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  • Recensioner1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 2, 86-109 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Zetterberg, Hans L
    City-universitetet, Stockholm.
    Samhällssfärerna i historiens ljus1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 2, 63-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal spheres in the light of history

    A division of society into statecraft, economy, and civil society is found in Plato’s Republic. Its theoretical base is the differentiated and sometimes contradictory norms for these spheres. The mainstream of European structuration is traced from the ’two swords’ - state and church - that structured western European society in the Middle Ages to the six societal spheres (or cardinal institutions) of society - the economy, government, science, religion, ethics, and art - that are visible today. Each maintain a large measure of independence (Weber’s Eigengesetzlichkeit). Each is dependent on a special type of freedom: civic liberties, free trade, academic freedom, religious toleration, the right to follow one’s conscience, artistic license. The paper pauses in this differentiation process at special junctures: the English revolution, the emergence of the Latin American and North American societies, the evolution of modem society as an underpinning of democracy, the emergence of the European Union, and the post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe.

  • Furåker, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Systemskifte med förhinder?1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 2, 46-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shift of system with obstacles?

    To begin with, the article discusses the concepts in the theme of the Swedish Sociological Association’s annual meeting 1994, ”State, market and civil society” . It is argued that the democratic character of the state and its positive role in providing social services should not be underestimated, that the market category tends to make the process of production invisible,and that the ideas about civil society are muddy. Then, the Swedish societal model is described with the help of modified versions of these concepts. It was built upon a compromise between labour and capital and it is characterized by a generous transfer system, a large public service production, a market-oriented but rather regulated capitalist economy,and a comparatively weak civil society. In recent years, neoliberalism has gained ground and reforms have been carried out weakening the role of the state and the public sector. However, the alleged positive results of the shift of system have not appeared and this is no doubt a problem for those advocating such reforms. The process may nevertheless continue, since the prerequisites of the compromise between labour and capital have been undermined with, among other things, the growing internationalization of the economy.

  • Ahrne, Göran
    Stockholms universitet.
    Organiseringen av det civila samhället1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 2, 38-45 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of civil society

    The three societal spheres state, market and civil society are compared from an organizational perspective. A state is a certain kind of organization with compulsory affiliation. The state is an empirical category that is fairly easy to describe. A market is made up of the interaction of several organizations in exchange. Most actors on a market are people acting on behalf of organizations. Also states are present in markets buying arms for example, or as employers on the labour market. There are several kinds of organization mentioned in connection with civil society such as voluntary associations, social movements and networks. It is concluded that the organizations of civil society are not very persistent. Moreover the notion of civil society is not more incompatible with the state than with other organizational arrangements. As a conclusion it is argued that it is more relevant to understand social processes in terms of types of organization that in terms of states, markets and civil society.

  • Björnberg, Ulla
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Familj mellan marknad och stat/politik. En fråga om kön, klass och makt1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 2, 26-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The family between market and state. A question of gender, class an power

    With reference to the far-reaching social and economic changes from a global perspective, the focus of the political discussions is now laid on the conditions of family life. The family is a third sphere between the market and the state. As such, it cannot be analysed independently of changes on the labour market and in the political economy. In this article, the thesis is advanced that the family policies must be analysed with reference to class and gender. The way in which changes in the composition of classes affect the current political process in Sweden is problematised. The significance of analysing the class relation of the service society from a gender perspective is particularly stressed. Sweden is currently a gender segregated class society. The higher classes are male dominated, and the lower classes are female dominated. A gender-based ’class struggle’ has emerged within strata. The solidarity within and between strata is weakened, since the struggle is also a gender struggle, and men tend to emphasise their higher status against women, not to equalise it. The bill about care allowance is critically scrutinised from class political and gender political perspectives. While presented as an issue of equality between family forms, it is argued, in this article, that its purpose is to strengthen a traditional family form in the working class.

  • Brante, Thomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Teori och typologi: Om förhållandet mellan makrosociologi, institutionella sfärer och social handling1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 2, 3-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory and typology. Macrosociology, institutional spheres and social action

    The conceptual triad ’state-market-civil society’ is taken as point of departure for a discussion of the broader issue of the uses of typologies in sociology. It is argued that in order to avoid being subordinated to politically loaded notions pervading public discourse, a genuine sociological typology should meet two demands; its dimensions should be derived from a macro-sociological theory, and it should be underpinned by a micro-sociological theory of action. In this way, a typology will serve as a pipeline between micro and macro theories, and also as a checking point for estimating the coherence between these two levels of analysis. As an illustration, Mary Douglas’ grid-group model is introduced. This typology is derivable from Durkheim’s macro-sociology, but it has a weak microfoundation. Two theories of action are discussed and compared; the theory of rational choice and the theory of interaction rituals. After demonstrating that the theory of rational choice is incommensurable with the ”multi-rational” premises of the grid-group model, itis indicated that an elaboration of the Goffmanian theory of interaction rituals would constitute a viable micro-foundation for the grid-group model. Finally, it is concluded that from the point of view of grid-group, ’civil society’ is a highly ambiguous category that should be replaced by the categories of ’community’ and ’isolate’.

