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  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB analys.
    Measuring the external health cost of particulate matter from road traffic and other sources in Stockholm, Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper measures the external health cost due to emissions from different sources in the Stockholm area using the Impact pathway approach. The estimated health impact is the result of detailed dispersion modelling with high spatial resolution. We make separate calculations for the impact that occur within the Stockholm area, the surrounding region and the rest of Europe. The pollutants considered are combustion and secondary particulate matter (PM) from the burning of fuels and also road wear (non-exhaust PM) that makes a large contribution to measured concentrations of PM locally in Stockholm. We also investigate the influence of assumptions made regarding the exposure-response functions used in these calculations since PM of different origin are expected to have different health impacts. According to the results road traffic makes important contributions to the external health cost both on a local and a regional scale compared to other sources. This is in part due to emissions being released in close proximity to where people live but also because of the amount of pollutants emitted. Although non-exhaust PM makes a large contribution to local population exposure within Stockholm the external health cost is relatively small which is due to other health impact being relevant for this emission source. Residential heating also makes an important contribution to exposure and external health cost on a local scale while power plants have a large influence regionally.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Andelius, Camilla
    Marginalkostnadsberäkning av luftburna föroreningar från fordon: problem med differentiering, interdependens och variabilitet2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är en del i ett forskningsprojekt vid VTI kallat "Implementering av marginalkostnadsprissättning i transportsektorn - problem med variabilitet, differentiering, interdependens och osäkerhet". Denna studie ingår i delprojektet luftföroreningar som ska behandla miljöproblem i form av utsläpp som sprids via luften och som är kopplade till användningen av transportsystemet. Meningen med denna förstudie är att ge en översikt över de problem med luftburna föroreningar från fordon som finns idag och vilka metoder som idag används för att beräkna marginalkostnaderna av dessa, samt diskutera vad som ytterligare behöver utforskas utifrån perspektivet av en framtida marginalkostnadsprissättning av transporter. Vi behandlar dock inte klimatpåverkande gaser i detta arbete av två skäl; dels för att dessa effekter är så vittomspännande vilket gör kostnadsberäkningen oerhört osäker, dels för att de kostnader som de ger upphov till inte varierar beroende på var utsläppen sker eftersom påverkan är global. Vi har i studien delvis fokuserat på en modell för beräkning av transportsektors marginalkostnader som tagits fram i ett europeiskt projekt, ExternE Core/Transport. Detta eftersom denna modell baserar sig på aktuell kunskap och även används för att beräkna kostnaderna för transporter på europeisk nivå. I vissa delar har vi jämfört beräkningarna i den modellen med de beräkningar som de nu aktuella svenska värdena baserar sig på.  

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Management by good intentions and best wishes: on sustainability, tourism and transport investment planning in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government, despite a possible value conflict with the ambitious Swedish climate mitigation objectives, has stated that tourism development is an important basis for economic growth, not least in rural areas. This paper explores how the Swedish policy making system, and ambitious environmental and traffic safety objectives, influence transport investment planning at the regional level. Our point of reference for evaluating the system is the work with good regulatory policy advocated by the OECD and used by the EU. The main finding is that the Swedish government and parliament lack a strategic “whole-of-government approach” to sustainable transport development. There are many principles and objectives with good intentions established at the national level that are incompatible in practice. The conflicts that follow are handed down to lower government levels to solve with best wishes. The problem with this type of management is the “tragedy of the commons.” Without clear guidance, individuals (and administrations) acting independently and rationally based on self-interests are likely to behave contrary to the best interests of the whole group (society).

    Making choices based on a more holistic assessment of impacts and benefits and costs could help to prevent this kind of outcome. However, from the data collected it appears that many investments are undertaken without being assessed due to the lack of government instructions on regulatory impact assessment. Other investments are undertaken despite having a negative net benefit. One reason for this is specific instructions given by the government that points to certain investments. Another reason seems to be the Vision Zero policy established by the parliament. In recent years this policy has been a strong driver of improvements of the road system. Seen from an environmental perspective, the unwanted consequence of the priorities made is that state roads become faster and safer and thereby a more attractive alternative to other travel modes. Seen from a regional development and tourism perspective, this may have diverted resources away from investments that would have yielded a greater benefit to the tourism industry in “rural” areas.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Johansson, Christer
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Luftföroreningarnas externa kostnader: Förslag på beräkningsmetod för trafiken utifrån granskning av ExternE-beräkningar för Stockholm och Sverige2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 2002 the external costs of air pollution from the Swedish transport sector were calculated using the methodology developed within the EU-funded ExternE-projects. A comparison of these estimates with those presently in use in Swedish transport analysis revealed important differences, especially for particulate matter. The main purpose of this project was to examine the calculations for Stockholm in the Swedish ExternE-study and based on the findings from this examination propose a method to be used for the cost calculation for pollutants with local impacts. In addition, the methods used for the cost calculation for pollutants with regional impact should be described. In the report, the results are presented in two parts. In the first part, the method we propose for the cost calculation for pollutants with local impact is presented. We suggest that the calculation is based on three components; exposure estimates, effects estimates and values. The product of these three gives the final cost. In this part of the report we also present the approaches currently used to calculate the cost for pollutants with a regional impact. In part two of the report we present in greater detail the findings from the examination of the calculations for Stockholm in the Swedish ExternE-study.

  • Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Infrastrukturpolitik på samhällsekonomisk grund2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A government committee, Trafikverksutredningen, has commissioned VTI to review the national infrastructure policy regarding construction and maintenance of roads and railways as well as concerning policies to ascertain its appropriate use. Based on our review, recommendations are given relative to the appropriate organisation of a future infrastructure agency and the ways in which responsibilities for different types of decisions can be split between the political and administrative/agency level in order to enhance efficiency in the use of scarce resources. The report has also been published as Appendix 2 to the official committee report (SOU 2009:31).

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Hälsoeffekter, påverkar de acceptansen för prissättning av vägtrafik?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Road traffic makes important contributions to the pollution levels in urban areas. Of the pollutants, particulate matter, makes the greatest contribution to the external cost due to their detrimental impact on human health. Economic policy measures such as road pricing can be used for the regulation of traffic, thereby improving local air quality, but there is often a large resistance towards these types of measures. The purpose of this study has been to investigate if it is likely that the health impact of traffic emissions influences the acceptance for road pricing. In this study we have done a literature survey to explore this issue. The conclusion is that it is unlikely that the health impact influences the acceptance. An important reason is that the public knowledge about this health impact is low and therefore the health risks are underestimated. We have also found that there is a need for deeper investigation into people´s knowledge about traffic emissions and their health impact and how this in turn influences their decisions regarding policy measures, such as road pricing that aims at reducing the health impact. The conclusion is that the best method for this would be a so-called Stated Preference study.

  • Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Health effects of transport emissions: a review of the state of the art of methods and data used for external costs calculations2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose is to provide a background for a discussion concerning the methods and values used in cost-benefit analysis in Sweden for air pollutions', from traffic, impact on human health and the research needs in this area. We provide an overview of the current state of the art of models used for and input needed for external cost calculations of the health impacts. The calculations are not straightforward and depend on the collaboration between several research disciplines. In the ExternE projects, which have been used as a reference point in this study, there are still uncertainties concerning which pollutants to take into consideration. Regarding the health impacts, we have recapitulated some of the main conclusions in a review by the American Heart Association (2010). They state that e.g. the following issues need further research: the importance of ultrafine particles, what constituent parts make traffic related air pollution more harmful than PM2.5 in general and the importance of coarse particles.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Björketun, Urban
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Genell, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar och buller från trafiken på det statliga vägnätet: kunskapsläget och tillgången på beräkningsunderlag i Sverige samt några beräkningsexempel2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal cost for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task only involved state roads. In this report we present the data used and the results for the external costs of air pollution (exhaust emissions) and noise. We have used the Impact Pathway Approach to perform the calculations using Swedish data focusing on health. In these calculations we have placed particular emphasis on how the influence of population density in the vicinity of roads influence the results from these calculations. For noise we developed an exposure function based on the new EU-CNOSSOS model which accounted for the location of buildings close to a road while for air pollution we used results based on detailed calculations in the Stockholm area. The results, using updated input data from 2012 on kilometers driven, emissions factors from HBEFA etc., are in line with those presented in the EU handbook from 2014 “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport” but lower than those currently used in analysis of transport investments in Sweden (the so called ASEK-values). An important reason for this is that we have used more detailed information on population exposure. We have also concluded that there are geographical differences in the external cost for air pollution between the north and the south of Sweden. For both air and noise emissions there is also a difference between urban and rural areas. Based on the results we conclude that there are a number of issues where further research is needed, for example the possible interaction of air pollution and noise on human health. There are also still questions regarding the dispersion of emissions and population exposure and how this varies between cities and within cities in Sweden, depending on for example meteorological conditions. For air pollution there is also the question of the formation of secondary pollutants and their dispersion pattern and if they contribute to an external environmental cost in addition to health. One particular source of emissions in Sweden is the used of studded tyres which contribute to very high concentration levels of particulate matter close to roads in springtime. Since the focus in this study was on state roads we have not addressed this pollutant in this report.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar: kunskapsläget avseende påverkan på ekosystemet i Sverige, betydelsen av var utsläppen sker samt kostnader för utsläpp från svensk sjöfart2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s second government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost2). In this study, we have estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact on the ecosystem and emissions from shipping.

    In the earlier study of air pollution in Samkost was concluded that a largely unexplored question was how much the transport sector contributes to secondary pollution and the impact these have on population exposure and impact on the ecosystem. It was found that this is an important issue because it is these pollutants that are the focus of the EU’s air quality policy. To carry out impact assessments of the proposals at EU level in this field, and to compare the results of different studies, it is important to clarify the pollution that has been the basis for the analysis.

    For this reason, the focus of Samkost2 on air pollution became how to perform calculations for the secondary pollutants. There was also a desire to gain more knowledge about the marginal costs of emissions from Swedish shipping, and on how impacts on ecosystems can be included in these calculations. To carry out these calculations required information in the form of dispersion modelling. Therefore, SMHI was commissioned to provide data on emissions at sea and their dispersion. Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and dispersion modelling involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Only emissions from Swedish shipping and not from the other modes were included. To get some information about geographical differences in the impact of emissions that occur in different places separate calculations for three different areas was conducted; Skagerrak and Kattegat, the Baltic Sea south of Åland and the Baltic Sea north of the Åland Islands. Specific effects, i.e. exposure, were only modelled for the population and not for different types of ecosystems.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar från transporter i olika delar av Sverige: sammanfattning och slutsatser från arbetet med luftkvalitet i SAMKOST2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att genom några beräkningsexempel klargöra hur de externa kostnaderna för luftföroreningar varierar mellan transportslag och geografi i Sverige, samt att tydliggöra vilka faktorer som ligger bakom dessa skillnader. Syftet är också att sätta in dessa resultat i en internationell kontext för att beskriva hur den svenska situationen förhåller sig till den som råder i andra länder både när det gäller miljöproblemen som orsakas av utsläpp till luft men också arbetet med att utforma miljöarbetet baserat på denna kunskap. Det senare är viktigt för att kunna föra en diskussion om hur Sverige påverkas av och kan bidra till internationellt luftvårdsarbete, framförallt inom EU eftersom den största påverkan av utsläpp från transportsektorn i Sverige sker inom Europa. Vi har i arbetet med SAMKOST studerat effekter på såväl lokal som regional nivå utifrån den metodik som tillämpas inom EU där hälsoeffekter utvärderas baserat på marginella haltförändringar i det som kallas urban eller regional bakgrund. De underlag som tagits fram i SAMKOST-projekten skiljer sig därför från flertalet svenska studier som oftast bedömer effekterna av den totala halten utan hänsyn till källa eller åtgärd. De modelleringar som är grunden för beräkningarna har genomförts av SMHI vilket säkerställer att resultaten är jämförbara mellan de olika transportslagen.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Exhaust emissions and environmental classifications of cars: what indicators are relevant according to external cost calculations?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on the questions raised by Folksam on how well the criteria currently used reflect the total environmental impact of exhaust emissions. One of the questions is whether diesel cars, being more fuel efficient, are preferable to gasoline cars given the differences in for example particle and NO2 emissions. In this paper we give an overview of the method used to calculate the external costs related to the exhaust emissions of cars, the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). This type of assessment has previously been used to compare the environmental performance of gasoline versus diesel cars in a report by the former Swedish national road administration and in a recent paper on the taxation of cars in Belgium. We also provide an overview of recent research on the inputs used in these calculations. Based on information on emission tests of VW cars and information from the Swedish Transport Administration, we illustrate how different aspects influence the outcome of these calculations regarding exhaust emissions from cars. Regarding the specific question raised in this study about indicators for sustainable cars, we find that the indicators currently used, CO2 emissions, do not reflect the full environmental impact. Different types of vehicle technologies result in different combinations of emissions. With the large variety of car models, and with important differences between type approval and ”real driving” emissions, we conclude that apart from CO2 emissions, vehicle technology should be accounted for in the classification of cars. Concerning the difference between gasoline and diesel vehicles, important aspects to consider are: • differences in emissions of particulates where particle size or number and composition may be important to consider in addition to, or maybe even rather than, mass, • the difference in the ratio between NOx and NO2, as it affects local NO2 and ozone concentrations.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Emissioner från flyg inom svenskt luftrum och externa kostnader för dessa: en delrapport i Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s third government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost 3). We have in this study estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact of air traffic in Sweden. These calculations require dispersion- and exposure modelling and SMHI was therefore commissioned to provide data from this type of calculations based on the MATCH model.

    Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and this work involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Separate calculations were done for flight at different heights (LTO, low and high cruise) and only for traffic in the Swedish air space. Separate modelling was done with total reduction of all emissions from this traffic, but also when only NOx from air traffic was reduced. Finally, we tested the influence of the geographical area used in the modelling.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cost-effective analysis of traffic emission control: targeting strategies under uncertainty2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Emissions from traffic impose negative effects on human health, and recent evidence indicates that particulate matters (PM) are the detrimental air pollutant that causes most life years lost. To improve the efficiency of resource allocation, various mitigation measures have been proposed for reducing these emissions. However, whether or not the policy instruments are welfare improving, and if yes, how much more efficient they can be remain to be studied. To answer the questions, we need to both assess the economic cost of emission control and the health benefit due to the reduced PM emission by all proposed control instruments. This paper focuses on the cost efficiency for reaching pre-determined emission targets. We are concerned with reducing the concentrations of PM in Stockholm by local policy measures. Contrary to other cost-efficiency studies we have in this study included adaptations in behaviour in addition to the conventional technical measures alone. Since there are different emissions of PM, targeting PM10 may not be a good indicator of the health benefits. We therefore compare the performance of targeting PM and of targeting years of life lost (YOLL) and found interesting differences. We find that if the ultimate objective is to save lives or say life-years, it should be more appropriate to target YOLL, provided that YOLL can be properly predicted. Moreover, since the collected data on the effectiveness and cost of the policy instruments involve large uncertainty, we have employed a stochastic control model to explore the implications of the degree of uncertainty. We find that the higher fulfilment probability, the larger the marginal cost as expected. Also, for a given fulfilment probability, the more uncertain we are about the true effectiveness parameters, the larger the marginal costs.

  • Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cost-effective analysis of local policy measure to improve air quality in Stockholm: an exploratory study2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of the research undertaken in the project TESS - Traffic Emissions, Socioeconomic valuation and Socioeconomic measures. In this report, we have studied the cost-effectiveness of particulate matter (PM) reductions from local emission sources in the Stockholm area. The input in the analysis is cost and effectiveness data collected from other studies and reports on reductions in emissions from traffic and residential heating. Contrary to other cost-effectiveness studies we have also included abatement measures where the effect is mainly due to adaptations in behavior. One example is congestion charging that we have assumed have a zero cost. We have also investigated the effect of different targeting strategies. Either the focus is on achieving air quality limit values for PM10 or the focus is on improvement in human health. In the first case we have assumed that the aim is to reduce emissions of PM10. In the second case the aim has been formulated as a reduction of the number of years of life lost (YOLL) in the population that would result if we reduce the concentrations of particulate matter in the city. The cost-effective analysis is done with a simple linear programming model. According to our results, congestion charging, a change to low-emission vehicles and installation of accumulator tanks are the least cost abatement measures irrespective of the target used in the analysis. For congestion charging and low-emission vehicles this is due to the assumption made that the abatement cost is zero. Thereafter however, the choice of measures depends on the choice of target. While less use of studded tires is efficient in order to reduce PM10 emissions, this is not a measure that has a large impact on the reduction of YOLL. This result relies on the assumptions made regarding the mortality impact of non-exhaust PM versus combustion PM.

  • Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Color detection and segmentation for road and traffic signs2004In: IEEE Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent Systems, 2004. / [ed] IEEE, Singapore, 2004, Vol. 2, p. 809-814Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to present three new methods for color detection and segmentation of road signs.  The images are taken by a digital camera mounted in a car.  The RGB images are converted into IHLS color space, and new methods are applied to extract the colors of the road signs under consideration. The methods are tested on hundreds of outdoor images in different light conditions, and they show high robustness. This project is part of the research taking place in Dalarna University / Sweden in the field of the ITS.

  • Wennström, Elisabet
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Flexibelt småhus: Framtagande av typhus åt Dalahus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggbranschen står inför en stor utmaning för att bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling för att minska klimatpåverkan. I detta arbete undersöks möjligheten att bygga flexibla småhus som ett led i att bidra till minskad energiåtgång genom att maximera småhusens användning och bygga dem så energisnålt som möjligt, med miljövänliga material. Att redan i projekteringsfasen planera för småhusets framtid och ge det chansen att kunna byggas om efter människors ändrade behov, gör att huset kan användas längre utan att rivas eller stå tomt. Projektet mynnar ut i ett förslag på typhus åt småhusföretaget Dalahus som efterfrågar ett just ett flexibelt småhus. Huset är planerat för att kunna byggas ut i framtiden om det finns behov av ett större hus. Detta typhus kan användas som inspiration åt företagets kunder när de ska välja vilken typ av hus de ska bygga.

  • Ohlsson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Undervisning ute i förskolan: Pedagogers syn på undervisningsbegreppet och undervisning i utemiljön2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolinspektionen fick i uppdrag att mellan 2015-2017 granska 82 förskolor för att se om undervisning sker i förskolan så som skollagen (SFS2010:800) föreskriver och konstaterade då att barn visserligen ges möjlighet att utvecklas och lära i förskolan men att det sällan sker genom medveten undervisning (Skolinspektionen 2016). De konstaterade också att barnens nyfikenhet och vetgirighet inte togs tillvara samt att en fjärdedel av de undersökta förskolorna inte stimulerade barnen till att samspela och lära av varandra. Läroplanen har varit tydlig, och är det även i Lpfö18 (Skolverket, 2018), med att man ska vistas både inne och ute och i skiftande miljöer. Utevistelsen ger sinnesstimulans och rörelse vilket borde innebära att möjligheterna att lära ute är väldigt bra. Det som jag vill undersöka i den här studien är om man i förskolan tycker att utevistelsen är en plats för undervisning och hur man tolkar undervisning som begrepp.

    Studien vill belysa hur pedagogerna i förskolan ser på begreppet undervisning och hur de förhåller sig till utevistelsen som undervisningsmiljö. Jag har använt mig av en kvalitativ design och samlat in material med hjälp av fokusgruppsintervjuer. För att analysera det insamlade materialet har Tematisk analys använts och fyra teman för respektive frågeställning har fastställts. Teman jag fått fram på frågan om vad undervisning är blev: ”Skolifiering”, ”Lärande utifrån intresse och läroplan”, ”Lek är undervisning” och ”Planerad eller oplanerad aktivitet som leder till ett lärande”. Temana för hur utomhusmiljön fungerar till undervisning blev: ”Upplevelser”, ”Utforskar”, ”Tillsammans” och ”Lek”.

    Resultatet av studien visar att pedagogerna först tagit emot undervisningsbegreppet med stor skepsis för att efter ett tag inse att det faktiskt var något som redan pågick i förskolan. Då det var förskolor med en utomhuspedagogisk profil så var det självklart för dem att använda sig av utevistelsen som plats för undervisning. Undervisning i förskolan har gått ifrån en rädsla att skolifiera förskolan till att man gjort en egen tolkning av undervisning i förskolan, en förskolifiering.

  • Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro Universitet.
    Larsson, Håkan
    GIH.
    Joy, fear and resignation: investigating emotions in physical education using a symbolic interactionist approach2019In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional dimensions of physical education have garnered attention from scholars in the last two decades. Many scholars claim that emotions significantly affect learning and that positive emotions such as joy and pleasure are necessary for continued participation in movement activities beyond the classroom. Much of the existing literature, however, is based on the idea that emotions comprise internal mental states that are retrospectively oriented. In the current paper, we work with alternative principles that can create new understandings of the affective dimensions of PE and specifically, movement learning. We draw on symbolic interactionist principles, framing emotions as multimodal communicative resources that are performed in social contexts. From this perspective, we demonstrate how emotions: (1) can be investigated as part of the production of broader sequences of pedagogical action and (2) relate to issues of knowledge, identity and authority. We present observational material generated with PE teacher education students as they develop movement capability. We focus on three interactional episodes in which fear, joy and resignation are performed by students interacting with either peers or an observing researcher. In each case, we demonstrate how emotions: affiliate or dis-affiliate the actor with the movement knowledge in focus, index an institutionally recognizable identity and influence the subsequent actions of the participants in the interactional sequence. The key thesis developed in the paper is that as symbolic resources, emotions have important consequences for actors within movement learning environments. The paper is concluded with reflections on the implications of the approach for practitioners along with a consideration of questions in need of further scientific attention.

  • Chai, Jiale
    et al.
    Huang, Pei
    City University of Hong Kong.
    Sun, Yongjun
    Life-cycle analysis of nearly zero energy buildings under uncertainty and degradation impacts for performance improvements2019In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 158, p. 2762-2767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sizing the nZEB systems properly is crucial for nZEBs to achieve the desired performances. The energy demand prediction uncertainties and the components’ degradation are two major factors affecting the nZEB systems sizing. The energy demand prediction has been studied by many researchers, but the impacts of degradation are still neglected in most studies. Neglecting degradation may lead to a system design that can perform as expected only in the beginning several years. This paper, therefore, proposes an uncertainty-based life-cycle performance analysis (LCPA) method to study the impacts of degradation on the nZEBs longitudinal performance. Based on the LCPA method, this study also proposes a two-stage method to enhance the nZEB system sizing. The study can enhance the designers’ understanding of the components’ degradation impacts. Case studies show that an nZEB might not achieve zero energy targets after years due to degradation. The proposed two-stage design method can effectively mitigate this problem.

