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  • Murray, Christopher J. L
    et al.
    Callender, Charlton
    Kulikoff, Xie Rachel
    Srinivasan, Vinay
    Abate, Degu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abay, Solomon
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Lim, Stephen S
    Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 51-2015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods. 

    Methods We estimated population in 195 locations by single year of age and single calendar year from 1950 to 2017 with standardised and replicable methods. We based the estimates on the demographic balancing equation, with inputs of fertility, mortality, population, and migration data. Fertility data came from 7817 location-years of vital registration data, 429 surveys reporting complete birth histories, and 977 surveys and censuses reporting summary birth histories. We estimated age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs; the annual number of livebirths to women of a specified age group per 1000 women in that age group) by use of spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and used the ASFRs to estimate total fertility rates (TFRs; the average number of children a woman would bear if she survived through the end of the reproductive age span [age 10-54 years] and experienced at each age a particular set of ASFRs observed in the year of interest). Because of sparse data, fertility at ages 10-14 years and 50-54 years was estimated from data on fertility in women aged 15-19 years and 45-49 years, through use of linear regression. Age-specific mortality data came from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 estimates. Data on population came from 1257 censuses and 761 population registry location-years and were adjusted for underenumeration and age misreporting with standard demographic methods. Migration was estimated with the GBD Bayesian demographic balancing model, after incorporating information about refugee migration into the model prior. Final population estimates used the cohort-cotnponent method of population projection, with inputs of fertility, mortality, and migration data. Population uncertainty was estimated by use of out-of-sample predictive validity testing. With these data, we estimated the trends in population by age and sex and in fertility by age between 1950 and 2017 in 195 countries and territories. 

    Findings From 1950 to 2017, TFRs decreased by 49.4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 46.4-52.0). The TFR decreased from 4.7 livebirths (4.5-4.9) to 2.4 livebirths (2.2-2.5), and the ASFR of mothers aged 10-19 years decreased from 37 livebirths (34-40) to 22 livebirths (19-24) per 1000 women. Despite reductions in the TFR, the global population has been increasing by an average of 83.8 million people per year since 1985. The global population increased by 197-2% (193.3-200.8) since 1950, from 2.6 billion (2.5-2.6) to 7.6 billion (7.4-7.9) people in 2017; much of this increase was in the proportion of the global population in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The global annual rate of population growth increased between 1950 and 1964, when it peaked at 2.0%; this rate then remained nearly constant until 1970 and then decreased to 1.1% in 2017. Population growth rates in the southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania GBD super-region decreased from 2.5% in 1963 to O7% in 2017, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, population growth rates were almost at the highest reported levels ever in 2017, when they were at 2.7%. The global average age increased from 26.6 years in 1950 to 32.1 years in 2017, and the proportion of the population that is of working age (age 15-64 years) increased from 59.9% to 65.3%. At the national level, the TFR decreased in all countries and territories between 1950 and 2017; in 2017, TFRs ranged from a low of 1.0 livebirths (95% UI 0. 9-1.2) in Cyprus to a high of 7.1 livebirths (6.8-7.4) in Niger. The TFR under age 25 years (TFU25; number of livebirths expected by age 25 years for a hypothetical woman who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) in 2017 ranged from 0.08 livebirths (0.07-0.09) in South Korea to 2.4 livebirths (2.2-2.6) in Niger, and the TFR over age 30 years (I F030; number of livebirths expected for a hypothetical woman ageing from 30 to 54 years who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) ranged from a low of 0.3 livebirths (0.3-0-4) in Puerto Rico to a high of 3.1 livebirths (3.0-3.2) in Niger. TF030 was higher than TFU25 in 145 countries and territories in 2017.33 countries had a negative population growth rate from 2010 to 2017, most of which were located in central, eastern, and western Europe, whereas population growth rates of more than 2.0% were seen in 33 of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, less than 65% of the national population was of working age in 12 of 34 high-income countries, and less than 50% of the national population was of working age in Mali, Chad, and Niger. 

    Interpretation Population trends create demographic dividends and headwinds (ie, economic benefits and detriments) that affect national economies and determine national planning needs. Although TFRs are decreasing, the global population continues to grow as mortality declines, with diverse patterns at the national level and across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide transparent and replicable estimates of population and fertility, which can be used to inform decision making and to monitor progress. 

  • Roth, Gregory
    et al.
    Abate, Degu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassenn
    Abay, Solomon
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abbastabar, Heyadat
    Abd-Allah, Load
    Abdela, Jemal
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L
    Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 1736-1788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017. 

    Methods The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODErn), to generate cause fractions and cause specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised. 

    Findings At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NC Ds) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73.4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72.5-74.1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 186% (17.9-19.6), and injuries 8.0% (7.7-8.2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22.7% (21.5-23.9), representing an additional 7.61 million (7. 20-8.01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7.9% (7.08.8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 222% (20.0-24.0) and the death rate by 31.8% (30.1-33.3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2.3% (0-5-4-0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13.7% (12.2-15.1) to 57.9 deaths (55.9-59.2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000-289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000-363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118.0% (88.8-148.6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36.4% (32.2-40.6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33.6% (31.2-36.1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respirator}, infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990 neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases. 

    Interpretation Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade.