  • Udehn, Lars
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1994:21994Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Daniels, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Hur lärare förhåller sig till genus i användandet av skönlitteratur i undervisningen: En enkätundersökning med 31 lärare2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har syftat till att undersöka vilken betydelse 31 lärare, verksamma i årskurs F–3, ger genus vid val av arbetssätt och skönlitteratur i samband med högläsning. Syftet har konkretiserats genom en frågeställning som inneburit att söka svar på vad som är avgörande för dessa lärares val av högläsningsbok och hur dessa lärare ser på att arbeta med skönlitteratur med koppling till frågor rörande genus. Studiens teoretiska utgångspunkt har varit det sociokulturella perspektivet och för studiens resultatanalys har de teoretiska verktygen inneburit en didaktisk ansats. För studien har använts kvalitativa metoder i form av enkäter och telefonintervju.

    Resultatet för studien visar att det finns ett genusperspektiv med i lärares val av böcker, vilket utgörs av att lärarna i sina val försöker variera pojk- och flickkaraktärer. Vidare framgår att samtliga lärare som deltagit i studien anser det vara viktigt att ha med ett genusperspektiv i valet av skönlitteratur. Att högläsa och sedan föra textsamtal framgår vara den metod som lämpar sig bäst för att kombinera skönlitteratur och genusfrågor. Samtalen utgörs av gemensamma diskussioner i klassrummet. Ett sådant arbete är enligt deltagande lärare i studien gynnande för eleverna, då de ges möjlighet att få ta del av andra elevers uppfattningar men även får delge sina egna tankar. På så vis möjliggörs att eleverna får en mer neutral syn på de båda könen. Viktigt för att en sådan metod ska kunna tillämpas på ett positivt sätt är att ha en god klassrumsmiljö, där eleverna känner sig trygga med varandra. Dessa resultat stämmer väl överens med den forskning som finns om att arbeta med skönlitteratur och genusfrågor.

  • Recensioner1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 3, 92-104 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Carleheden, Mikael
    Lunds universitet.
    Alternativ eller rekonstruktion: Om Habermas kritik av Marx1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 3, 79-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative or Reconstruction? - On Haberm as criticism of Marx

    Should we understand Habermas’ works in social theory and politics as an alternative to or a reconstruction of Marx? I try in this article to present the possible arguments for both standpoints. It is shown that if we take our point of departure in Habermas’ distinction between ”labour” and ”interaction”, we must treat his writings as an alternative to Marx. If we, however, start out with his distinction between ”life world” and ”system”, then we must understand them as a reconstruction. In the first case it becomes clear that the concepts ”labour” and ”interaction” are opposites and can be used to ground opposite social scientific paradigms, but in the second case it becomes just as clear that Habermas’ criticism of the system’s colonisation of the life world is modelled after Marx’ criticism of political economy. Taken together, Habermas two forms of criticism of Marx leads him to transfer the Marxian form of criticism of modem society from the capitalistic economy to the paternalistic social state. That is, Habermas doesn’t locate reification in the capitalistic mode of production. In society of today reification is the product of the social state.

  • Agevall, Ola
    Högskolan i Växjö.
    Weber, kausaliteten och oändligheten1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 3, 57-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weber, causality and infinity

    While it is widely acknowledged that Max Weber was a neo-kantian of some sort, comparatively little has been done to trace down how this affects other parts of his work. This article argues that Weber’s theory of causality can be viewed as an answer to problems evolving from his neo-kantian framework. The aim of the article becomes twofold. First, to give an exposition of Weber’s theory of causality, and second to use this piece of theory as an example of how parts of Weber’s methodology are designed to solve problems posed by the neo-kantian framework. The neo-kantian framework referred to can be summarized in the theses that (I) reality offers an infinite plenitude, and (II) that there is nothing in reality itself that can present us with its interpretation. Taken together, these theses result in the necessity for the subject to make a selection from the infinite reality. These theses are applied to the problem of selecting causes from the infinite causal chain. In order to solve this problem, Weber takes recourse to the adequate cause theory, a variant of jurisprudential theory founded by Johannes von Kries. The last part of the article gives an exposition of some of the basic characteristics and consequences of adequate cause theory.

  • Nilsson, Beatrice
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Digitala verktyg och läsmotivation: Hur digitala verktyg används i högstadiet för att stimulera elevernas vilja att läsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Eriksson, Ingalill
    Mitthögskolan i Sundsvall.
    Den svenska sociologins dolda historia - fallet Gustaf Steffen1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 3, 44-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hidden History of Swedish Sociology - The Case of Gustaf Steffen

    According to the official history of Swedish sociology, it started in 1947 when Torgny Segerstedt was appointed professor in sociology at the University of Uppsala. This article treats the largely hidden history of Gustav Steffen (1864 - 1929), who was professor in sociology and economics in Gothenburg 1903-1929. Steffen was oriented towards Europe and lived many years in Germany, England and Italy. He worked as a correspondent for Swedish newspapers and he made several empirical studies of relevance for social policy. Steffen was also a social democrat and member of parliament. The sociology of Gustav Steffen was influenced by the philosopher Henri Bergson, especially his philosophy of intuition. According to Steffen, the most important task is to promote a life in close contact with both nature and society and combined with studies in philosophy and science. Today, when there is a renewed interest in the relation between professional knowledge and intuition, and in ecology and intuition, students in sociology should know more about this pioneer of Swedish sociology. Gustav Steffen was hidden partly for political reasons and partly because his sociology did not fit the scientistic ideal of the first generation of Swedish sociology. Today, times may be ripe for an appreciation of Gustav Steffen as a sociologist.

