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  • Svensson, Jennie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. KTH, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    An Experimental Study to Improve the Casting Performance of Steel Grades Sensitive for Clogging2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the goal is to optimize the process and to reduce the clogging tendency during the continuous casting process. The focus is on clogging when the refractory base material (RBM) in the SEN is in contact with the liquid steel. It is difficult or impossible to avoid non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel, but by a selection of a good RBM in the SEN clogging can be reduced.

     

    Different process steps were evaluated during the casting process in order to reduce the clogging tendency. First, the preheating of the SEN was studied. The results showed that the SEN can be decarburized during the preheating process. In addition, decarburization of SEN causes a larger risk for clogging. Two types of plasma coatings were implemented to protect the RBM, to prevent reactions with the RBM, and to reduce the clogging tendency. Calcium titanate (CaTiO3) mixed with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) plasma coatings were tested in laboratory and pilot plant trials, for casting of aluminium-killed low-carbon steels. For casting of cerium alloyed stainless steels, YSZ plasma coatings were tested in laboratory, pilot plant and industrial trials. The results showed that the clogging tendency was reduced when implementing both coating materials.

     

    It is also of importance to produce clean steel in order to reduce clogging. Therefore, the steel cleanliness in the tundish was studied experimentally. The result showed that inclusions originated from the slag, deoxidation products and tundish refractory and that they were present in the tundish as well as in the final steel product.

  • Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.
    Energy Efficient Renovation Strategies for Swedish and Other European Residential and Office Buildings2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high energy use in the European building stock is attributable to the large share of old buildings with poor energy performance. Energy renovation of buildings is therefore vital in the work towards energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact in the EU. Yet, the strategies and energy system implications of this work have not been made clear, and the rate of building renovation is currently very low.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the economic and environmental aspects of energy renovation strategies, with two main objectives:

    • Renovation of Swedish district heated multi-family houses, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and impact on the local energy system;

    • Renovation of European residential and office buildings, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and influence of climatic conditions.

    Buildings typical for the respective regions and the period of construction 1945-1970 were simulated, in order to determine the feasibility and energy saving potential of energy renovation measures in European climates. A variety of systems for heating, cooling and ventilation were studied, as well as solar energy systems, with focus on heat pumps, district heating, low-temperature heating systems and air heat recovery.

    Compared to normal building renovation, energy renovation can often reduce the life-cycle costs and environmental impact. In renovation of typical European office buildings, as well as Southern European multi-family houses, more ambitious renovation levels can also be more profitable.

    Exhaust air heat pumps can be cost-effective complements in district heated multi-family houses, while ventilation with heat recovery is more expensive but also more likely to reduce the primary energy use. From a system perspective, simple exhaust ventilation can reduce the primary energy use in the district-heating plant as much as an exhaust air heat pump, due to the lower electricity use.

  • Recensioner1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 95-127 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Korpi, Walter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Den virtuella verklighetens tillväxt och det intellektuella samtalets förfall i forskarsamhället1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 80-93 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of virtual reality and the decline of intellectual dialog in the community of social scientists

    For about two decades now, leading Swedish economists have been arguing that the expansion of Sweden's welfare state since 1970 has caused its economic growth to lag behind that of other comparable countries. As main evidence for this causal interpretation, they have pointed to the fact that since the early 1970s Sweden's percentage growth of GDP per capita has been below the OECD-average. In these terms, however, Sweden's growth lagged behind the OECD-average by the same amount already in the 1950s and 60s, the effect thus preceding its assumed cause by two decades. Furthermore, also other relatively rich countries such as Switzerland and the United States, have had percentage growth rates below the OECD-average. This reflects the so called catch-up effect, which tends to give the originally less rich countries a higher percentage growth rates than the originally rich countries, among them Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. A causal interpretation of this percentage difference to the OECD-average in terms of a ”Swedish” welfare state is thus not possible. Henrekson is however a true believer in the irrelevance of the catch-up effect, something which makes him shut his eyes.