  • Dicker, Daniel
    et al.
    Nguyen, Grant
    Abate, Degu
    Abate, Lkidan Hassen
    Abay, Solomon
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abbastabar, Hedayat
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L
    Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality and life expectancy, 1950-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 1684-1735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Assessments of age-specific mortality and life expectancy have been done by the UN Population Division, Department of Economics and Social Affairs (UNPOP), the United States Census Bureau, WHO, and as part of previous iterations of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD). Previous iterations of the GBD used population estimates from UNPOP, which were not derived in a way that was internally consistent with the estimates of the numbers of deaths in the GBD. The present iteration of the GBD, GBD 2017, improves on previous assessments and provides timely estimates of the mortality experience of populations globally. 

    Methods The GBD uses all available data to produce estimates of mortality rates between 1950 and 2017 for 23 age groups, both sexes, and 918 locations, including 195 countries and territories and subnational locations for 16 countries. Data used include vital registration systetns, sample registration systetns, household surveys (complete birth histories, summary birth histories, sibling histories), censuses (summary birth histories, household deaths), and Demographic Surveillance Sites. In total, this analysis used 8259 data sources. Estimates of the probability of death between birth and the age of 5 years and between ages 15 and 60 years are generated and then input into a model life table system to produce complete life tables for all locations and years. Fatal discontinuities and mortality due to HIV/AIDS are analysed separately and then incorporated into the estimation. We analyse the relationship between age-specific mortality and development status using the Socio-demographic Index, a composite measure based on fertility under the age of 25 years, education, and income. There are four main methodological improvements in GBD 2017 compared with GBD 2016: 622 additional data sources have been incorporated; new estimates of population, generated by the GBD study, are used; statistical methods used in different components of the analysis have been further standardised and improved; and the analysis has been extended backwards in time by two decades to start in 1950. 

    Findings Globally, 18.7% (95% uncertainty interval 18.4-19.0) of deaths were registered in 1950 and that proportion has been steadily increasing since, with 58.8% (58.2-59.3) of all deaths being registered in 2015. At the global level, between 1950 and 2017, life expectancy increased from 48.1 years (46.5-49.6) to 70.5 years (70.1-70.8) for men and from 52.9 years (51.7-54.0) to 75.6 years (75.3-75.9) for women. Despite this overall progress, there remains substantial variation in life expectancy at birth in 2017, which ranges from 49.1 years (46.5-51.7) for men in the Central African Republic to 87.6 years (86.9-88.1) among women in Singapore. The greatest progress across age groups was for children younger than 5 years; under-5 mortality dropped from 216.0 deaths (196.3-238.1) per 1000 livebirths in 1950 to 38.9 deaths (35.6-42.83) per 1000 livebirths in 2017, with huge reductions across countries. Nevertheless, there were still 5.4 million (5.2-5.6) deaths among children younger than 5 years in the world in 2017. Progress has been less pronounced and more variable for adults, especially for adult tnales, who had stagnant or increasing mortality rates in several countries. The gap between male and female life expectancy between 1950 and 2017, while relatively stable at the global level, shows distinctive patterns across super-regions and has consistently been the largest in central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia, and smallest in south Asia. Performance was also variable across countries and time in observed mortality rates compared with those expected on the basis of development. 

    Interpretation This analysis of age-sex-specific mortality shows that there are remarkably complex patterns in population mortality across countries. The findings of this study highlight global successes, such as the large decline in under-5 mortality, which reflects significant local, national, and global commitment and investment over several decades. However, they also bring attention to mortality patterns that are a cause for concern, particularly among adult men and, to a lesser extent, wotnen, whose mortality rates have stagnated in many countries over the time period of this study, and in some cases are increasing.

  • James, Spencer L. G
    et al.
    Abate, Degu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hessen
    Abay, Solomon M
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abbastabar, Hedayat
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 1789-1858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Previous GBD studies have shown how the decline of mortality rates from 1990 to 2016 has led to an increase in life expectancy, an ageing global population, and an expansion of the non-fatal burden of disease and injury. These studies have also shown how a substantial portion of the world's population experiences non-fatal health loss with considerable heterogeneity among different causes, locations, ages, and sexes. Ongoing objectives of the GBD study include increasing the level of estimation detail, improving analytical strategies, and increasing the amount of high-quality data. 

    Methods We estimated incidence and prevalence for 354 diseases and injuries and 3484 sequelae. We used an updated and extensive body of literature studies, survey data, surveillance data, inpatient admission records, outpatient visit records, and health insurance claims, and additionally used results from cause of death models to inform estimates using a total of 68 781 data sources. Newly available clinical data from India, Iran, Japan, Jordan, Nepal, China, Brazil, Norway, and Italy were incorporated, as well as updated claims data from the USA and new claims data from Taiwan (province of China) and Singapore. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between rates of incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death for each condition. YLDs were estimated as the product of a prevalence estimate and a disability weight for health states of each mutually exclusive sequela, adjusted for comorbidity. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary development indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Additionally, we calculated differences between male and female YLDs to identify divergent trends across sexes. GBD 2017 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting. 