  • Hammarström, Gunhild
    Uppsala universitet.
    Begreppet solidaritet i generationsstudier - en kritisk diskussion1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 3, 23-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solidarity in intergenerational studies - a concept under debate

    In intergenerational studies the concept of ’solidarity’ has been crucial in analyses of the relations between the generations. The concept of ’solidarity’ is based on Durkheim’s concept of ’mechanic solidarity’, and is developed out of theories about cohesion in small groups presuming connections between contact, affection and value similarity. The concept of ’intergenerational solidarity’ is assumed to be a single higher-order construct of various dimensions correlated with each other. Some earlier empirical studies fail to support these presumptions, which in spite of this has not led to a critical discussion, or reconsideration of the theoretical presumptions of this concept. The purpose of this presentation is to put the concept of ’intergenerational solidarity’ under debate in the light of these earlier results and of empirical results from a Swedish survey conducted in three family generations. The survey includes two parent generations; one older and one middle-aged, and two child generations; the middle-aged ones and one younger generation, totally 888 subjects between 15 and 97 years of age. The analyses show that presumed connections between the various solidarity dimensions are lacking. The lack of correlations refer especially to the parent generations, and to a lesser degree to the child generations, which might be explained by the asymmetric relationship between parents and children. Theoretically, this lack of correlation might be due to its origin in small group theory and its presumption of voluntary group membership. Family and kinship relations are not voluntary, and as intergenerational relationships are asymmetric, it would be difficult to find a unitary and higher-order concept suitable for both parents and children. The analysis suggests that Durkheim’s concept of ’mechanic solidarity’ does not apply to family and kinship relations. The conclusion is that some of the theoretical presumptions concerning the concept of ’intergenerational solidarity’ are not applicable to family and kinship relations. As an alternative to the concept of ’solidarity’, Weber’s concepts of Vergemeinschaftung and Vergesellschaftung are suggested.

  • Abrahamsson, Bengt
    Arbetslivscentrum, Stockholm.
    Det gick som det gick. Om inre logik, särskilt i organisationer1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 3, 3-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whatever happened, happened. Some notes on inner logic, especially in organizations

    The notion that social events partly arise as a consequence of inner logic, i.e. that patterns and structures emerge outside of, or even in opposition against, plans and goals is a common element in social science. Inner logic is a summary term for social processes developing autonomously, i.e. without any individual or group intending them. Organizations quite often contain inner-logic processes. If, as this author maintains, fruitful organization theory has to build on rationalistic assumptions, how then do we handle instances of inner logic? A first step may be to break up the traditional link between structuralism and functionalism, maintaining the former and rejecting the latter. Organizations are intentionally dynamic, i.e. depend on order and predictability. To the extent that inner-logic processes appear in organizations, they should be analysed as confrontations between opposing rationalities rather than as spontaneous reactions of a ”system” . Also, frequently recurring organizational forms such as hierarchy are more fruitfully regarded as e.g. transaction-cost outcomes rather than as functional responses to system needs. Rationalism and structuralism are compatible, rationalism and functionalism are not.

  • Udehn, Lars
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1994:31994Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Rasch, André
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Utvärdering av Ngenic Tune: Smart styrning av värmesystem i småhus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016, the global energy consumption was represented to 20 % by buildings, where energy use supplied heating, cooling, lightning and water heating. For the following years until 2040, global energy consumption is expected to grow 48 %, which in turn make demand for energy efficient measures. For the years of 2030 as well 2050, the EU-commission have set up climate goals to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Along with this were presented strategies for meeting future climate goals, where one strategy is about increasing overall energy efficiency, which includes buildings. One way of increasing building energy efficiency is through implementation of smart heating control, a cost-effective solution which through a retrofitting measure may reduce building energy consumption. For this paper, a smart thermostat named Ngenic Tune was implemented into a selection of single family houses in Borlänge district heating network. The purpose was to study improvements in thermal comfort and reduction of return temperature from domestic substations. Through a combined survey-interview study of Ngenic Tune users, the study revealed promising potentials for large scale implementation of the technology. The smart thermostat also showed tendency of lowering the return temperature.

  • Yvell, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Grehk, T. M.
    Hedström, P.
    Borgenstam, A.
    Engberg, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Microstructure development in a high-nickel austenitic stainless steel using EBSD during in situ tensile deformation2018In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 135, no Supplement C, 228-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic deformation of surface grains has been observed by electron backscatter diffraction technique during in situ tensile testing of a high-nickel austenitic stainless steel. The evolution of low- and high-angle boundaries as well as the orientation changes within individual grains has been studied. The number of low-angle boundaries and their respective misorientation increases with increasing strain and some of them also evolve into high-angle boundaries leading to grain fragmentation. The annealing twin boundaries successively lose their integrity with increasing strain. The changes in individual grains are characterized by an increasing spread of orientations and by grains moving towards more stable orientations with 〈111〉 or 〈001〉 parallel to the tensile direction. No deformation twins were observed and deformation was assumed to be caused by dislocation slip only.