  • Henrekson, Magnus
    Industriens Utredningsinstitut.
    Sveriges ekonomiska tillväxt och samhällsforskarnas objektivitet1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 68-79 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic growth of Sweden and the objectivity of social scientists

    In an article in Sociologisk Forskning (2/98) Walter Korpi maintains that the claim by Swedish academic economists that Sweden’s economic growth has been slow compared to other rich countries is at odds with the empirical facts. Consequently, unless Sweden has grown slowly, an often cited basis for questioning the Swedish model is invalidated. Korpi also asserts that the discussion reveals a severe objectivity problem among Swedish academic economists. In this article Magnus Henrekson rebuts Korpi's allegations. The available facts show that Sweden was lagging behind relative to a broad aggregate ofother industrialized countries up to 1990, and this tendency is further reinforced if the 1990s is included in the comparison. As a corallary, it is an important task for future research to examine the factors that can potentially explain this unfavorable development. One hypothesis worthy of additional exploration is whether the Swedish model with its large public sector and strongly redistributive policies provides part of the explanation. As regards the objectivity problem in social science research in Sweden, Henrekson argues that, if anything, the discussion of Sweden’s growth problem shows that Walter Korpi is the one who has been lacking in scientific objectivity in this particular instance.

  • Ljungar, Erik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gunnar Myrdals relevans för dagens sociologi: Värdepremisser och kumulativ kausalitet1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 37-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gunnar Myrdals relevance for contemporary sociology: value premises and cumulative causation

    Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1977) is one of Sweden’s internationally most renowned social scientists. He has made important contributions to both the fields of economics and sociology, but even to the philosophy and methodology of the social sciences. M criticizes the social sciences for being value-loaded. The values built into the scientific tradition, political interests, and the personal values of the social scientist, has all a tendency to create biases in the scientific results. The only way to ”solve” this problem is that the social scientist brings the value premises that govern a study into the open. It is then possible for others to judge the conclusions reached. M has an ambition to reduce the gap between economics and sociology. For this purpose he has developed a model based on the idea of circular and cumulative causation. This model assumes that economic and non-economic factors are equally important in social processes and that the factors reinforce each other in a specific direction. M uses this model for analyzing business fluctuations, discrimination of Afro-Americans and development processes in third-world countries.

  • Melin, Göran
    STINT.
    Globalisering och internationalisering inom vetenskapen1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 22-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Globalization or internationalization in the sciences.

    The main question in this study is whether we can find empirical evidence of globalization in science or not. Usually the increasing number of co-authorships in the sciences is seen as an indicator of increasing research collaboration, which in turn is seen as part of the globalization-trend. Here, this chain is questioned and the relation and the difference between globalization and internationalization in science is investigated and discussed. A number of studies have shown how the amount of research collaboration is increasing but it is not clear that this is actually leading to globalization in science rather than internationalization. Through a number of empirical results the structure of international research collaboration is described. It is concluded that there may very well be an ongoing globalization-trend but this is hardly evident in empirical studies of research collaboration. What can be seen though is a strengthened internationalization-trend. Globalization seems to be a phenomenon that ought to be used more carefully and studied through both bibliometric and other methods.

  • Nordenmark, Mikael
    Umeå universitet.
    Arbetslöshetskoncentration: Ett resultat av negativa attityder gentemot arbete?1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 3, 4-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment concentration: Caused by negative attitudes towards paid work?

    This article studies the concentration of unemployment within families and social networks in Sweden. The study, which is based on two random samples, one consisting of approximately 47000 young people and their parents and one consisting of 3500 unemployed persons, raises the question of whether unemployment concentration mainly is caused by negative values towards employment or by structural factors. The results show that it is common for persons who are unemployed and have experienced longer periods of unemployment to have unemployed family members and friends. The causes of the unemployment concentration can be traced to structural factors such as class, ethnicity, age, unemployment rate and population in the district etc., rather than to the attitudes of the members of the unemployed group.

  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1999:31999Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Recensioner1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 4, 125-147 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Dahlström, Edmund
    Manuel Castells tankar om informationsåldern1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 4, 114-124 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Thörn, Håkan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Vad är globalisering? Sociologin utmanad1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 4, 76-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990s, the concept of ”globalization” has been established in sociology and in the social sciences more generally. This article argues that sociological theory and research on globalization constitutes a new discourse within sociology; challenging some of the cornerstones of established sociology. The aim of this article is to investigate, analyze and critically discuss this discourse. The article has three parts. The first part argues that two conceptual pairs, nation state/globalization and global/local, represent the two most central theoretical themes in globalization discourse. These themes - as well as globalization discourse in general - are centred around conceptions about new relations between social relations and power on the one hand, and territoriality on the other. In the second part it is argued that this discourse refers to world society as the main research object of ”the sociology of globalization”. The third partdiscusses some aspects of the critique of established sociological theories and research strategies articulated in sociological theories of globalization. The conclusion argues that globalization discourse in some respects needs more empirical grounding and further theoretical development. However, its challenge must be taken seriously, not the least because it points to, and present meaningful analyses of, a number of present-day phenomena that are not so easily grasped by established sociological perspectives.

  • Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Mot en gränslös demokrati?: Politiska responser på globala miljöhot1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 4, 40-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Towards a transboundary democracy? Political responses to global environmental threats.

    Global environmental threats challenge the national state and the traditional understanding of democracy. Whereas many environmental problems transcend time and space, democracy is bound to the geographical borders of the national state as well as to its citizens/voters of today. The aim of this paper is to elaborate in what regards environmental problems challenge democracy and the sovereignty of national states, and critically discuss proposals for political reorganization. By analyzing two cases of global political mobilization against specific environmental threats, the possibilities for global responses to environmental threats are elucidated. By way of conclusion, the question is raised whether this kind of global alliances and actions implies a fragmentation of our understanding of the world, or if they are promising signs of a development towards global responsibility and cosmopolitan democracy.

  • Gähler, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Att skiljas är att dö en smula...: Skilsmässa och psykisk ohälsa hos svenska kvinnor och män1999In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 36, no 4, 4-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper data from the 1981 and 1991 Swedish Level of Living Surveys is used to analyze any impact of divorce on the individual’s psychological wellbeing. The longitudinal structure of the data set makes it possible to follow respondents, and any change in their civil status, over time. Respondents are categorized into three family types: 1) Intact couple (those who continued living with the same partner during the period 1981-1991), 2) Remarried (those who divorced or separated and were living with a new partner in 1991), and 3) Divorced (the divorced and separated who were living alone in 1991). The results do, in fact, reveal that divorcees, both female and male, reported a lower psychological well-being in 1991 than their married and cohabiting counterparts. This is only to a very limited extent due to divorcees having a lower well-being already before the divorce (in 1981) and the difference in well-being cannot be entirely explained by other factors (such as income or access to social support) either.

  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 1999:41999Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Recensioner2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 210-221 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörns högskola.
    Självmordsdödligheten i den östeuropeiska omvandlingen2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 180-209 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide mortality in the Eastern European transition

    The current paper seeks to systematize the discussion on the causes of the changes in Eastern European countries' suicide mortality during the last 15 years by analyzing the changes in relation to some common causes: alcohol consumption, economic changes, "general pathogenic social stress", political changes and social disorganization. It is found that the development in suicide has varied between in different countries, and that the same causes cannot apply to all of them. However, the relation between suicide mortality and social processes is obvious. A model consisting of general stress, democratization, alcohol consumption and social disorganization (with a period-dependent effect) predicted fairly accurately the percentual changes in the suicide rates in 16 out of the 28 Eastern Bloc countries in 1984-89 and 1989-94, while it failed to do so for Albania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and the Caucasian and Central Asian newly independent states. The data are subject to many potential sources of error: the small number of units and the large multicollinearity between the independent variables may bias results. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the changes in Eastern European suicide mortality, both its decreases and increases, may be explained with the same set of variables. However, more than one factor is needed, and the multicollinearity will continue to pose a problem.

  • Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Självskattad hälsa och vådliga beteenden i transitionens Ryssland2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 150-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is hypothesised that individuals’ ability to cope with the Russian transition is socially structured and will give rise to health differences and differences in ‘risk behaviours’. Since self-rated health and mortality represent different dimensions of public health and since risk behaviours have been closely related to mortality, we wanted to examine whether (poor) self-rated health on the one hand and risk behaviours on the other can be attributed to different causes. The Taganrog household survey was conducted in the form of face-to face interviews and included 1009 individuals and their families.The survey was carried out January to December 1998. To estimate health differences and differences in risk behaviours between groups, logistic regressions were performed. In Taganrog between 1993/94 and 1998, changes in public health, (here self-rated health), seem to have been much more dramatic than changes in smoking and different in direction than changes in heavy alcohol consumption. Moreover, self-rated ‘poor’ health was more common among those whose economic situation was worse 1998 than ten years before. However, having a poorer economy during the period 1988-1998, does not seem to have affected drinking or smoking habits significantly. In general, self-rated health seems to be more closely related to three indicators of economic circumstances. Risk behaviours are certainly im portant for the poor state of public healthin Russia, but may be not closely connected to the economic aspects of the transition.