    Findings Globally, for females, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias in both 1990 and 2017. For males, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and tuberculosis including latent tuberculosis infection in both 1990 and 2017. In terms of YLDs, low back pain, headache disorders, and dietary iron deficiency were the leading Level 3 causes of YLD counts in 1990, whereas low back pain, headache disorders, and depressive disorders were the leading causes in 2017 for both sexes combined. All-cause age-standardised YLD rates decreased by 39% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3.1-4. 6) from 1990 to 2017; however, the all-age YLD rate increased by 7.2% (6.0-8.4) while the total sum of global YLDs increased from 562 million (421-723) to 853 million (642-1100). The increases for males and females were similar, with increases in all-age YLD rates of 7.9% (6 6-9. 2) for males and 6.5% (5.4-7.7) for females. We found significant differences between males and females in terms of age-standardised prevalence estimates for multiple causes. The causes with the greatest relative differences between sexes in 2017 included substance use disorders (3018 cases [95% UI 2782-3252] per 100 000 in males vs 1400 [1279-1524] per 100 000 in females), transport injuries (3322 [3082-3583] vs 2336 [2154-2535]), and self-hatin and interpersonal violence (3265 [2943-3630] vs 5643 [5057-6302]). 

    Interpretation Global all-cause age-standardised YLD rates have improved only slightly over a period spanning nearly three decades. However, the magnitude of the non-fatal disease burden has expanded globally, with increasing numbers of people who have a wide spectrum of conditions. A subset of conditions has remained globally pervasive since 1990, whereas other conditions have displayed more dynamic trends, with different ages, sexes, and geographies across the globe experiencing varying burdens and trends of health loss. This study emphasises how global improvements in premature mortality for select conditions have led to older populations with complex and potentially expensive diseases, yet also highlights global achievements in certain domains of disease and injury.

  • Pasqualini, Arianna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, African studies.
    Transcultural memories of German-Namibian history (1978-1990):: Micro-perspectives from the global autobiographies of Lucia Engombe and Stefanie Lahya Aukongo2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis deals with the Namibian liberation struggle against the South African regime, by focusing on the relationship of solidarity between SWAPO and East Germany. It provides an original perspective of the German-Namibian history between 1978-1990, by using the life stories of Lucia Engombe and Stefanie Lahya Aukongo. They are Namibian women who, according to the pact of solidarity, lived on the brink between Namibia and East Germany, becoming in this way witnesses of the historical upheavals that have changed the global order. Then, this thesis makes use of

    Child No. 95. My German-African Odyssey – the autobiography of Lucia Engombe – and Kalungas Kind: meine unglaubliche Reise uns Leben – the autobiography of Stefanie Layha Aukongo – as sources to investigate the complexities of that period. The global lives of Lucia Engombe and Stefanie Lahya Aukongo allow the combination of macro and micro history and bring out new facets, which otherwise would remain in the shadow. Through the deconstruction of their life narratives, in fact, the big narrative of the global history become fraught with new meanings, bringing out the power of microhistories. This thesis shows how individual autobiographies can be meaningful to history, and how global history can be reconciled with micro-history through the story of global lives, which provide new and unprecedented points of view.

  • Stanaway, Jeffrey D
    et al.
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Lim, Stephen S
    Abate, Degu
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassell
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J. L
    Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172018In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, no 10159, p. 1923-1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved methods, new risks and risk outcome pairs, and new data on risk exposure levels and risk outcome associations. 

    Methods We used the CRA framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017. This study included 476 risk outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from 46 749 randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We explored the relationship between development and risk exposure by modelling the relationship between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) and risk-weighted exposure prevalence and estimated expected levels of exposure and risk-attributable burden by SDI. Finally, we explored temporal changes in risk-attributable DALYs by decomposing those changes into six main component drivers of change as follows: (1) population growth; (2) changes in population age structures; (3) changes in exposure to environmental and occupational risks; (4) changes in exposure to behavioural risks; (5) changes in exposure to metabolic risks; and (6) changes due to all other factors, approximated as the risk-deleted death and DALY rates, where the risk-deleted rate is the rate that would be observed had we reduced the exposure levels to the TMREL for all risk factors included in GBD 2017. 

    Findings In 2017,34.1 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33.3-35.0) deaths and 121 billion (144-1.28) DALYs were attributable to GBD risk factors. Globally, 61.0% (59.6-62.4) of deaths and 48.3% (46.3-50.2) of DALYs were attributed to the GBD 2017 risk factors. When ranked by risk-attributable DALYs, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) was the leading risk factor, accounting for 10.4 million (9.39-11.5) deaths and 218 million (198-237) DALYs, followed by smoking (7.10 million [6.83-7.37] deaths and 182 million [173-193] DALYs), high fasting plasma glucose (6.53 million [5.23-8.23] deaths and 171 million [144-201] DALYs), high body-mass index (BMI; 4.72 million [2.99-6.70] deaths and 148 million [98.6-202] DALYs), and short gestation for birthweight (1.43 million [1.36-1.51] deaths and 139 million [131-147] DALYs). In total, risk-attributable DALYs declined by 4.9% (3.3-6.5) between 2007 and 2017. In the absence of demographic changes (ie, population growth and ageing), changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs would have led to a 23.5% decline in DALYs during that period. Conversely, in the absence of changes in risk exposure and risk-deleted DALYs, demographic changes would have led to an 18.6% increase in DALYs during that period. The ratios of observed risk exposure levels to exposure levels expected based on SDI (O/E ratios) increased globally for unsafe drinking water and household air pollution between 1990 and 2017. This result suggests that development is occurring more rapidly than are changes in the underlying risk structure in a population. Conversely, nearly universal declines in O/E ratios for smoking and alcohol use indicate that, for a given SDI, exposure to these risks is declining. In 2017, the leading Level 4 risk factor for age-standardised DALY rates was high SBP in four super-regions: central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia; north Africa and Middle East; south Asia; and southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania. The leading risk factor in the high-income super-region was smoking, in Latin America and Caribbean was high BMI, and in sub-Saharan Africa was unsafe sex. O/E ratios for unsafe sex in sub-Saharan Africa were notably high, and those for alcohol use in north Africa and the Middle East were notably low. 