  • Thomson, Gill
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. University of Central Lancashire.
    Crossland, N.
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Using the behaviour change wheel to explore infant feeding peer support provision; Insights from a North West UK evaluation2019In: International Breastfeeding Journal, ISSN 1746-4358, E-ISSN 1746-4358, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breastfeeding peer support is advocated in national and international guidelines, but the evidence base is mixed. In the UK, breastfeeding peer support was found to be ineffective in randomised controlled trials, while women report positive impacts on breastfeeding experiences in qualitative studies. A key criticism levied against breastfeeding peer support is the lack of theory underpinning intervention design. Here we use the Behaviour Change Wheel to structure the analysis of evaluation data from an infant feeding peer support service in one area in North West England. We aimed to provide theoretically informed insights into how peer support can be operationalised to influence women’s breastfeeding experiences.

    Methods: A 2 year mixed-methods evaluation (2014–2016) comprised surveys and interviews (individual or group) with peer supporters, health and community professionals, project leads and women, and routinely collected infant feeding data. We used the three layers (policies, intervention functions and behaviour-related components) of the Behaviour Change Wheel to structure and interpret the data.

    Results: Overall data comprised 23 interviews (n = 14 - individual; n = 9 - group) and 409 completed surveys. The findings are presented in three sections. First, the ‘policies’ (outer) layer of the Behaviour Change Wheel provides insights into the existing context, infrastructure and resources that underpinned peer support delivery. Then the second (intervention functions) and inner (behaviour components) layers of the Behaviour Change Wheel are used to present three themes, ‘developing capabilities for infant feeding’, ‘motivating guidance and support’ and ‘opportunities for support’. These findings highlight that a peer support service delivered in a context of effective interdisciplinary partnerships, Baby Friendly Initiative accreditation, and flexible service planning, with peer support provided via different types of instrumental, social, practical and emotional support was perceived to be highly beneficial on women’s breastfeeding experiences. In the final section key challenges faced by the service are outlined.

    Conclusion: While gaps and areas for development were highlighted, the service enhanced women’s capabilities, motivations and opportunities for breastfeeding. These theoretically informed insights into an organic and responsive peer support service help build the evidence base for breastfeeding peer support and to identify positive delivery features for future testing.

  • Lindgren, Charlotte
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Dodou, Katherina
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Charlotte Lindgren samtalar med Katherina Dodou om undersökning av litteraturstudier i ämnet engelska2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Yuhan, Z.
    et al.
    Jinshun, W.
    Mu, L.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Lining, Z.
    Weiya, Z.
    Weijie, Z.
    Jun, W.
    Liang, X.
    Yixuan, W.
    Research on Operation Strategy of Solar Assisted Air Source Heat Pump System2019In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019, Vol. 56, no 1, article id 012028Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Wu, J.
    Pan, S.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    An economic analysis of the solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) technologies in Sweden: A case study2019In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019, Vol. 556, no 1, article id 012002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Gyhlesten Back, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Microstructure analysis of martensitic low alloy carbon steel samples subjected to deformation dilatometry2019In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 157, article id 109926Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Stjernlöf, David
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda personer med demenssjukdom – En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige har cirka 130-150 000 personer en diagnostiserad demenssjukdom och cirka 20 000 personer insjuknar i demenssjukdom varje år. Medicinsk kurativ behandling saknas och enbart symtomlindrande medicinsk behandling finns tillgänglig. Behandling av personer med demenssjukdom innebär att ge omvårdnad som syftar till att främja god livskvalitet. Ett centralt begrepp inom sjuksköterskeyrket är omvårdnad, och sjuksköterskan därmed en viktig roll inom omvårdnaden av personer med demenssjukdom. Syfte: Att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda personer med demenssjukdom som bor på särskilt boende för äldre. Metod: Deskriptiv studie med kvalitativ induktiv ansats. Data samlades in genom semistrukturerade individuella intervjuer med tio legitimerade sjuksköterskor på särskilda boenden för personer med demenssjukdom. Data analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys på både manifest och latent nivå. Resultat: Omvårdnadsarbetet karaktäriserades av både utmaningar och tillfredsställelse vilket utgör resultatets tema. Analysen resulterade i kategorierna: Upplevelser av att vilja skapa social gemenskap med personen med demenssjukdom, Känslomässiga upplevelser kopplade till sin roll som sjuksköterska, Upplevelser av att vilja arbeta professionellt i teamet, Bristande arbetsbemanning förhindrade personcentrerad omvårdnad. Analysen resulterade i subkategorierna: Upplevelser av kommunikationssvårigheter, Att skapa relation, Att skapa en meningsfull vardag, Kunskap inom teamet hade betydelse för vårdkvaliteten, En välfungerande teamsamverkan underlättade vid svåra situationer, och God samverkan med närstående skapade förtroende. Slutsats: Känslor av tillfredsställelse i arbetet upplevdes när förutsättningar fanns för att bedriva personcentrerad omvårdnad. För att hantera de upplevda utmaningarna är det viktigt att det finns förutsättningar för kontinuerlig fortbildning inom demensomsorg för alla yrkeskategorier i teamet och att det finns tillräckliga resurser avsatt för detta. Nyckelord: Demenssjukdom,

  • Johansson, Lina
    Matematiska problem för att motivera eleverna i matematik i årskurs 4–6: Lärares upplevelser kring att arbeta med matematiska problem2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan man arbeta med matematiska problem för att motivera eleverna? Genom en intervjustudie undersöktes hur lärare arbetar med matematiska problem för att stärka elevernas motivation. Intervjuerna var halvstrukturerade och resultatet som sedan togs fram med hjälp av teorin om inre och yttre motivation har arbetats fram för att förklara lärarnas sätt att arbeta med matematiska problem i matematikundervisningen. Sammanställningen av resultatet visar att det inte finns något entydigt svar genom alla lärare utan det varierar väldigt. Samtliga av de intervjuade lärarna lutar sig mot inre och yttre motivation. Några lärare arbetar sedan med att ge en morot och tydliggöra målen för att påverka elevernas yttre motivation, medan andra arbetar med att använda vardagsbaserade matematiska problem för att påverka elevernas inre motivation.

  • Lesniak, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Att läsa eller icke läsa…?: En litteraturstudie om skönlitteraturens legitimitet i undervisningen i grundskolans åk 7-92019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna litteraturstudie har som syfte att undersöka hur skönlitteraturen legitimeras i svenskundervisning för årskurs 7-9 utifrån befintlig forskning inom ämnet. Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i följande två frågeställningar: Varför ska elever arbeta med skönlitteratur i skolan? Vad menar forskning att undervisning i skönlitteratur ska utveckla hos eleverna?

    Eftersom denna studie är en litteraturstudie har aktuell forskning valts ut utifrån bestämda begränsningar. Exempelvis har endast litteratur som berör den svenska skolan valts ut. Två doktorsavhandlingar utgör studiens huvudmaterial, därtill har fem titlar till använts för att diskutera skönlitteraturens syfte i skolan.

    Denna studie visar att arbetet med skönlitteratur ska fungera som verktyg för elevernas identitetsutveckling. Eleverna utvecklar sin förmåga att fylla textens tomrum med egna erfarenheter genom en subjektiv förankring. Eleven får då bearbeta sig själv och sitt liv genom litteraturen. Genom att läsa skönlitteratur utvecklas också den narrativa fantasin som gör att läsaren kommer att kunna anta andra människors perspektiv. Skönlitteraturen kan därför fungera som övergångsobjekt eller som en bro till andra människor, vilket också bidrar till att litteraturen kan lösa konflikter och som verktyg för att utveckla demokratiska värderingar.