  • Sparén, Pär
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Stagnation, sammanbrott och social nyordning - rötterna till den ryska folkhälsokrisen2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 127-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stagnation, break-down and a new social order - the roots of the Russian public health crisis

    Long term trends of deteriorating health status in Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during the last two decades of communism were followed by a new crisis in health, after the collapse of its social system. In contrast, the perestroika period coincided with strongly improved public health. Explanations for the latest Russian health crisis are discussed. It is concluded that explanations based on poor medical care, excessive alcohol consumption or nutrional deprivation are, at best, insufficient. The collapse of the social system itself has lead to a narrowing of individual and collective decision latitudes; we speculate that historical factors, such as vulnerability of specific birth cohorts or segments of the population, may be part of the unexpected and very steep rise of mortality during the first half of the 1990s.

  • Reitan, Therese C
    Södertörns högskola.
    Operasjonen var mislykket, men pasientenöverlevde. Den siste sovjetiske alkohol-kampanjen og dens blandede ettermaele2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 86-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation was unsuccessful, but the patient survived. Varying assessments of the last anti-alcohol campaign in the Soviet Union

    One of the most widely discussed factors behind fluctuations in mortality in Russia and the former Soviet Union is the so-called Gorbachev anti-alcohol campaign, which was launched in 1985. This large-scale natural experiment in alcohol policy has since then produced very mixed reviews, partly described as successful although more often depicted as a failure. The article presents the wide variety of assessments, and discusses the underlying criteria on which these assessments are made. These criteria most often pertain to the campaign’s goals, implementation, effects and the overall judgement is closely linked to the chosen time perspective. The effects include changes in life expectancy, alcohol consumption (registered as well as illicit), mortality, crime, in addition to other political, social and fiscal consequences. The varied assessments also point to a schism between a narrowly focused epidemiological view of the campaign and a more general sociological and normative approach.

  • Åberg, Martin
    Södertörns högskola.
    Den fungerande demokratin? Socialt kapital och demokratisering i västra Ukraina2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 46-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Futnam’s 'social capital theory’ goes east: a case study of Western Ukraine and L'viv

    The article is an attempt to probe Putnam’s ”social capital theory” using a case study approach to the analysis of democratisation in post-socialist societies. For this purpose Western Ukraine and more specifically the city of L'viv during the first years of independent statehood is analysed by help of available survey data, focus group discussions and deep interviews. It is argued that while political culture and social capital do play an important part in the former socialist states, Putnam ’s definition of social capital needs to be critically examined and in part re-interpreted. Public life in these countries are mostly associated with the type of ’non-communitarian’ social capital Putnam found in Southern Italy, deriving mainly from negative experiences from state socialist institutions. However, contrary to Putnam’s argument, lack of trust in formal institutions is not due primarily to difficulties to implement sanctions in the particularistic and vertical networks from which non-communitarian social capital is built. The exchange relations that constitute the backbone of communitarian and non-communitarian social capital respectively draw on two different modes of reducing social transaction costs. It is hypothesised that it is this difference rather than implementation of sanctions as such that is the key to the problem and that it is above all the mode of reducing social transaction costs typical to non-communitarian social capital which impedes the building of trust in formal institutions. Furthermore non-communitarian social capital still in many respects continue to represent a more efficient tool for practical problem solving compared to formal institutions. It is concluded that these two features increases the importance of institutional design and third-party enforcement rather than diminishing the role such factors play to successful democratisation.

  • Hansen, Erik
    Forskningsstiftelsen Fafo, Oslo.
    Fattigdom i Ryssland: kontinuitet og endring2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 22-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poverty in Russia: Continuity and Change

    This article examines the relationship between economic reforms in Russia and the observed levels of poverty in the population. A review of poverty levels in the USSR reveals that the USSR had a significant poverty problem. Further, the article reviews the changes in poverty assessment methods during reform, and its consequences for estimates of poverty levels, which currently vary between 10 and 50 percent of the population. Russian poverty is seen as different from usual Western patterns, as neither employment nor education is sufficient to protect from poverty. Survey data reveal that whereas the numberof destitute may be relatively limited, more than half of all households have difficulties covering needs of a higher order. In a separate section, the disappearance of non-market personal networks as a source of consumer goods as a consequence of reform is discussed. Thereafter, the impact on poverty levels of the financial crisis in August 1998 is discussed. Social polices are seen as relatively inefficient due to their scope, which goes beyond poverty relief, but aims to shelter the population from adverse effects of the reform policies.