    Interpretation By quantifying levels and trends in exposures to risk factors and the resulting disease burden, this assessment offers insight into where past policy and programme efforts might have been successful and highlights current priorities for public health action. Decreases in behavioural, environmental, and occupational risks have largely offset the effects of population growth and ageing, in relation to trends in absolute burden. Conversely, the combination of increasing metabolic risks and population ageing will probably continue to drive the increasing trends in non-communicable diseases at the global level, which presents both a public health challenge and opportunity. We see considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity in levels of risk exposure and risk-attributable burden. Although levels of development underlie some of this heterogeneity, O/E ratios show risks for which countries are overperforming or underperforming relative to their level of development. As such, these ratios provide a benchmarking tool to help to focus local decision making. Our findings reinforce the importance of both risk exposure monitoring and epidemiological research to assess causal connections between risks and health outcomes, and they highlight the usefulness of the GBD study in synthesising data to draw comprehensive and robust conclusions that help to inform good policy and strategic health planning.

  • Wahab, Nor-Ul
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Evaluation of Supervised Machine LearningAlgorithms for Detecting Anomalies in Vehicle’s Off-Board Sensor Data2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is designed to physically remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine. Frequently replacing DPF is a waste of resource and waiting for full utilization is risky and very costly, so, what is the optimal time/milage to change DPF? Answering this question is very difficult without knowing when the DPF is changed in a vehicle.

    We are finding the answer with supervised machine learning algorithms for detecting anomalies in vehicles off-board sensor data (operational data of vehicles). Filter change is considered an anomaly because it is rare as compared to normal data.

    Non-sequential machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection like oneclass support vector machine (OC-SVM), k-nearest neighbor (K-NN), and random forest (RF) are applied for the first time on DPF dataset. The dataset is unbalanced, and accuracy is found misleading as a performance measure for the algorithms. Precision, recall, and F1-score are found good measure for the performance of the machine learning algorithms when the data is unbalanced. RF gave highest F1-score of 0.55 than K-NN (0.52) and OCSVM (0.51). It means that RF perform better than K-NN and OC-SVM but after further investigation it is concluded that the results are not satisfactory. However, a sequential approach should have been tried which could yield better result.

  • Randa Hedvall, Mira
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Tangenter ersätter pennan?: En studie av två högstadielärares användning av digitala verktyg i läs- och skrivundervisningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur två högstadielärare resonerar kring och arbetar med digitala verktyg utifrån de nya styrdokumenten. Enligt de nya riktlinjerna ifrån Skolverket ska skolan utveckla elevers digitala kompetens och inom ämnet svenska ska de arbeta både med och utan digitala verktyg i läs- och skrivundervisningen. För att besvara syftet brukades metodtriangulering med semistrukturerade intervjuer samt deltagande observation. Trianguleringen ämnar att ge en varierad bild av lärarna och möjlighet att sätta deras undervisning (observation) och tankar samt motiveringar (intervju) i relation till varandra. Ett teoretiskt avstamp tas i den sociokulturella teorin då det är arbetet med kulturella artefakter som står i centrum och centrala begrepp så som proximal utvecklingszon och mediering tas upp i analysen.

    Resultatet visar att de båda lärarna är vana vid att arbeta med digitala verktyg och har integrerat det i sina klassrum och i sin undervisning. De ser båda positivt på den tekniska utvecklingen och arbetar regelbundet med digitala verktyg främst för att det underlättar det organisatoriska arbetet så som att hålla reda på papper och uppgifter men också för att det gör det lättare för eleverna att redigera i sina texter och söka information på nätet. Kortare texter läses ofta på nätet medan längre skönlitterära texter läses i fysiska upplagor.

  • Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Life Cycle Cost of Heat Supply to Areas with Detached Houses: A Comparison of District Heating and Heat Pumps from an Energy System Perspective2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different views on whether district heating (DH) or heat pumps (HPs) is or are the best heating solution in order to reach a 100% renewable energy system. This article investigates the economic perspective, by calculating and comparing the energy system life cycle cost (LCC) for the two solutions in areas with detached houses. The LCC is calculated using Monte Carlo simulation, where all input data is varied according to predefined probability distributions. In addition to the parameter variations, 16 different scenarios are evaluated regarding the main fuel for the DH, the percentage of combined heat and power (CHP), the DH temperature level, and the type of electrical backup power. Although HP is the case with the lowest LCC for most of the scenarios, there are alternatives for each scenario in which either HP or DH has the lowest LCC. In alternative scenarios with additional electricity transmission costs, and a marginal cost perspective regarding the CHP investment, DH has the lowest LCC overall, taking into account all scenarios. The study concludes that the decision based on energy system economy on whether DH should expand into areas with detached houses must take local conditions into consideration.