  • Persson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, History. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Lärartillvaro och historieundervisning: innebörder av ett nytt uppdrag i de mätbara resultatens tid2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish compulsory school has recently been subjected to a number of political reforms. Between 2011 and 2014, for example, earlier grades, more national tests and a new curriculum plan (Lgr 11) were to be implemented. This thesis aims to examine those changes as they were experienced by teachers who teach history in Swedish upper primary schools. The theoretical framework is in-spired by existential philosophy, primarily as formulated in the works of Martin Heidegger and Hanna Arendt. In this way, the study highlights the teachers’ lived experience by making use of the concepts yearning, appearance, acting and mood.

    The study comprises of 36 interviews with 26 informants. The interviews were carried out and transcribed during 2014. The questions focus on both the existential being of the teachers’ lives as well as the ideological function of the history subject. This highly renders in the issue of how lived experiences of a specific school reform corresponded to the teachers’ own perception of a mean-ingful history education. Both the yearnings that were expressed by the participants and their de-scriptions of what they have experienced, have been related to the overall educational ideological functions stated by Gert Biesta (socialisation, subjectification and qualification) and Jonas Aspelin (existentialisation).

    Although the teachers’ narratives were greatly varied in some aspects, their interpretations of the new assignment seemed to be quite homogenous. Most of the teachers portrayed a situation characterised by performativity. Measurable knowledge and more frequent documentation seemed to be prioritised. Some of them stressed that they experienced less autonomy. In terms of history, the new curriculum was associated with more content knowledge, cognitive skills and procedural abilities. From the teachers’ perspective, pure qualification, rather than subjectification and social-isation, characterised the new curriculum.

    Still, the teachers’ feelings towards the curricular changes showed a great deal of divergence. Some of them embraced most of the new aspects. They claimed that clearly formulated require-ments in the history curricula provided them with security. They declared that their history teaching to some extent became more professional. In line with such beliefs, some teachers asserted that the strengthened focus on analytical skills improved their teaching. Particularly those who ex-pressed that they preferred such analytic procedural approaches described their experience in terms of confirmation and approval. Others appeared to struggle with the changes. While a few teachers even tried to resist the curricular changes, some found themselves forced to endure what appeared to be a totally new situation. They expressed disbelief, frustration and pain. Notably it was those most devoted to the existentialisational function of history teaching that usually seemed to express such alienation. As argued, they appeared to long for a lost possibility to engage their pupils, to bring history alive and to make meaning of the past.

  • Recensioner1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 4, 101-112 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Ekström, Mats
    Högskolan i Örebro.
    Debatt. Om den förmenta läsningen av ”Variabelanalysensgränser” - Svar till Olle Lundberg1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 4, 95-100 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Lundeberg, Olle
    Stockholms universitet.
    Debatt. ”Variabelanalysens” förmenta gränser - Svar till Mats Ekström1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 4, 90-95 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mäkinen, Ilkka
    Stockholms universitet.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Självmord, mord och kultur. En jämförelse av tio länder i Europa1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 4, 78-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide, homicide and culture. A comparison of ten european countries

    The present study investigates the way in which the homicide and suicide rates of ten European countries are related to each other. Is there empirical support for a psychoanalytically based hypothesis of a reverse relationship between homicide and suicide? Or are certain cultural values and patterns more important for such links? Rank correlations and regressions of age-standardised suicide and homicide rates, for men and women in the European countries were conducted. Similar analyses in relation to values as defined by World Values Survey were also performed. There was a slight tendency for countries with high homicide rates to have low suicide rates, and vice versa (among men). For women, however, the relationship was found to be positive and stronger throughout. Countries with high female homicide rates often also had high female suicide rates. The cultural values which could be associated most closely with suicide and homicide rates were religiously and sexually coloured moral attitudes. Suicide rates were lower in countries where God plays a greater role in peoples’ consciousness. Countries where attitudes to abortion, euthanasia, divorce etc were negative, usually also had lower suicide rates for both sexes. The relationship between homicide rates and these attitudes was, for men, the opposite. In countries with a strong belief in God and low religious and sexual tolerance the male but not the female risk of being murdered is higher than in countries with a weaker belief in God. The hypothetical relation between homicide and suicide rates, suggested by psychoanalytically inspired theories, seems to be more readily explained by cultural patterns, in particular a complex of attitudes towards religious and sexual matters.

  • Widlund, Ingrid
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Uppsala.
    Är offentliganställda annorlunda? Sektorstillhörighet och medborgarattityder i svensk politik1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 4, 62-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are public sector employees different? Sectorial and citizen attitudes in Swedish politics.