    Slutligen kan också skönlitteratur läsas som språkutvecklande redskap. Det ställs höga krav på elevernas läsfärdigheter för att läsa skönlitteratur på ett djupare plan, därför krävs att skönlitteraturen inte läses helt oreflekterat och okritiskt för att uppnå sitt syfte enligt ovan. I klassrummet krävs diskussioner kring bland annat olika tolkningar och erfarenheter av texten men även diskussioner kring litteraturens sanningshalt och skillnad på fiktion och verklighet. Därför krävs också planering och uppgifter som uppmuntrar eleverna till att bli goda skönlitterära läsare.

  • Smith, Roberta
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Les Précieuses Ridiculisées2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper, based on Molière's Les Précieuses ridicules, analyses the author's opinion of the phenomenon of “précieusité” in order to determine the reasons for his satirical attack on the “salonnières”. The essay opens with a historical framework in which are established the temporal limits and the causes of the precious movement in France in the seventeenth century. The latter are located in the political and social changes that followed the period of the Fronde and the establishment of the absolutist monarchy of Louis XIV. The second part, by reviewing the most popular satirists of the time, establishes the plausible sources of Molière's play and determines the political nature of satire. Then, our analysis highlights how the true targets of Molière are not the précieuses but the bourgeois who aspire to rise to the level of the aristocracy. The last part is a reflection on the model of feminism adopted by the author and its similarities with Miss de Scudéry.

  • Nyström, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Film as a Tool in English Teaching: A Literature Review on the use of Film to develop Students’ linguistic Skills and critical Thinking in Upper Secondary EFL Classrooms2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the fact that adolescents are familiar with so many different media and technology resources today, learning in a conventional way is no longer effective. The aim for this literature review was to analyse what research shows about the use of film as a teaching tool in English to develop students’ linguistic and critical thinking skills in upper secondary EFL classrooms. The results disclosed that film can improve students’ linguistic skills and critical thinking. One reason for this is that film is already such a large part of students’ lives and provides a meaningful and familiar context for them and that film offers visual support. Studentsʼ felt motivated to see and experience “real-life” situations as opposed to reading the conventional textbook. Interaction between the students also proved to be vital in developing their language skills. Results also showed that it is imperative that teachers present film not only as a tool of entertainment, but one for teaching as well. This can be done by creating contextualized assignments related to the film. The literature review concluded that there are gaps in knowledge of this subject and that further research is desirable.

  • Nääs, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Teachers’ Choice of Instructional Language in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom: A literature review on teachers’ use of first language and target language in the EFL classroom2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different perceptions when it comes to teachers’ instructional language choice in the EFL classroom. Some argue for maximum use of the target language while others believe that judicious use of the L1 can benefit the students’ second language learning. The aim of this study is to investigate what research says about teachers’ target language use and first language use in upper level EFL classrooms, as well as teachers’ attitudes and beliefs regarding the choice of instructional language. The findings from this systematic literature review show that teachers mainly used L1 to save time, to explain grammar and vocabulary and to create a positive classroom atmosphere. Furthermore, the results also showed that teachers’ choice to use L1 heavily depended on students’ level of proficiency. Lastly, the results indicate that teachers not always use the L1 for pedagogical reasons, but in many cases for pragmatical reasons, individual beliefs and out of concern for students’ well-being.

  • Brewer, Denice
    Understanding voter participation in swing states in the United States: A theory consuming study to understand the factors explaining the difference of voter turnout in swing states2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will apply a theory consuming method studying voter turnout between swing states in the United States. To accomplish the theory consuming study, the study is divided into two phases. It will start testing Downs’ rational choice theory and apply this to voter turnout. It will then move on to applying the independent variables, socioeconomic background and voting laws to understand voter turnout from this perspective. The study starts with the hypothesis that Downs’ rational choice theory should be able to explain swing states’ voter participation. However, the research shows rational choice theory cannot explain the voter turnout in swing states. In the second phase, the study tests socioeconomic background and voting laws. These two independent variables better explain the voter turnout in swing states. Being well educated while being well off financially have a bigger impact than what rational choice theory can explain. It does not matter if P is overestimated and C is almost nil, it did not help to explain the voter difference in swing states, even though according to the theory, swing states should vote accordingly. To be able to increase voter turnout in swing states with a low voter turnout, not only does voting laws have to become more liberal, but one law in particular seems to make the biggest difference: the possibility to register on election day. However, changing voting laws are not enough. The largest impact is your socioeconomic background. A high educational attainment and being financially stable over the poverty level are the core reasons for voter turnout. Taking people out of poverty and creating opportunities for all to attend college is where higher voter turnout starts.

  • Engblom, Linnéa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Varumärkesidentitet hos elitidrottare: Hur bildspråk i sociala medier kan stärka varumärkesidentitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En tydlig varumärkesidentitet är ett av kriterierna för ett starkt varumärke. Varumärkesidentiteten delas in i kärnidentitet och utvidgad identitet, där kärnidentiteten består av de kvaliteter och värderingar som utgör grunden för varumärket medan den utvidgade identiteten ska hjälpa till att kommunicera detta. Föreliggande arbete utfördes som en fallstudie på elitryttaren Annelie Eriksson med syfte att ta reda på hur Annelie kan använda bildspråk för att kommunicera kärnvärdena i identiteten och stärka sitt varumärke. Som en del i detta analyserades även hur andra elitidrottare profilerar sig på sociala medier. Forskningsresultaten visar att stillbilder är den vanligaste typen av media och att idrottaren förekommer på majoriteten av bilderna. Vidare läggs också stort fokus på själva sporten. Personliga bilder förekom relativt sällan men visade sig ändå ha stor inverkan på den sammantagna uppfattningen av idrottaren. För att Annelie Eriksson ska stärka sin varumärkesidentitet bör hennes bilder kommunicera självsäkerhet, kvinnlighet, fart eller något av hennes andra kärnvärden. Annelie själv verkar vara det bästa sättet att kommunicera kvinnlighet och självsäkerhet, samtidigt som hästar i fart är vad som får henne som idrottare att uppfattas som fartfylld och tuff. Inslag av mer personliga bilder kan bidra till autenticiteten, vilket på sikt kan stärka det personliga varumärket. Vidare verkar motivet i bilderna vara av större vikt än hur bilderna är komponerade. Undantaget är att bilderna ändå bör hålla en hög kvalitet.

  • Jess, Kari
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Bergman Bruhn, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Patienten i centrum: Hemsjukvården i tre kommuner i Dalarna 20182019Report (Other academic)
  • Jensen, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Digitala verktyg som stöd i litteracitetsutvecklingen för nyanlända ungdomar på språkintroduktion: En kvalitativ forskningsintervju2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract: Svenska skolan har tagit emot en ökad grupp nyanlända elever som är i behov av grundläggande litteracitetsundervisning (Franker, 2016, s.1). För att skapa gynnsamma förutsättningar för dessa elever att utveckla läs- och skrivkompetens är det betydande att ta hänsyn till olika faktorer. Samtidigt ställer Skolverket (2016) ett ökat krav på en digitaliserad undervisning där eleverna med hjälp av digitala verktyg ska utveckla kunskaper. Denna uppsats undersöker således hur olika kompetenser inom språkintroduktion arbetar litteracitetsutvecklande med stöd av digitala verktyg. Studien utgår ifrån ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande och utveckling där fysiska verktyg (digitala verktyg) utgör ett stöd i lärandet. Denna studie har en kvalitativ forskningsinriktning där fyra intervjuer genomförts på två olika språkintroduktionsprogram. Studien har ett kompetensfokus där två lärare i svenska som andraspråk, en studiehandledare och en IT-pedagog har intervjuats. I resultatet framkommer det att digitala verktyg i form av datorer, Ipads, Smartboards och smartphones förekommer på ett varierat sätt där det sociokulturella lärandet ger förutsättningar för litteracitetsutvecklingen. Studiens deltagare redogör även för att digitala verktyg i samband med litteracitetsarbetet ger förutsättningar för interaktion och kommunikation bland lärare och elever.