  • Sacharov, Andreij D
    et al.
    Turtjin, V.F
    Medvedev, Roy A
    ”Utan en genomgripande demokratisering kommer vårt samhälle inte att kunna lösa sina problem”: Brev till det sovjetiska kommunistpartiets centralkommitté i mars 19702000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 8-21 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Inledning: Tema Ryssland2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 1, 4-7 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2000:12000Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Barber, Ryan M
    et al.
    Fullman, Nancy
    Sorensen, Reed J
    Bollyky, Thomas
    McKee, Martin
    Nolte, Ellen
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Abete, Kalkidan Hassen
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Murray, Christopher J L
    Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10091, 231-266 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Recensioner2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 2, 99-130 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Persson, Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Observation: Intimitet bland främlingar. Om mobiltelefonsamtal på offentliga platser2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 2, 94-98 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Slavnic, Zoran
    Umeå universitet.
    Ekonomisk åtstramning och flyktingmottagning2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 2, 66-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic tightening and refugee reception

    According to an agreement between Malmö municipality and SIV (Swedish Immigration Authority), 950 refugees who had been granted PUT (permanent residence permit), were allowed to move to Malmö during the 1994. Altogether, approximately 2000 foreigners were expected by local authorities to be moving to Malmö in the same period. But the real number was slightly less than 5000, and 4000 of those people were refugees. This paper aims to discuss sociologically relevant institutional aspects of this event, focusing on the consequences of the gap between the still high political aims of the Swedish welfare system and the lack of resources for these aims to be realised. The article focuses also on the related issue of citizenship. It argues that formal attributes of belonging more and more lose their importance and relevance, while at the same time substantial attributes of belonging become central as a criterion for which social groups should or not have access to material resources.

  • Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hundra år av könssegregering på den svenska arbetsmarknaden2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 2, 35-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hundred years of sex segregation in the Swedish labour market

    Women have composed a substantial part of the Swedish labour force throughout the 20th century. This article provides a brief outline of some debates and processes that directly or indirectly affected women’s labour force participation and the sexual division of labour in non-agricultural work during the 20th century. The overall purpose is to study trends in horizontal and vertical segregation by sex in the Swedish labour market between 1890 and 1990 using log-linear modelling. The results indicate that the level of horizontal segregation by sex increased the first decades of the 20th century, which to some extent contradicts earlier assertions that the level of sex segregation decreased as women entered new branches during the first decades of the 20th century. Nevertheless, the Swedish labour market is less markedly structured by sex in 1990 than it was in 1890. The trend in vertical sex segregation follows a slightly different pattern. The association between sex and class decreased rapidly during the first decades ofthe 20th century. It then remained unchanged for a long time, but was in 1990 much lower than in the beginning of the century.

  • Bolinder, Margareta
    Umeå universitet.
    Arbetslösas anspråk och anspråkens betydelse för chansen att få ett bra jobb2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 2, 5-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands of the unemployed and their role for the possibility to get a good job

    This article studies what affect the demands of the unemployed and what these demands mean for the unemployeds possibility to get a good job. The study is based upon longitudinal data collected during a period of high unemployment. The results show that the demands of the unemployed are to a great extent adapted to their situation. High demands regarding qualifications are particularly common among individuals who have invested resources in vocational training. There is also a tendency for the housing situation to be important for social reasons, and for salary expectations to vary with the wage situation in the part of the labour market in which the unemployed moves. The probability of getting a good job is marginally affected by the unemployeds demands and their search behaviour. The chance to get a good job is primarily affected by social and labour market conditions in the environment of the unemployed. Newly employed more often get regular jobs and the re-employed more often get jobs that meet their demands. This study shows that many unemployed accept temporary jobs and jobs that not correspond to their demands.