    This article raises the question whether it makes a difference for people’s attitudes towards the public sector to be employed by, or have their main income from, the private or the public sector. An analysis based on quantitative data from 1987 reveals that these dividing lines had no significant effect on the level of discontent with public activities such as health care, child care and eldercare, but proved to have a slight effect on attitudes to public institutions: state authorities, municipal authorities, the courts and parliament (Riksdagen). Public employees have somewhat greater confidence in these institutions. This effect remained more or less intact as tested against gender, education, age and occupation. The main conclusion however is that the impact of both type of employment and source of income is far too low to support the general idea that public/private affiliation in these respects is has any real importance for citizen attitudes in Sweden.

  • Kupferberg, Feiwel
    Aalborgs universitetscenter.
    Livsvärldar och systemtransformation1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 4, 33-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifeworlds and Systemtransformations

    How are we to understand and explain the ongoing processes of transformation in Eastern Europe? The main thesis of this article is that the difficulties of the social sciences to predict both the collapse of the previous system and the difficulties in transforming them to systems of the Western type, is due to an underestimation of the strength and independence of the life-world dimension of the social order. The predominance of ”systemic thought” in the social sciences is related to a view of capitalism which grossly overestimates the unpersonal, ”systemic” dimension of this social order. It is argued that the capitalist social order is not only a system, but is also contingent on the existence of a life-world. The coming into existence of this life-world cannot be taken for granted. Sociology has partly recognized the existence of this life-world by emphasizing the importance of the moral dimension in capitalist societies, but theoretically and methodologically ”systemic” sociology has been unable to explain how this particular capitalist morality is possible. The role of Adam Smiths theory of morality and capitalism is discussed and compared to other, more ”life-world”-oriented sociological theories, such as phenonemology, the symbolic interactionism of Cooley and Mead, and the civilizational sociology of Norbert Elias.

  • Månson, Per
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Minervas uggla och Sovjetunionens fall1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 4, 3-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Owl of Minerva and the fall of the USSR

    Michail Gorbachev’s resignation from the position as president of the USSR in the end of 1991 meant that nearly 75 year of Soviet power in Russia and other countries was over. During these years, the academic knowledge of the Soviet system, its orgins and future, that developed in the West, was namned “ sovietology”. This article takes its point of departure in Hegel’s famous dictum “The Owl of Minerva begins its flight when the shades of twilight have already fallen”, and asks: “Has the dissolution of the USSR changed anythingin our knowledge of the Soviet epoch?”.

    The article first presents and discusses how sovietologists and others looked upon the future of the Soviet system, including its potential fall. Then follows a presentation of sovietology’s background in the cold war. In the third part the main directions in Sovietology— totalitarianism and revisionism— are presented. After this follows an overviewof the post soviet debate of the reasons for the dissolution of the USSR, after which the opening question : ”If the dissolution has changed our understanding of the USSR?” is answered with “very little, it seems”.

    However, in the last part of the article, some new areas of research are proposed, for example the study of every day life in Soviet Union and the historical and cultural influence on the formation, development and fall of the Soviet system. Finally, it is emphasized that the study of the Soviet epoch now, at last, can be de-ideologinized.

  • Udehn, Lars
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1994:41994Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Fridberg, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Gustavsson, Catharina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. b Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University.
    Self-efficacy in activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness: a focus group study2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy is associated with health status, health behaviour and health behaviour change in various chronic health conditions.

    PURPOSE: To describe self-efficacy in relation to Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirteen women and three men, aged 45-82 years, with persistent dizziness (duration 4 months to 30 years) were recruited from an outpatient physiotherapy unit. A qualitative study was conducted using four focus groups and one individual interview and was then analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: The participants conveyed, in-depth information concerning two predefined main categories. Self-efficacy in Activities of daily living was related to challenging body positions and motions, environments, social activities, work tasks, and complex cognitive behaviours. Self-efficacy in symptom management was related to distress and aggravated symptoms, unfamiliar environment, and unknown people.

    CONCLUSIONS: People with dizziness describe how self-efficacy for specific activities varies according to the perceived difficulty of the task, the context of the activity, and day-to-day variations in general wellbeing. The results underscore the importance of targeting self-efficacy in the rehabilitation of people with dizziness. Our findings can guide the rehabilitation process by providing a deeper understanding of self-efficacy judgements in relation to Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness. Implication for rehabilitation This study adds important in-depth knowledge to the rehabilitation area on self-efficacy beliefs in relation to Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness. Self-efficacy for specific activities varies according to the perceived difficulty of the task, the context in which the activity takes place and day-to-day variations in perceived general well-being. The results can be used as a topic list to guide rehabilitation efforts in exploring and intervening aspects of people's everyday activities that are affected by low self-efficacy judgements. Activities perceived to be crucial to everyday life and important for well-being should be targeted in rehabilitation to increase self-efficacy and thereby activity performance and participation in people with dizziness.

  • Basören, Berkan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Olugunna, Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Influential Factors of Foreign Market Entry Modes: A case of Swedish MNCs into the Chinese Market2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has reduced the significance of geographical boundaries. Companies that successfully establish themselves in foreign markets experience many benefits. One of the key decisions in the process of foreign market entry is selecting market entry modes since selection of entry modes is a significant determiner in the success of company. Entry mode selection is influenced by external and internal factors. Therefore, company has to consider external and internal factors and choose the most appropriate entry mode which will maximize its chance to succeed in the chosen foreign market. The purpose of this thesis is to identify the factors that influence entry mode decisions of Swedish MNCs when entering the Chinese market. A research question regarding influencing factors in entry mode decisions is formulated. Root’s theory and Hollensen’s work on entry modes are presented in theoretical framework which is followed by conceptual framework where the theory and literatures used are summarized to provide clearer picture to the readers.