  • Bergman Bruhn, Åsa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Olai, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Utvärdering av Hemsjukvården i Dalarna 2014: Slutrapport2019Report (Other academic)
  • Luchina, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Codazzi, Giacomo
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Marketing Communication Strategy for a Science Park2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: World economy of the 21st century places high demands on national economic systems. Governments implement various initiatives to enable a more effective cooperation between universities and industries in order to increase competitiveness of their economies. Science Parks represent one type of such initiatives. It is assumed that they support regional economic growth by means of technology transfer from university to industry. Science Parks usually incorporate incubation programs, which enable creation of NTBFs by university staff and students. Science Parks have to ensure its organizational development by providing paid services, especially in form of incubator program. Therefore, Science Parks are regarded in our research as service companies. In order to enable creation of NTBFs Science Parks have to be able to attract talented researchers and students. In our research, we focus on students and consider them as potential customers for Science Parks. Previous research focusing on the problem of students’ attraction to these organizations is scarce. We implement marketing communication theory to address the problem of students’ attraction to Science Parks.

    Aim: Our research is set to identify content for a marketing communication strategy of a science park, which considers students as potential customers.

    Theoretical background/Methodology: In order to fulfill the aim of the research we implement case study strategy. We collected primary and secondary data. The case organization is presented by Dalarna Science Park (located in Borlänge, Sweden), where we collected secondary data. It was incorporated in our research as handout materials that enabled Focus Group discussions. Focus groups with students from Dalarna University presented the source of primary data. Question guideline for focus groups was based on principles of marketing communication theory, which we used as the primary theory of the research.

    Conclusions: Results indicate that students regard business incubator services of a Science Park as useful for those who have business ideas. It can be considered as positive prerequisite for a marketing communication strategy. In order to attract students with ideas of starting own ventures, a Science Park should engage students into various events, such as workshops, discussions and seminars. The organization should constantly inform students about its nature and activities and create an image of a young successful entrepreneur, which students are attracted to. For this purpose a Science Park can use Internet as means of both spreading its messages to students and enabling WOM recommendations among them.

  • Adolfsson, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Civil planning and Construction.
    Strukturplan: Ett verktyg för att planera den framtida fysiska strukturen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet handlar om ett planeringsverktyg i samhällsplaneringen som har benämningen strukturplan. Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka strukturplaners innehåll och om det är ett användbart planeringsverktyg till efterföljande planering som ingår i den formella planeringsprocessen enligt plan- och bygglagen. Även att undersöka varför kommuner väljer att göra en strukturplan som anses vara en informell plansort, istället för att använda de verktyg som plan- och bygglagen erbjuder. Samt undersöka om tidigare forskning stämmer att kommuner använder strukturplaner för att undvika plan- och bygglagsprocessen.

    Arbetets forskningsdesign är fallstudie med en komparativ analys, fallen som valt är; Utvecklad strukturplan för Nacka stad, Strukturplan Storvreten, Strukturplan Forsåker, samt Strukturplan för Lina.

    Metoderna som använts i arbetet är kvalitativ innehållsanalys och semistrukturerade intervjuer.

    Resultatet av innehållsanalysen visar att en strukturplan är ett dokument som på ett övergripande sätt visar den tänkta fysiska grovstrukturen för ett visst geografiskt område i kommunen inom några år. Strukturplanen innehåller kartor, text och bilder som främst visar framtida markanvändningen, befintliga- och framtida bostäder, grönstruktur och trafikstruktur. Den kan även innehålla andra kartor, exempelvis etappindelning och våningsantal, som kommunen tycker är väsentliga att ha med.

    I de semistrukturerade intervjuerna svarade intressenterna att strukturplanen är ett användbart planeringsverktyg till efterföljande planering och används istället för en fördjupning av översiktsplanen för att undvika plan- och bygglagens formella process. Vilket resulterar i att det stämmer överens med den tidigare utredningen En effektivare plan- och byggprocess (SOU 2013:34), ), att kommuner tar fram en strukturplan för att undvika PBL-processen.

    Slutsatsen är att kommuner väljer att göra en strukturplan som lyfter planeringsfrågor och löser planeringsproblem på en övergripande nivå och ska främst användas som ett internt strategisk planeringsverktyg. En strukturplan skapas för att det finns ett högt krav på att publicera bostäder från politikerna och för att den kommunala planeringsprocessen är tidskrävande. Därför väljer kommunen att frångå arbetet med PBL, och gör istället en strukturplan som planeringsverktyg för tidsbesparing och behöver inte genomföra PBLprocessens formella delar.

  • Ringnér, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Grannspråksundervisning i svenskämnet i grund- och gymnasieskolan: En litteraturstudie med nordiskt språkligt fokus2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här systematiska litteraturstudien var att undersöka och kartlägga forskningsfältet om grannspråksundervisning inom svenskämnet kopplat till kursplanerna. Forskningsfrågorna handlade om vilket innehåll grannspråksundervisningen ska ha, vilka arbetssätt som är lämpliga samt vad som gynnar respektive hämmar grannspråksundervisningen. I bakgrunden presenterades Deklarationen om nordisk språkpolitik, skrivningarna om grannspråksundervisning i grund- och gymnasieskolans kursplaner i svenska samt en undersökning om grannspråksförståelse bland ungdomar. Mot denna bakgrund diskuterades fynden från litteraturmaterialet. Där framkom att det finns motsättningar mellan innehållet i kursplaner, nordiska språkdeklarationen samt klassrumspraktiken. Nordiska språkdeklarationen och klassrumspraktiken hade ett större fokus på hörförståelse än vad kursplanerna föreskriver. På frågan om vad undervisningen innehåller så framkom läsning och läsförståelse samt hörförståelse. Kunskaper om realia, grammatik och språkpolitik förekom inte i materialet. Gällande passande metoder i undervisningen handlar åtta av sex publikationer i materialet om projekten Gränsöverskridande nordisk undervisning (GNU) och Nordiska språkpiloter (NSP). Därför blir passande metoder inriktade på dessa projekt och där är digitala medier i fokus. Gynnsamma faktorer för grannspråksundervisningen är: djupa ämneskunskaper hos lärarna, sociala kontakter mellan elever från olika grannländer, passande undervisningsmaterial, nordiskt perspektiv i lärarutbildningarna, integrering av grannspråksundervisning i övriga moment i kursplanerna samt ett multimodalt arbetssätt. Hämmande faktorer för grannspråksundervisning är: tidsbrist, kunskapsbrist, lite utrymme för de nordiska språken i styrdokumenten samt för hög svårighetsgrad i materialet.

    Av studiens åtta publikationer hade två en svensk kontext, två en norsk kontext och fyra en dansk kontext. Detta tillsammans med den höga representationen av empiri grundad på projekt gör att det finns en forskningslucka att fylla. I nästa examensarbete kommer jag således att bidra till att fylla den forskningsluckan genom att anta ett svenskt elevperspektiv på grannspråksundervisningen där jag undersöker vilken undervisning eleverna anser sig behöva för att kunna kommunicera med medborgare i de nordiska grannländerna.