  • Wedin, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Flerspråkighet och identitetsutveckling: Skolutveckling som policy och praktik2017In: Textkulturer: SMDI 12 / [ed] Ljung Egeland, B., Olin-Scheller, C., Teanner, M. & Tengberg, M., Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017, p. 45-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • Wattin, Jill
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Material som stimulerar elevers andraspråksinlärning: En enkät- och intervjustudie om lärares materialval i engelska och lågstadieelevers åsikter om det2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete undersöks vilka material lärare i F-3 använder för att stimulera elevers andraspråksinlärning och hur det stämmer överens med vad elever tycker är roligast att arbeta med. Undersökningen genomfördes med metodtriangulering genom en enkätundersökning med 81 elever och en intervjuundersökning med fem lärare. Resultatet transkriberades och analyserades genom innehållsanalys, samt har jämförts mot den socio-pedagogiska modellen och tidigare forskning. Resultatet visar att det finns en god överenstämmelse mellan vilket undervisningsmaterial som lärare anser stimulerar andraspråksinlärningen och vad elever tycker är roligast att arbeta med. Grundskolelärare använder ofta olika sorters undervisningsmaterial för att stimulera elevers andraspråksinlärning enligt tidigare forskning och examensarbetets resultat. Resultatet visade också att många elever lär sig engelska både i skolan och på fritiden, samt att över hälften av eleverna såg fram emot engelskundervisningen. Intervjuundersökningen och tidigare forskning visar dock att språklig ängslan finns och behöver hanteras. Studiens resultat kan inte generaliseras till en större population, men ger en idé om hur lärare och elever tänker angående undervisningsmaterial. Ytterligare forskning kan handla om ifall kön spelar roll vid val av undervisningsmaterial för att stimulera andraspråksinlärningen. Resultatet visade nämligen att de elever som inte ville prata eller inte såg fram emot engelskaundervisningen inte definierade sig som flicka.

  • Nilsson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Revisorernas rekommendationer i valet mellan K2 och K32018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study discusses accountants' view of the K frameworks and what motives that lies behind their recommendations to smaller businesses choosing between K2 and K3. The purpose of the study is to supplement the previous knowledge within the area to create opportunities for the businesses to become more independent when choosing accounting framework. The study also aims to look at if the accountants' independence can be questioned for this type of consulting. I've used semi structured interviews, a qualitative method, with four accountants to define an opinion. The empirical material has then been analyzed and conclusions been made that K3 can propose advantages for the business economic status, among other things because of the trading freedom the framework provides. K3 can also be favorable when the business' stakeholders are informed as well as making future expansions easier. When the accountants recommends K2, the simplifications of the framework seems to be an important motive, which can be assumed to be a way for the accountants to help their clients making rational savings as a result of less administration within the accounting. Measures to maintain the accountants' independence were, among other things, internal quality measures, second opinions from other agencies, using common sense, using a technique where the recommendations' pros and cons are proposed rather than making a decision on the behalf of the client, education and seminars within the subject, asking solicitors for advice, aiming for a culture where everyone feel free to express their opinions, as well as splitting auditing and consulting within the teams.

  • Landén, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Frölander, Rebecca
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Kampen om de fysiska butikernas överlevnad: En kvalitativ studie om hur fysiska butiker hanterar showrooming2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Showrooming is a growing phenomenon that poses a threat to bricks and mortar shops that are

    selling supplier branded products. Showrooming occurs when customers examine products at

    a bricks and mortar but then chooses to complete the purchase from an e-tailor through an

    online channel. Why these stores experience threat is because the supplier branded products

    are also available at other competitors. These competitors are often online stores, that not only

    offer a broader range of products, but also a lower price.

    The purpose of the thesis is to understand how bricks and mortar that are selling supplier

    branded products are handling showrooming. To achieve the purpose, a qualitative survey

    was applied and nine interviews with store managers or employees were conducted. This was

    done out of the basis of four factors; price, service, accessibility and in-store experience, as

    well as the respondents experience of the showrooming phenomenon. The result showed that

    all of the bricks and mortar, participating in the study, were exposed to showrooming at

    various degrees and that this was identified as a problem. This study states that the staff is of

    great importance when it comes to handle showrooming, as personal service does not achieve

    the same level at online stores as in physical stores. The experience of visiting a shop

    physically also proved to be a great motivation for the survival of physical stores.

  • Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalens högskola, Inbyggda system.
    Videography as Design Nexus: Critical Inquires into the Affordances and Efficacies of Live-action Video Instructions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about live-action instructional videos (LAVs). By addressing design problems with respect to the how-to video genre, the thesis asks fundamental questions about mediated instructional communication efficacies and the factors that either obstruct or augment them. 

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on the notion that videography is a design nexus and key focal point of the connections that make live-action video instructional efforts possible. This Design Nexus is explored by defining and illuminating key ontological dimensions, medium specificities and the video users’ cognitive capacities. This is to acknowledge that the users of instructions in this thesis are center stage, both as biological and cultural beings.

    The methods used in this thesis and its associated papers are eye-tracking, video observations, questionnaires, self-reports, focus group interviews and YouTube analytics. Hence, both numerical data and non-numerical data are analyzed in this study.

    The results of the analyses indicate that pre-production planning is key in live-action video instructional endeavors, but not at the expense of the videographer’s status as designer. Moreover, the analyses show that users’ cognitive processing and visual decoding depend on the power of the live-action format to show actual human behavior and action. Other presented evidence seems to infer that LAV-instructions are a little less demanding if users apply a focused decoding style when interacting with them. Nevertheless, physiological engagement of this kind is likely not to fully compensate for users’ psychological engagement.