    This research is a qualitative one and uses case study approach. Data regarding to entry modes and influencing factors is collected from three Swedish MNCs Electrolux, Sandvik and Ericsson through interviews. Our findings show that, in order to be able to control their products and business activities, the three Swedish MNCs investigated in this study used direct export and direct investment. However, joint venture is an alternative while the MNCs are spreading their business activities in China, as the Chinese government protects local businesses. Market size and the growth potential of the market inspired companies to enter China. Internal and external factors jointly influence the selection of entry mode into China. Among them, internal factors are less effective than external factors. Factors that influenced Swedish MNCs decisions in the selection of entry modes into China are mostly related to external factors: Chinese market factors; Chinese production factors and environmental factors are most influential ones.

  • Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    HiG.
    Sattari, Amir
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Linden, Elisabet
    HiG.
    Wigö, Hans
    HiG.
    Sandberg, Mats
    HiG.
    Experimental study on contaminant entrainment in air distribution systemswith free jets2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Bogren, Malin
    et al.
    Doriswamy, Satya
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Building a new generation of midwifery faculty members in Bangladesh2017In: Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM), ISSN 2409-2290, Vol. 4, no 1, 65-74 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presentsan initiative on building a new generation midwifery faculty in Bangladesh,with the ultimate objective to provide insight into how the midwifery facultycan be capacitated and be best utilized within the existing academic, healthcare and policy environment.The initiative focuses on a promising approach that starts with a newgeneration midwifery faculty who can lead a chain of change when separatingnursing teaching from midwifery. Theinitiative identified four differentinterdependent components of equal importance, namely the initiation of master’sand bachelor degrees, development of accreditation guidelines and tools and amentorship programme. Building a new generation of midwifery facultyhas the potential, despitechallenges, to enhance retention, foster greater commitment for the institutes,increase research outcomes and contribute to the attainment of national goals.

  • Olsson, Amber
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Att använda engelska i undervisningen: En empirisk studie om hur mycket det engelska språket används ochpå vilket sätt under engelsklektioner i årskurs 2 och 32017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Engelskan har en stor påverkan i det svenska språket och i det svenska samhället idag. Många

    elever kan därför redan ha ett ordförråd i engelska när de börjar skolan, från till exempel film

    eller spel. När man undervisar barn i årskurserna 1-3 är det viktigt att eleverna blir exponerade

    till det engelska språket, för att utveckla ett eventuellt redan befintligt ordförråd. Detta

    examensarbete är en empirisk studie och innebär att egen datainsamling har gjorts, i detta fall

    observationer och enkäter. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur mycket engelska

    används och i vilken form i årskurserna 2 och 3. I resultatet upptäcktes det från observationerna

    att engelska används i olika mängder, huvudsakligen genom läromedel, lärarna pratar svenska

    och engelska i undervisningen och eleverna är i största grad delaktiga. Det som gemensamt

    hittades i enkäten var att lärarna tycker om att undervisa engelska, det är svårt/utmanande att få

    eleverna att våga prata, lärarna försöker prata mycket engelska och eleverna tycker om att lära

    sig engelska. Ett förslag till vidare forskning är att fortsätta forska om olika fenomen inom

    engelska för unga åldrar.

  • Brorsson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Lindholm Olinder, Anna
    Viklund, Gunnel
    Granström, Therese
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala University.
    Leksell, Janeth
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala University.
    Adolescents’ perceptions of participation in group education using the Guided Self-Determination-Young method: a qualitative study2017In: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, ISSN 2052-4897, Vol. 5, no 1, e000432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Guided Self-Determination (GSD) is a person-centered communication and reflection method. Education in groups may have a greater impact than the content of the education, and constructive communication between parents and adolescents has been shown to be of importance. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescents’ perceptions of participation in group education with the Guided Self-Determination-Young (GSD-Y) method, together with parents, in connection with the introduction of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

    Research design and methods In the present qualitative interview study, 13 adolescents with type 1 diabetes were included after completing a GSD-Y group education program in connection with the introduction of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion at three hospitals located in central Sweden. The adolescents were interviewed individually, and qualitative content analysis was applied to the interview transcripts.

    Results Two categories that emerged from the analysis were the importance of context and growing in power through the group process. An overarching theme that emerged from the interviews was the importance of expert and referent power in growing awareness of the importance of self-management as well as mitigating the loneliness of diabetes.

    Conclusions GSD-Y has, in various ways, mitigated experiences of loneliness and contributed to conscious reflection about self-management in the group (referent power) together with the group leader (expert power). Overall, this highlights the benefits of group education, and the GSD method emphasizes the person-centered approach.

