharmacological treatment with Ritalin, Concerta and Strattera for ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is handled in eight of the largest newspapers in Sweden, 2002–2015 (n=183 articles). The media study explores the terminology used; the depiction of long-term harmful effects; the actors given space to express their views; the attention displayed to alternative treatments; the representation of pharmaceutical studies; the role of news and debate articles; the significance of conflicts of interest; and whether ADHD is portrayed as a medical condition. The results show that mass media, in numerous ways, neglects or undermines the critique of pharmacological interventions for ADHD put forward in the scientific literature. In the article a social constructionist approach to psychotropic agents is developed, highlighting the significance of what the authors call “psychopharmacological elasticity.” The concept illustrates that the boundary between medicines and harmful agents, such as drugs, is flexible from a scientific standpoint and depends on collective definitional processes in society.

  • Lydahl, Doris
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Visible persons, invisible work?: Exploring articulation work in the implementation of person-centred care on a hospital ward2017Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, nr 3, 163-179 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Visible persons, invisible work? Exploring articulation work in the implementation of person-centred care on a hospital ward

    Recently, many initiatives promoting a holistic view of the patient have been developed. In the last 20 years, different models and frameworks have been advanced to operationalize these different forms of holistic care. This article focuses on one specific case of holistic person-centred care, using the sociological theories of articulation work and invisible work to investigate the efforts involved in sustaining its realization. The article builds on a small ethnographic study conducted at a ward in a Swedish hospital implementing person-centred care. Following a nurse, and her patient, through a ‘person-centred’ admission process and its subsequent procedures, it is argued that person-centred care depends on nurses performing many new tasks which are rarely recognized and appreciated. Secondly, it is argued that nurses are continually asked to do what Anselm Strauss defined as articulation work, coordinating between these different new tasks and established duties. Thirdly, the article discusses the tensions arising when implementing a formalized model of care, which builds on a critique of standardization and objectification, and the work that is excluded and invisible in such routinized operationalization. Finally, it is concluded that while the successful implementation of person-centred care is often argued to rely on the willingness of nurses to surrender old habits, it seems rather to hinge on the skilled inventiveness of these nurses and their ability to overcome the practical difficulties they encounter.

  • Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, Sara
    Lunds universitet.
    Redaktörerna har ordet: Lundaredaktionen har tagit över2017Inngår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, nr 3, 161-162 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • Edling, Christofer
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eldén, SaraLunds universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2017:32017Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • Maria, Ingels Lindqvist
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Josephine, Stengård
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Matchad förvärvsgrad i Dalarna och Sverige: Påverkar könsfördelningen i en utbildningsgrupp kvinnors och mäns möjligheter att få ett relevant jobb?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka den matchade förvärvsgraden för kvinnor och män, i Dalarna och i Sverige, samt att förklara eventuella skillnader. Om en stor andel av utbildningsgruppen vid avklarad examen blir anställda inom andra yrkesområden än vad utbildningen gav kompetens för, är den matchade förvärvsgraden inom utbildningsgruppen låg. Datamaterialet är hämtat från Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) och studeras genom en multipel linjär regressionsanalys.

    Både kvinnor och män med universitets-/högskoleutbildning påverkar den matchade förvärvsgraden mer jämförelsevis med gymnasial utbildning. Resultatet visar även att om andelen kvinnor i utbildningsgruppen ökar påverkas andelen anställda med matchning positivt för kvinnor och negativt för män, det omvända sambandet gäller också, den matchade förvärvsgraden för män ökar när andelen män i utbildningsgruppen ökar. Detta visar att könsdiskriminering råder på arbetsmarknaden.

  • Olsson, Amber
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Att undervisa unga elever i engelska - arbetsmetoder för en andraspråksinlärning: En litteraturstudie om framgångsrik undervisning i engelska som andraspråk för årskurserna 1–32017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Engelskundervisningen idag i årskurserna 1-3 är enligt min åsikt och erfarenhet, inte tillräckligt prioriterat. Många av eleverna kan redan vid skolstarten ha engelskkunskaper med sig och de måste nationellt ges möjligheten till att utveckla dessa. Läraren kan ha stor betydelse i barnens andraspråks- och språkinlärning. Det är av vikt att läraren har kompetens, skapar en trygg miljö och har en varierad undervisning. Andra aspekter som är avgörande för elevernas förståelse är som tidigare sagt miljö och även engagemang från eleverna. Detta examensarbete är en litteraturstudie och innebär att sökningar har gjorts och litteratur har sammanställts inom ett valt område. Syftet med den här litteraturstudien är att undersöka om arbetsmetoder mot yngre barn samt vad tidigare forskning säger om andraspråks- och språkinlärning för barn. I resultatet upptäcktes att det är många faktorer som spelar in vid barns språkinlärning i de valda studierna. Det som gemensamt hittades bland studierna var vikten av repetition, imitation och kommunikation vid undervisning. Att börja med språkundervisning i årskurs 1 och att ta vara på elevernas egna inlärningsstrategier skapar de bästa förutsättningarna för språkinlärning. Ett förslag till vidare forskning är att undersöka hur lärare idag arbetar med engelska språkinlärning mot yngre barn.

  • Flodberg, Veronica
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Hur kan uttal läras ut i klassrummet?: En litteraturstudie om uttalsinlärning hos elever i årskurs F-32017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sägs att barn har lätt att lära språk då de tycks uppskatta att lära sig nya ord och är nyfikna på språk. Jämfört med många andra länder påbörjas språkinlärningen i Sverige relativt sent. I den här litteraturstudien undersöks viktiga förutsättningar för inlärning vid en tidig språkstart samt hur elever i årskurserna F-3 lär sig uttal i engelska som andraspråk. Som grund för analysen av studiernas resultat används Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH), Krashens teorier om andraspråksinlärning samt Piagets teorier om barns utveckling. Fem studier har analyserats. Resultatet av litteraturstudien påvisar nyttan av tidig språk- och uttalsinlärning men att det är i hög grad beroende av lärarnas kompetens. Vidare visar resultatet att uttalsinlärning gynnas mest av metoder som innehåller direkt respons på elevernas uttal men även att passiva inlärningsmetoder (t.ex. lyssna på sång) gynnar inlärning av uttal som ligger nära modersmålet. När det gäller barns språk- och uttalsinlärning är det viktigt att ha rätt kompetensen hos lärarna och att flera metoder (direkt och indirekta) kan gynna inlärningen.