  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2000:22000Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Redäktionens förord2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 1, 5- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Recensioner2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 3-4, 96-158 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Ekström, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning behövs!2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 3-4, 92-95 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rejoinder: The need for Sociologisk Forskning

    In this rejoinder, it is argued that there is still a need for a disciplinary journal for Swedish sociology. The authors agree upon the need to revitalise Sociologisk Forskning, but are critical to the proposal to transform it into a more popular scientific journal, with an aim to become a part of the general public debate. The internationalisation and specialisation of the Swedish sociological community have implied that sociological research, to a large degree, is carried out within subdisciplinary or interdiscipinary fields. Networks, journals, conferences have developed within these fields, which has led to the Swedish sociological association and Sociologisk Forskning loosing parts of their relevance. The authors suggest that the creation of a stationary editorial board, with professional competence and better economic opportunities, will raise the quality and intra-disciplinary relevance of the journal.

  • Svallfors, Stefan
    Umeå universitet.
    En sociologtidskrift på svenska - varför då?2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 3-4, 88-91 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why a Swedish journal of sociology?

    The article discusses the problems of the journal “Sociologisk forskning”, such as low scientific impact, and proposes a change of publishing policy in order to change the journal into a policy-oriented forum.

  • Sorokin, Pitirim
    Självmordet som samhällsfenomen2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 3-4, 69-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pitirim Sorokin: Suicide as a societal phenomenon

    Sorokin’s early work on suicide, published 1913, is heavily influenced by Durkheim. However, already at this stage the great sociologist-in-making is evident. There are important differences between Sorokin’s way of discussing the causes of suicide and that of Durkheim. In particular, Sorokin is aware of the specific features of Russia, including acute poverty, misery and hunger as well as social disruption. He suggests that those are important mechanisms in the suicide crisis of early 20th century Russia.

  • Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik
    Södertörns högskola.
    Pitirim Sorokins essä ’Självmordet som samhällsfenomen’ - en introduktion2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 3-4, 46-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorokin on suicide

    This introduction to the following, previously unknown essay on suicide by Pitirim Sorokin analyzes the piece itself and its ideological background. It is noted that the later world-famous author was only one of the hundreds who wrote on the topic in Russia in the 1910s, at the time of the ”second suicide epidemic”. The piece itself was intended to convey the results of science to the masses and the publication was accordingly cheaply priced. From the outset, Sorokin presents largely Durkheimian ideas, but tends to draw his own conclusions from Durkheim ’s data. The main differences between the Master and the Disciple are Sorokin’s denial of the existence of the so-called ”altruistic suicide” in primitive society, his support of imitation as a factor in suicide, his thematic stress on ”the isolation of the individual” in modern society as the main cause of suicide and, especially, his statement that ”need, hunger, and unemployment” are in fact responsible for most suicides.

  • Eliaeson, Sven
    Stockholms universitet.
    Max Weber - made in the USA?2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 3-4, 26-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Max Weber - Made in the USA?

    Max Weber took deep impression from his American journey in 1904, which is manifested in several of his texts, not only The Protestant Ethnic and the Spirit of Capitalism, but also the so called twin lectures. He also influenced many American scholars, many of them originally European migrants. Weber’s American contacts are relevant for several themes, such as the reciprocity over the Atlantic ocean and the proper pursuit of intellectual history. America was more receptive to Weber’s methodology, while his views on politcs have not entered the parnassus to the same extent. Weber’s Scandinavian contacts are sparse, except for an “apocryphal” visit documented by John Landquist.

  • Himmelstrand, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet.
    Det moderna projektet2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 3-4, 20-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modernity as a project

    Modernity as a project with its origin in the Enlightenment, relying on rationality and science, is often ridiculed as old-fashioned and passé by post-modernist philosophers. The rationality involved in modernity is often understood as cold, unemotional instrumental rationality, that is purely as an efficient choice of means to attain given aims or goals. Because of its seeming incompetence in evaluating given goals the Project of Modernity is sometimes looked upon with scepticism even by those who otherwise do not fully endorse the post-modernist critique. By its rejection of religion and traditional morality the Project of Modernity is said to have removed the magic, mystery and sentiment required to maintain a sense of meaning and purpose in human and social life - a disenthrallment in Max Weber's sense. In this paper it is maintained, however, that rationality and emotionality by their interplay can reach beyond instrumental rationality and provide tests of so-called given goals thereby saving the Project of Modernity from accusations of accepting any given goals - even if they are fascist or undemocratic. Goals given by traditional authorities or charismatic leaders can be scrutinised, evaluated and selected or rejected by action involving rationality in a combination with emotionality, it is maintained in this paper.