  • Forsberg, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Intersektionalitet och religionskunskap: En litteraturstudie om begreppet intersektionalitet och dess användning i relation till religionskunskapens ämnesplan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka begreppet intersektionalitet samt föra en diskussion kring användningen av detta begrepp i relation till ämnesplanen i religionskunskap på gymansienivå. Studien utgår ifrån tre frågeställningar; Hur ser den historiska utvecklingen för begreppet intersektionalitet ut? Hur används begreppet intersektionalitet inom den samtida svenska forskningen samt hur kan det intersektionella perspektivet i ämnesplanen tolkas i relation till den aktuella forskningen?

    I studien har litteratur sökts och valts ut dels utifrån dess relevans i relation till studiens frågeställningar. Litteratursökningen resulterade i 16 olika artiklar och bokkapitel som på olika sätt behandlar begreppet intersektionalitet.

    Studien är indelad i tre delar, där varje artikel presenterats separat. Varje del i undersökningen avslutas med en jämförande analys vars syfte är att hitta likheter och skillnader i artiklarnas framställning av begreppet intersektionalitet och det intersektionella perspektivet. Studien avslutas med en diskussion där resultatet från undersökningen sätts i relation till Skolverkets framställning av det intersektionella perspektivet i ämnesplanen för religionskunskap på gymnasienivå samt dess kommentarmaterial.

  • Kurdia, Ali
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Consequences of Nordic Conditions on the Performance of Large-Scale Building Applied PV Installations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aimed for a better understanding of the Nordic weather conditions in terms of snow induced soiling on the performance and production of an established photovoltaic plant located on the roof of Økern nursing home, Oslo.

    In order to realize the main aim, several steps had to be done in preparation of the main analysis, these steps in fact are as important to this thesis as the main deliverable.

    The search for appropriate meteorological data proved to be not an easy task because of the scarcity of ground measurement stations, and the high inaccuracies in satellite observations.

    After analyzing all the sources with available data for the region of Oslo, three sources of data were chosen based on comparisons to an onsite set of reference measurements, these are the Blindern meteo station, the NASA SSE satellite derived observations, and the STRANG data base.

    A model of the actual system was created in PVsyst, exceptional attention to the level of detail was exercised in order to approach the case of eliminating any source of variation in the simulated models other than the required study parameter, the soiling.

    Simulations of many system variants ultimately resulted in the aggregation of a soiling loss profile to be used in conjunction with each of the meteo sources to predict the snow induced soiling consequences on the system.

    The soiling loss profiles were tested and the results compared to actual system production measurements, and it was successful in introducing the correction the model needed to simulate the system closely to reality.

    However, absolute change in production figures is relatively small, therefore, this study and any future continuation of it is oriented into research and improvement as it possess minimal impact on a commercial application.

  • Lundberg, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Toward a New Social Contract? The Participation of Civil Society in Swedish Welfare Policymaking, 1958–20122017In: VOLUNTAS - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, ISSN 0957-8765, E-ISSN 1573-7888, 1-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contribution to current debates on the changing roles and responsibilities of civil society in welfare state arrangements, I examined the participation of various types of civil society organizations in national welfare policymaking in Sweden between 1958 and 2012. Drawing upon an extensive dataset of over 1400 civil society, state, and for-profit organizations, I tested three claims related to the role and responsibility of civil society in the governance of welfare: the changing balance between corporatist and welfare organizations, the shift from voice to service, and another shift from nonprofit organizations to FPOs. My results revealed weak but emerging trends aligned with changing patterns of corporatism and the marketization of Sweden’s welfare system. However, support for any shift from voice to service remains uncertain.

  • Graefenhain, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Energy Yield Simulation Analysis of Bifacial PV Installations in the Nordic Climate2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, commercial softwares for PV system simulation released bifacial extensions. While research laboratories have developed their own simulation tools, in both cases it is imperative to display their applicability, as well as continuously assess their accuracy and/or limitations in practice, i.e. for different bifacial PV systems and field conditions. This paper presents a design and energy yield simulation study of two bifacial PV systems installed and operating in Nordic climate conditions, i.e. in Vestby, Norway (

    System 1) and in Halmstad, Sweden (System 2). The aim of this study is:

    • • To validate and compare the accuracy of two bifacial PV simulation tools newly featured in the software platforms of PVsyst and Polysun respectively, against real-field energy yield data.

    Each investigated system is modeled and analyzed with both simulation tools, resulting in four individual case stu

    dies. Further details on the systems’ monitoring set-up, the data input, modeling steps, and the involved uncertainties are presented in this paper.

    The results of the four case studies show higher percent deviations (both monthly and hourly data) between simulated energy results and real energy results during winter periods compared to summer periods. System 1 had a lower bifacial gain (around 2%) than System 2 which ranges from 2% in summer periods to 25% during winter.

    The collected field data had too high of an uncertainty to determine whether the bifacial PV simulation extensions are accurate within a certain tolerance. The reason for higher simulation inaccuracy in the winter is due to: lower production, higher uncertainty in albedo, and more diffuse irradiation.

    It is recommended for the bifacial PV simulation extensions include options for considering a variable albedo. The bifacial gain in System 2 was higher in the winter because of the higher albedo value given whereas in System 1, the albedo value was kept constant. Further parametric studies should be conducted on the bifacial gain using vertical mounted bifacial PV modules oriented east and west for Nordic climate conditions.