    This thesis contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of humans’ abilities to interpret the actions of others via medial means. By relating this to video medium-specific affordances, this thesis also furthers important efficacy distinctions and boundary conditions. This understanding is considered important for live-action video makers and designers of visual instructions as well as scholars who need to develop better methods to assess users’ behavioral engagement when they interact with digital instructional media.

  • Wikström, Ewa
    et al.
    Dellenborg, Lisen
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Göteborgs universitet; Karolinska institutet.
    Gillespie, Brigid M
    Erichsen Andersson, Annette
    The Safe Hands Study: Implementing aseptic techniques in the operating room: Facilitating mechanisms for contextual negotiation and collective action2018In: American Journal of Infection Control, ISSN 0196-6553, E-ISSN 1527-3296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Even though hand hygiene and aseptic techniques are essential to provide safe care in the operating room, several studies have found a lack of successful implementation. The aim of this study was to describe facilitative mechanisms supporting the implementation of hand hygiene and aseptic techniques.

    METHODS: This study was set in a large operating room suite in a Swedish university hospital. The theory-driven implementation process was informed by the literature on organizational change and dialogue. Data were collected using interviews and participant observations and analyzed using a thematic approach. The normalization process theory served as a frame of interpretation during the analysis.

    RESULTS: Three facilitating mechanisms were identified: (1) commitment through a sense of urgency, requiring extensive communication between the managers, operating room professionals, and facilitators in building commitment to change and putting the issues on the agenda; (2) dialogue for co-creation, increasing and sustaining commitment and resource mobilization; and (3) tailored management support, including helping managers to develop their leadership role, progressively involving staff, and retaining focus during the implementation process.

    CONCLUSIONS: The facilitating mechanisms can be used in organizing implementation processes. Putting the emphasis on help and support to managers seems to be a crucial condition in complex implementation processes, from preparation of the change process to stabilization of the new practice.

  • Sadeq, Marlin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Abou El Alamien, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Intellektuellt kapital: En studie om redovisning av intellektuellt kapital2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background & problem:

    Intellectual capital was a well discussed subject two

    decades ago, which becomes apparent since most studies investigating the subject

    are from the 1990s and the early 2000s. In this paper we chose to resubmit the

    concept of intellectual capital to inform the existence of it in the annual reports of

    Swedish companies.


    The purpose of this study is to contribute to an increased knowledge of

    how it differs between different industries when it comes to the disclosure of

    intellectual capital and also to what extent intellectual capital is reported.


    Our study was conducted by using content analysis for nine annual

    reports. Content analysis is the most common method of use among researchers

    who intend to understand the disclosure of intellectual capital.

    Results & conclusions:

    The study's empirical results showed that the banking and

    finance industry disclosed the highest amount of intellectual capital, the data, IT

    and telecommunications industry disclosed the second highest amount, and finally

    the least amount was disclosed by the manufacturing and industrial industry. The

    result also showed that all companies in the three industries reported the highest

    amount of customer capital in relation to human and structural capital. Common to

    the three industries was that human capital was the least disclosed capital. The

    study also concluded that the manufacturing and industrial industry disclosed the

    highest amount of human and customer capital in relation to the remaining

    industries. However, the banking and finance industry disclosed relatively the

    highest amount of structural capital.

  • Charat, Hildegarde-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Etude de la traduction d’Esther Sermage du livre Faller fritt som i en dröm de Leif G.W Persson: Etude des techniques et méthodes de traduction utilisées dans le livre Comme dans un rêve 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to analysis Esther Sermage’s translation of Leif G.W Persson’s book

    Faller Fritt som I en dröm which was published in 2011 in France under the name of Comme dans un rêve. The analysis focused on the methods of translation that Esther Sermage uses in a recurrent way, as the equivalence and the borrowing methods, and on the will of the translator to foreign as much as possible the French translation to give to her readers a very Swedish atmosphere. By those means, we have selected a number of twelve chapters in the book where we observed Esther Sermage’s translation and we followed Venuti, Berman, J.P Vinay, J. Darbelnet’ and other’s methods and theories of translation. At the end of our paper, we will analyze how the french public received the book Comme dans un rêve and what they thought about it.

  • Marchetti, Federica
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    La représentation du personnage de Victoire dans Victoire, les saveurs et les mots de Maryse Condé2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way the character Victoire in the novel

    Victoire : my mother’s mother is represented and what makes her complex and enigmatic is the purpose of this study. In this novel, Maryse Condé writes about her grandmother whom she has never met. Since early childhood she has decided to document herself about Victoire Quidal and to write a book about her. The method used in the thesis is double, one method is narratological and the other one is biographical. The narrator switches between different points of view on Victoire, she is sometimes seen from an external point of view by the society, which is very critical, she is also seen internally which gives a very different vision of the character. The character is also seen through other characters, such as her daughter Jeanne. The aim of this thesis is to show Victoire’s personality, to describe the way she is with men, with her daughter, at work and show that she is much more rebellious than she is submissive and that she is a complex and interesting character.