  • Starkenberg, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Elever i behov av stöd i läs- och skrivutvecklingen: En intervjustudie av svensklärares undervisning för att utveckla läs- och skrivförmågan hos elever i behov av stöd2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur svensklärare i årskurs 4-6 arbetar när det gäller att utveckla läs- och skrivförmågan hos elever i behov av stöd. Studiens data har samlats in genom ostrukturerade intervjuer med sex verksamma svensklärare på mellanstadiet. Datainsamlingen har bearbetats med stöd av en innehållsanalys och tolkats utifrån det sociokulturella perspektivet. Tidigare forskning visar att lärare behöver skapa en undervisning som grundar sig i elevernas olika förutsättningar och behov. Elevmaterialet måste vara anpassat efter elevens tidigare kunskaper samtidigt som materialet stöttar elevens vidareutveckling. För att kunna vägleda eleven vidare i utvecklingen behöver läraren dokumentera den lärprocess som eleven genomgår. Eftersom samhället idag blir alltmer digitaliserat har lärares möjligheter att individanpassa undervisningen vidgats. De nya digitala verktygen har öppnat upp för ett multimodalt och anpassat lärande. Resultaten visar att lärarna använder olika metoder för att kartlägga elevers läs- och skrivförmåga. Lärarna grundar svenskundervisningen på elevernas tidigare läs- och skrivkunskaper för att samtliga elever ska kunna befinna sig i klassrummet. Lärarna anser att de digitala verktygen gör det möjligt för lärarna att möta fler elevers behov. Slutsatserna som studien visar är att lärarna arbetar för att skapa en inkluderande och individanpassad svenskundervisning som utgår från elevernas olika läs- och skrivbehov.

  • Rehnström Loi, Ulrika
    et al.
    Otieno, Beatrice
    Oguttu, Monica
    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet.
    Faxelid, Elisabeth
    Makenzius, Marlene
    Abortion and contraceptive use stigma: a cross-sectional study of attitudes and beliefs in secondary school students in western Kenya.2019In: Sexual and reproductive health matters, ISSN 2641-0397, Vol. 27, no 3, article id 1652028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social stigma related to women's reproductive decision-making negatively impacts the health of women. However, little is known about stigmatising attitudes and beliefs surrounding abortion and contraceptive use among adolescents. The aim of this study was to measure stigmatising attitudes and beliefs regarding abortion and contraceptive use among secondary school students in western Kenya. A self-reported classroom questionnaire-survey was administered in February 2017 to students at two suburban secondary schools in western Kenya. Two scales were used to measure the stigma surrounding abortion and contraceptive use - the Adolescent Stigmatizing Attitudes, Beliefs and Actions (ASABA) scale and the Contraceptive Use Stigma (CUS) scale. 1,369 students were eligible for the study; 1,207 (females = 618, males = 582) aged 13-21 years were included in the analysis. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's χ2 test, and the t-test were used to analyse the data. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The students reported stigma associated with abortion (53.2%), and contraceptive use (54.4%). A larger proportion of male students reported abortion stigma (57.7%) and contraceptive use stigma (58.5%), compared to female students (49.0%, p = .003 and 50.6%, p = .007, respectively). Higher scores were displayed by younger rather than older age groups. No associations were identified between sexual debut and abortion stigma (p = .899) or contraceptive use stigma (p = .823). Abortion and contraceptive use are stigmatised by students in Kenya. The results can be used to combat abortion stigma and to increase contraceptive use among adolescents in Kenya.

  • Swärd, Elias
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Étude comparative de prépositions suédoises et françaises dans Lejontämjaren de Camilla Läckberg et dans sa traduction en français2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis is to study the relations between prepositions in Swedish and French. The prepositions are classified into different categories according to their syntactical role in the sentence. The analyzed book is Lejontämjaren by Camilla Läckberg and its translation into French Le dompteur de lions translated by Lena Grumbach. The result showed that the largest category was ” the preposition before the governed phrase” , that is, when the preposition precedes the noun, whereas the category ” the absolute preposition” , that is, when there is no noun related to the preposition, had the smallest number of occurrences. In the analyzed sentences, the translation was on the whole faithful to the text of the source language, which is the language in which the original text was written. There were several cases of semantic generalization in the corpus, which means that the translator translates a semantically complex Swedish lexeme (basic lexical unit) into a less complex French lexeme.

  • Kubresli, Alexandra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    The Syrian War: Portraits with Political Meanings: A Content Analysis of Al-Jazeera’s Coverage of the Intra-Syrian Peace Negotiations2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse the contents in texts about the intra-Syrian peace negotiations, as well as identify latent political meanings, through examining how the sides of the war are portrayed in al-Jazeera´s coverage. Dr Zainab Abdul-Nabi suggests in her analysis of al-Jazeera´s coverage of another event in the Syrian war, namely the chemical attack in Ghouta, that al-Jazeera has a catalysing role in the Arab Spring when covering the Syrian war in particular. This study continues along those lines that Abdul-Nabi suggests by analysing the coverage of another event in the Syrian war – the UN-led intra-Syrian peace negotiations. Purposefully, this study should increase the awareness of how political meanings could be hidden in texts. The theory of agenda setting, a theory by Walter Lippman which was further developed by McCombs and Shaw, is used in this study: media set the agenda by inserting certain portraits of how things are and what the society should be concerned about. Content analysis is the method used to perform this study, following Halperin and Heath´s model. By interpreting articles from an influential media source – al-Jazeera – the analysis shows that the examined texts portray the opposition as protagonists against a brutal government, plausibly making the media source a part of the war since the texts attempt to set the agenda that a certain side is the protagonists and another is the antagonists. Underplaying the potential capacities of the peace negotiations and not compromising with the other side is evident, as well as holding the other side responsible of the hostilities in the war, in the texts, hence having a catalysing role with its coverage in the war. Also, the texts tend to leave out details concerning the other side (the government side), portraying the opposition to be representing the people..

  • Rickardt, Britt-Louise
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Une étude de deux récits d’amour de jeunesse : Bonjour tristesse de Françoise Sagan et L’Amant de Marguerite Duras2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a study of the novels Bonjour tristesse by Françoise Sagan and L’Amant by Marguerite Duras on the theme young love. The aim of the study has been to examine the love stories of the two young girls, Cécile in Bonjour tristesse and ‘l’enfant’ (the child) in L’Amant, to find out whether the story of young love is a story that changes with the surroundings or if it stays independent of the entourage and the milieu. The stories are really different considering the geography, the living conditions, the characteristics of the authors and the epochs. In our analysis we have carefully examined those parts of the novels where young love is mentioned. We have found that it seems that the parts describing young love are very alike in the two novels.

  • Hesselgren, Katarina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Enqvist, Linn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Översättning och validering av del III, Motor Examination, i bedömningsinstrumentet MDS-UPDRS för utvärdering av motoriska symtom vid Parkinsons sjukdom2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale is a frequently used assessment tool world wide in clinics in care of people with Parkinson’s disease. In 2001, the assessment tool were reviewed and revised, which was titled Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. Part III of MDS-UPDRS aims to investigate motor symptoms and is considered important in, among other things, physiotherapists' investigation, and as evaluation after treatment. Currently, a Swedish validated translation of Part III is lacking. Aim: The aim of this study is to translate part III of MDS-UPDRS from english to swedish, and then analyze content validity for the swedish version. Method: The translation was done with the use of forward translation, backward translation and the content validity was analyzed with Content Validity Index (CVI). The translation were analyzed in two rounds, with help by five individual proficient to the area. The content validity were set by following domains and reference values: I-CVI (0,80), S-CVI/AVE (0,90) and SCVI/UA (0,80). Results: After two rounds, 20 questions out of 24 reached an I-CVI of 1,0. The remaining four questions reached an I-CVI of 0,80. The values of S-CVI/AVE and S-CVI/UA were 0,97 and 0,83 which meant that it exceeded the set reference values. The integer scale can be considered valid based on the reference values on S-CVI/AVE and S-CVI/UA. Conclusion: The integer translated version of MDS-UPDRS part III can be considered valid.