  • Korde, Anukool
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Assessment of a Solar PV Re-Powering Project in Sweden Using Measured and Simulated Data2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Re-powering solar PV plants is an upcoming discussion on the global stage. Although the respective component warranties indicate the time to change the system machinery, the methodology and justification for carrying this out are two aspects that need further study.

    The rooftop solar PV system on top of Dalarna University was re-positioned in 2014. Prior to installing the system in its new position, the system arrays were reconfigured and new inverters were installed.

    This thesis aimed to compare and analyze two sections of the solar power plant to understand which amongst them performs better. Graphs depicting energy, current, voltage and other parameters were formulated to ascertain the efficacy of the array configurations for this Nordic latitude.

    Thereafter, PVsyst and SAM were used to compare the simulated results with the actual output from the system.

    It was found that the measured energy output from one section of the solar power plant was higher than that of the other during 2014. On an annual basis, this difference was 21.5 kWh or 2%. On closer inspection, this contrast was attributed to a difference in yield early in the morning.

    Further, PVsyst simulated the annual energy with a deviation of less than 1% than what was measured, whereas SAM measured a deviation in energy measurement of 2.5% higher than the actual measured energy. These values were obtained using the detailed design options for both softwares. A point to keep in mind is that prior experience of working with both these softwares is recommended prior to carrying out the simulations on these softwares.

    An underlying point to note in this study is its limitations. This study is valid in the northern latitudes, such as the Nordic climates, since other regions would not have such low (sub-zero) temperatures to account for while sizing the inverter. In regions of high irradiance, a system re-powered in a way such as the system in this case would have higher clipping losses.

    Relevant previous studies and related topics have been visited, summarized and cited.

  • Fredriksson, Jessica
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Att läsa eller icke läsa, det är frågan: Högstadieelevers läsvanor och attityder till fiktionstexter2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den kvantitativa studien är att undersöka högstadieelevers läsvanor och attityder till fiktionstexter. Mot bakgrund av olika synsätt på svenskämnet, läroplanen, förståelsen av de svenska elevernas sjunkande läsförståelse, forskning om vilka fördelarna med fiktionsläsning är kontra vad som gör fiktionsläsning intressant samt tidigare forskning, har 31 elevers och åtta lärares enkätsvar sammanställts och granskats. Resultatet visar att i den undersökta elevgruppen är intresset för fiktionstexter och läsning av densamma tämligen lågt. Av elevernas enkätsvar kan man utläsa en marginell eller ingen skillnad mellan pojkars och flickors läsvanor och inställning till fiktionstexter. Däremot menade lärarna att flickor var mer positiva till fiktionstexter och även hade en högre läsförståelse. Vidare visar resultatet att fiktionsläsning hos högstadieelever har minskat och intresset för fiktionstexter är lägre än tidigare. Den huvudsakliga anledningen till detta är den digitala revolutionen som gör att eleverna tillbringar mycket tid uppkopplade framför skärmar och väljer att titta på filmer och serier, istället för att till exempel läsa en bok.

  • Snell, Charis
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education.
    Programmering för matematisk problemlösning i årskurs 7-9: Hur hänger det ihop?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur programmering för matematisk problemlösning kan integreras i matematikundervisning i årskurs 7-9. Skolverket har nyligen ändrat kursplanen för matematik så att programmering för matematisk problemlösning inkluderas i det centrala innehållet. För att undersöka syftet genomfördes studien i två delar. Lärare med programmeringskompetens intervjuades om hur de anser att programmering för matematisk problemlösning kan integreras i matematikundervisning. Två programmeringsverktyg undersöktes för att få svar på vilka möjligheter till arbete med matematisk problemlösning programmeringsverktyg erbjuder. Resultaten analyserades utifrån Bernsteins teori om klassifikation och inramning och visar att det finns många olika sätt att integrera programmering i matematikundervisning. Stora möjligheter finns för integrering av programmering för matematisk problemlösning med det centrala innehållet i kursplanen för matematik. Olika verktyg, uppgifter och arbetssätt erbjuder olika pedagogiska möjligheter.

  • Jonsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Motivational Strategies in Language Learning: Pupils’ in grade 4-6 and their teachers’ perception of the effect of motivational strategies in the English classroom2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To master English is a clear advantage in Swedish society and throughout compulsory school, the English subject is mandatory in each grade. Language learning is a lengthy and demanding task that requires effort and determination. Consequently, it is crucial to sustain motivation among the learners, which requires motivational and conscious teaching. There are a number of strategies that through research have indicated motivational capacity. In this empirical study, teachers’ and pupils’ perception of the motivational influence of different strategies were examined. The method was quantitative and surveys were used to collect data from the teachers (N=10) and the pupils (N=142). The results show that the teachers regard their own behavior and a stimulating, varied teaching as most important, whilst the pupils prioritize clear and understandable instructions and are concerned with a pleasant classroom climate, where humour is present and where it is safe to make mistakes. In addition, the results indicate that teachers, as well as pupils, are not particularly interested of a transmission of responsibility from the teachers to the pupils.