  • Rycroft-Malone, Jo
    et al.
    Seers, Kate
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Cox, Karen
    Crichton, Nicola
    Harvey, Gill
    Hawkes, Claire
    Kitson, Alison
    McCormack, Brendan
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet; Göteborgs universitet.
    A realist process evaluation within the Facilitating Implementation of Research Evidence (FIRE) cluster randomised controlled international trial: an exemplar2018In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Facilitation is a promising implementation intervention, which requires theory-informed evaluation. This paper presents an exemplar of a multi-country realist process evaluation that was embedded in the first international randomised controlled trial evaluating two types of facilitation for implementing urinary continence care recommendations. We aimed to uncover what worked (and did not work), for whom, how, why and in what circumstances during the process of implementing the facilitation interventions in practice.

    METHODS: This realist process evaluation included theory formulation, theory testing and refining. Data were collected in 24 care home sites across four European countries. Data were collected over four time points using multiple qualitative methods: observation (372 h), interviews with staff (n = 357), residents (n = 152), next of kin (n = 109) and other stakeholders (n = 128), supplemented by facilitator activity logs. A combined inductive and deductive data analysis process focused on realist theory refinement and testing.

    RESULTS: The content and approach of the two facilitation programmes prompted variable opportunities to align and realign support with the needs and expectations of facilitators and homes. This influenced their level of confidence in fulfilling the facilitator role and ability to deliver the intervention as planned. The success of intervention implementation was largely dependent on whether sites prioritised their involvement in both the study and the facilitation programme. In contexts where the study was prioritised (including release of resources) and where managers and staff support was sustained, this prompted collective engagement (as an attitude and action). Internal facilitators' (IF) personal characteristics and abilities, including personal and formal authority, in combination with a supportive environment prompted by managers triggered the potential for learning over time. Learning over time resulted in a sense of confidence and personal growth, and enactment of the facilitation role, which resulted in practice changes.

    CONCLUSION: The scale and multi-country nature of this study provided a novel context to conduct one of the few trial embedded realist-informed process evaluations. In addition to providing an explanatory account of implementation processes, a conceptual platform for future facilitation research is presented. Finally, a realist-informed process evaluation framework is outlined, which could inform future research of this nature.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trials ISRCTN11598502 .

  • Sundström Rask, Katarina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Introduktionsverksamhet för nyanlända elever i grundskolans tidiga år2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children who migrate to Sweden are usually introduced to the Swedish school through some kind of introduction programme in their new community. This study examines the experiences of newly arrived children participating in school introduction in the early school years, as well as the experiences of the teachers and principals working with the programme. In the community in which this study is situated, newly arrived children participate in a special school unit where the goal is to map their experiences and skills from former education, and where the teaching of Swedish as a second language is seen as an important part of the introduction.

    Forty-two interviews (40 individual and 2 pairs) were conducted with principals, teachers and newly arrived children (ages appropriate for Years 2, 3, 4 and 5 in elementary school). Employing a social constructivist perspective, together with inspiration from Critical Discourse Analysis, the study aimed at outlining the discourses the participants draw on when speaking about the school introduction and how these discourses affect the participants’ positioning of themselves and other participants in the school practice. Fairclough’s theory of discourse (1992, 2001) provides an understanding of how participants experience being part of the school introduction as well as their own and other participants’ positions in the school practice due to ambient discourses.

    The results indicate that four discourses dominate the practice and affect the participants’ view of each other and themselves as well as their possibilities to impact the practice and their own situation as being a part of it. The four discourses that were identified are described as 1) the Swedish language as a key to success in school, 2) the adjustment of behaviour as a key to success in school, 3) the substantial immigration as a challenge, and 4) heed.

  • Wessung, Madeleine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Engelska varje dag: En studie om daglig exponering av engelska i årskurs F-32018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att studera F-3-lärares inställning till och möjlighet att ge

    elever daglig exponering av engelska.

    Studien gjordes med halvstrukturerade intervjuer samt

    tourist guide technique som

    datainsamlingsmetoder. Tre F-3-lärare med engelska som ett av sina undervisningsämnen från

    en kommun i Mellansverige deltog i studien.

    Resultatet visade att lärarna åstadkommer daglig exponering av engelska i olika former och i

    olika omfattning genom undervisning, morgonrutiner och genom dess synlighet i skolmiljön.

    Informanterna har generellt en positiv inställning till daglig exponering av engelska och ser

    det som en möjlighet för ytterligare utveckling hos eleverna i engelskämnet. Samtidigt ses

    hinder med att införliva en daglig exponering. Tidsbrist, elevernas begränsade kunskaper samt

    risken att exkludera elever med svårigheter i ämnet ses som försvårande omständigheter.

    Engelskämnets status undersöktes utifrån en önskan om förståelse kring förutsättningar för en

    daglig exponering av engelska. Här visar resultatet en varierad bild, även om de flesta

    undersökta faktorer tyder på en lägre status hos engelskämnet (än exempelvis matematik och

    svenska). Exponering av engelskämnet i skolmiljön görs, med några undantag, främst i

    klassrummen på de besökta skolorna.

    Förslag på vidare forskning handlar om ämnesintegrering med inkludering av engelska.

  • Wijnbladh, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Språklig medvetenhet och skriftspråksförberedande undervisning i förskoleklass: Fem förskoleklasslärares undervisning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att ge en nulägesbeskrivning och öka förståelsen för undervisningen i förskoleklass vad gäller innehållet i undervisningen som syftar till att utveckla elevers språkliga medvetenhet och skriftspråksförberedande förmågor. Det är av särskilt intresse i en tid när förskoleklassen är föremål för ökad politisk styrning.