  • Hultqvist, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Oknelid, Stina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Förekomsten av självskattad knäsmärta under utbildning till amfibiesoldat. En prospektiv observationsstudie inom den svenska försvarsmakten.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is previously known that musculoskeletal disorders are common within the military population. Research has shown that almost 80 % of the marines within the Swedish Armed Forces experience some kind of musculoskeletal pain during a period of 6 months. However, mapping of the occurrence of knee pain during the Swedish Armed Forces marine training course “grundkurs amfibie” (GK Amf), where soldiers with basic training receive their marine specific training, was previously missing. This knowledge is important regarding prevention, future research and from a socio-economic perspective. Aim: The aim of this study was to map the occurrence of self-reported knee pain during the Swedish Armed Forces four-month long GK Amf. Method: This study was based on a quantitative prospective observational study of cohort design. 53 recruits participating in the 16-week GK Amf at the Amphibious regiment located in Berga were included in the study. Selfassessment questionnaires were used both at baseline and at weekly follow-ups to investigate the occurrence of knee pain. Results: The total prevalence of perceived knee pain during the GK Amf was 81 % and the median was 28 %. 42 of the total 53 recruits at risk of pain experienced at least one episode of pain, which made the total incidence of knee pain during the GK Amf 79 %. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the occurrence of self-reported knee pain was very high during the GK Amf. Based on these findings, it is relevant to study prevention and risk factors for knee pain within this population in the future.

  • Saliba, George
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Welker, Fanny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    RIKTPRIS I ECI-PROJEKT – KRAV PÅ BIM-MODELLER AVSEENDE DETALJERINGSNIVÅ2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet handlar om riktpriset i ECI projekt samt krav på BIM modeller avseende detaljeringsnivåer. Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) är en relativt ny samverkansmodell i Sverige som används av Trafikverket i ett fåtal väldigt stora infrastrukturprojekt. ECI består av två faser och går ut på att beställaren samverkar med entreprenören i ett tidigt skede, fas 1, där entreprenörens kompetens och erfarenhet är värdefull redan i planeringen. Om beställare och entreprenör kommer överens om den ungefärliga kostnaden, riktpriset, för att utföra arbetet enligt fas 1, får entreprenören också utföra arbetet som en totalentreprenad i fas 2. BIM är en viktig pusselbit för framgång i ECI-projekt och kan förbättra samverkan mellan olika aktörer och team i projekteringen. Informationen i modeller kan lätt flyttas mellan team och användas för att förkorta beslutsprocesser. Syftet med examensarbetet är att undersöka vilken detaljeringsnivå i modeller som är nödvändig för ECI-projektets första fas (riktprisfasen), samt undersöka hur Trafikverket ställer krav på BIM och modellers detaljeringsnivåer. Studien genomfördes genom att göra en jämförelse av erhållet riktpris för två brandsläckningssystem med olika detaljeringsnivå (LOD200 och LOD300) i en tunnelmodell. Studien avgränsar sig till endast bruttokostnader för material såsom rör, rörkopplingar och ventiler. Undersökningen visade utifrån mängdförteckningen att riktpriset för modellen med högre detaljeringsnivå (LOD 300) är 95% större än för den lägre nivån (LOD 200). I modellen med LOD 200 beräknades riktpriset enbart på rören vilket gjorde en stor skillnad jämfört med LOD 300 där riktpriset beräknades på rören, rörkopplingar och ventiler. Utifrån det kan slutsatsen dras att en modell med detaljeringsgrad LOD 200 inte innehåller tillräckligt med information för att kunna prissättas utan alltför stor prisavvikelse och risk.

  • Juslin, Kajsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Remembering Hiroshima: Hadashi no Gen from a Trauma Theory Perspective2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, a semi-autobiographical manga, Hadashi no Gen, written by Nakazawa Keiji, is analyzed through the lens of trauma theory. By using trauma theory, I hope to shed light on in what way trauma might affect narrative techniques and in what way the narrative techniques convey trauma and emotion to the reader. For the analysis “Trauma Fiction” by Anne Whitehead was chosen and categories based on her findings were made. The categories are: Intertextuality, repetition, dispersed and fragmented narrative voice, memory place, choiceless choice and fantastic. I discovered that all these themes, observed in other trauma fiction as well, are more or less used as a narrative tool in Hadashi no Gen. Further I observed that by conveying traumatic events and emotions through a combination of images and language is a powerful tool and might even be more effective than standard prose text

  • Olsson, Josefine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Undervisning i muntlig framställning: En litteraturstudie om muntlig framställning i gymnasieskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att utreda vad aktuell forskning säger om undervisningen i muntlig framställning i gymnasieskolan. I studien har tidigare forskning inom området systematiskt samlats in och analyserats.

    Resultatet visar att muntlig framställning ofta får mycket begränsat undervisningsutrymme i den svenska gymnasieskolan. I svenskämnet tycks den muntliga delen oftast åsidosättas till fördel för skriftliga aktiviteter samt litteraturarbete. Trots att forskning förespråkar systematisk talträning och metakunskap för utveckling av muntlig kommunikativ kompetens, tycks denna typ av undervisning få begränsat utrymme i arbetet med muntliga framställningar. Elever efterfrågar mer undervisning i muntlig framställning samt utvidgad respons och vägledning från lärare. Genom jämförelser med internationella studier kan det konstateras att finns likartad problematik även i andra länder.

  • Larsson, Oscar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Det perfekta exemplet?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sustainability reporting has grown stronger over the years. And 2017, a law was introduced concerning sustainability reporting. Before the law, the majority of large companies in Sweden developed sustainability report and there has been a change in the content of sustainability reports. Sandvik is a company that has been included in number of various sustainability indices over the years. But how did Sandvik develop such a good sustainability report and what is stakeholders and society’s role of the development.

    Purpose: This essay can help to deepen the knowledge of how an excellent company has developed and changed its sustainability report longitudinally for 11 years.

    Method: The study is based on a qualitative research method. The data collection is made by a template that is designed by GRI's frameworks and variables that are considered relevant in a research of sustainability reports. A person at Sandvik has been interviewed to gain a deeper understanding of Sandvik's sustainability report. The empirical data consists of a summary of the keywords in the templates and the interview. In the analysis, the empirics and the interview were set against theories and previous research

    Conclusion: The study results show that Sandvik's sustainability report has been developed over the years and that the results may indicate that Sandviks stakeholders and society have had an influence on Sandviks sustainability report.

  • Ahlqvist, Emelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Vinblad, Jennie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Penningtvätt: Påverkas kunderna i Dalarna av penningtvätt?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the spring of 2019, the world received the news that one of the major Swedish banks had been laundering money for quite some time. There has been discussion in the media over the last year about how the bank will be able to move forward after this. A question that has not yet been addressed in the media is how this crisis affects the opinions and actions of the bank’s customers in Dalarna. Earlier research indicates that a crisis in the banking world affects a bank’s credibility to the extent that the customers choose to change banks. To find out if this crisis regarding money laundering has a similar effect, a survey was created, and a total of 95 people answered. Statistical methods were used to get the results, and they show that the general opinion regarding the bank’s credibility indeed was affected, but not enough to make the customers change banks.