    Studiens teoretiska inramning är det sociokulturella perspektivet med teoretiska begrepp såsom språklig medvetenhet, skriftspråksutveckling, undervisning och didaktisk teori. Materialet består framför allt av intervjuer med lärare och observationer av undervisningen och har analyserats med hjälp av tematisk innehållsanalys. Kartläggningsmaterialet i språklig medvetenhet

    Hitta språket har också lagts som ett raster vid analysen.

    Av resultatet framgår att undervisningen utgår från läroplanen, och att läromedel, särskilt Bornholmsmodellen utgör dominerade inslag i undervisningen. Studiens bidrag förutom ovanstående är att bidra till den ackumulerade forskningen vad gäller undervisningen i allmänhet och i synnerhet hur undervisningen kan beskrivas i slutet av förskoleklassåret.

  • Tyllström, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Sjunga för att lära: Hur lärare anser att sång, musik, rim och ramsor kan bidra till ett lärande i engelskämnet för årskurs F-32018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Engelskämnet bör ses som centralt i skolan då det har en del i elevernas kommande yrkesliv i och med den globalisering som sker i vår värld. Forskning pekar på att musik och sång kan bidra till en mer stimulerande och avslappnad miljö i de yngre skolåren. Detta examensarbetet syftar till att undersöka hur sång, musik, rim och ramsor kan användas i engelskundervisningen för elever i årskurs F-3. I undersökningen är lärares perspektiv i fokus, där deras åsikter om hur och varför de använder sång, musik, rim och ramsor i engelskundervisningen är centrala. Att undersöka detta kan ge insikt i hur sång, musik, rim och ramsor används då tidigare forskning påvisar att det inte nyttjas i den utsträckning som det finns möjlighet till. Undersökningen genomfördes med enkäter och intervjuer med olika lärare. Den insamlade datan analyserades sedan utifrån innehållsanalys och multivariat analys. I analysen tillämpades Vygotskijs sociokulturella perspektiv samt Ashers teori,

    total physical response. Resultatet visade att förekomsten av innehållet var vanligt och lärarna i studien var positivt inställda till användningen av sång, musik, rim och ramsor. Lärarna i studien såg även ämnesinnehållet som ett bidrag till lärande samt att det var ett lustfyllt sätt för eleverna att lära sig engelska på. Trots att lärarna i huvudsak var positivt inställda till ämnesinnehållet så såg de även nackdelar då de menar att eleverna kan tappa fokus och lektionerna kan bli röriga. Ämnen för fortsatt forskning kan vara att belysa elevperspektivet samt att mer utförligt undersöka verkningsfulla metoder inom sång, musik, rim och ramsor.

  • Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    The Price We Pay: The Autonomy of Store Managers in Making Price Decisions: The Case of Grocery Retailing2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, the store manager’s autonomy in making price decisions is explored to further our understanding of this actor. As a result, the store manager’s embeddedness in the manufacturer-retailer-consumer triad provides a more holistic view of the price decisions made in grocery retailing. In both the scientific literature and the grey literature, discussions of whom it is who actually makes the price decisions within grocery retailing are diverse and point to all three actors in the triad, including the store manager.

    Through a theoretical departure in which price decisions and autonomy is discussed, it is possible to explore the store manager’s ability to make price decisions in relation to the manufacturer-retailer-consumer triad. As an embedded actor in the triad, the store managers can, theoretically andspeculatively, face restrictions in relation to all actors.

    The context in which this dissertation is placed is that of the grocery retail branch in Sweden, where the three largest retail organisations have participated in the dissertation. This dissertation consists of the cover paper and five appended papers, where autonomy is discussed from a qualitative perspective within the frame of a mixed method approach. By looking at price decisions from the store manager’s perspective, and his/her freedom in making price decisions, the dissertation contributes to the area of micro-foundations of pricing.

    It is concluded that while store managers might not be formally autonomous in making price decisions, and that connected restrictions, due to the relationship and position of the actors in the original triad are in place, the store managers have enough freedom in relation to the store to implicitly and operationally influence price decisions. As a result, it is concluded that the possibility to resist decisions by acting as if they are autonomous, store managers become important actors to be taken into account when price decisions are made and evaluated.

  • Zhou, Nian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. KTH, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steels are widely used in applications where both the mechanical properties of steels and high corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to enable stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A way to achieve this is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

    The central theme of this thesis is surface integrity and corrosion, especially the stress corrosion cracking behavior, after grinding processes. Controlled grinding parameters, including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant, were used and the resulting surface properties studied for austenitic 304L and duplex 2304 stainless steels. The abrasive grit size effect was found to have a larger influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of a high level surface tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage. 

    The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behavior of austenitic 304L, ferritic 4509 and duplex 2304 stainless steels in chloride-containing environments was also investigated.  The abrasive grit size effect on corrosion behavior for the three grades was compared. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks on the ground surface for 304L and 2304; for 4509, grinding-induced grain fragmentation was considered as the main factor for the initiation of extensive micro-pits. For duplex 2304, the microstructure and micro-notches in the as-ground surface also had significant influence. Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bending was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. The knowledge obtained from this work can provide guidance for choosing appropriate stainless steel grades and grinding parameters; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.