  • Goldthorpe, John H
    Oxford universitet.
    Den nuvarande krisen inom sociologin: finns det en vägbortom falsk pluralism?2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 3-4, 6-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present crisis in sociology: A way beyond spurious pluralism?

    In this article the lack of integration of sociological research and theory is highlighted. This has lead the sociological discipline into a state of intellectual disarray, which is threatening its very survival. To remedy this situation an effort is made to understand the main achievements in sociology so far. Two sociological “success stories” are identified. The first is quantitative social research, based on survey data and statistical analysis using probability theory. The second, which is better described as “a ground clearing exercise” is rational action theory. Empirical regularities uncovered by quantitative sociology should be seen as objects of major theoretical interest; theory should not be a subdiscipline in its own right. The present situation gives cause for concern - sociology as a social science has little in common with postmodernist thinkers and cultural theorists.

  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Redäktionens förord2000In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 37, no 3-4, 4-5 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sociologisk Forsknings 2000:3-42001Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Borg, Farhana
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Kids, cash and sustainability: Economic knowledge and behaviors among preschool children2017In: Cogent Education, ISSN 1794-5887, E-ISSN 2331-1886, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Recensioner2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 1, 99-158 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Korpi, Walter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Supplementssupplering2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 1, 95-96 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Himmelstrand, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sociologin och det offentliga samtalet2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 1, 92-94 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Backhans, Mona
    et al.
    Folkhälsoinstitutet.
    Leifman, Håkan
    SoRAD.
    Vem blir nykterist?: Om nykteristen som avvikare2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 1, 58-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Who becomes an abstainer? On the abstainer as deviant

    The principal aim of the study is to find out what the characteristics are of those consumers that later choose to abstain from alcohol. Both cross-sectional and panel data from the level-of-living surveys (LNU) conducted 1968, 1974, 1981 and 1991 are analysed. The results show that those becoming abstainers during the study period have a higher proportion of smokers than the long-term abstainers and, compared to the long-term abstainers and the drinkers, poorer mental health, a higher prevalence of use of minor tranquillizers and a sparser social network. In the beginning of the study period (1968-74) an association was also found between cardiovascular disease and later abstinence. Whereas (physical) health selection has become less obvious over time, the importance of negative psychosocial selection increases, especially for women. The findings underline the importance of distinguishing the new, selected abstainers - former drinkers - from long-term abstainers. This holds true especially in studies of the relationship between alcohol consumption on the one hand and mortality or morbidity on the other hand. It is likely that a majority of the long-term abstainers, of which some are lifetime abstainers, are part of a social context in which abstinence is not seen as deviant, whereas a large proportion of the new abstainers have a problematic life situation. The abstainers’ deviant position says something about the Swedish drinking culture in the last decades of the twentieth century. The fact that the psychosocial selection is so pronounced, and increases over time, reflects a social climate where an ever-decreasing number sees abstinence as an attractive choice.

  • Holmberg, Tora
    Uppsala universitet.
    Risken med riskkalkyler: exemplet ärftlig bröstcancer i sociologisk belysning2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 1, 32-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses risk construction in texts concerning genetic counselling, both in medical and lay contexts. The main focus is how the medical perspective presents genetic risk as being ”objective”, statistically precise and at a high level. Risk is being presented as constituted by two dimensions; probability of impact and age. Furthermore, the discussion includes the labelling of ”at-risk”, a construction of a category of potentially sick. Risk in lay texts is analysed as multidimensional, consisting of; probability of impact, fear of cancer, experience from cancer in the family, responsibility for own children, cultural implications of genetics as well as trust in doctors and expert systems. The concept of risk and probability in various texts is being analysed within a framework of mainstream social scientific theories on risk. Finally the article ends up with a discussion of the relationship between risk and gender in the context of the potentially sick woman in genetic counselling.

  • Montanari, Ingalill
    Stockholms universitet.
    Tid för arbete och arbetstider: en jämförande studie av gifta kvinnors förvärvsarbete2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 1, 6-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choosing time and time for work: Cross-national variation in paid work among married women

    In line with the theoretical perspective that the division of total work in society into production and reproduction is the central factor behind gender inequality in general, the very organization of reproduction work becomes the key to understand the variation in gender inequality among modern nation states. As long as other institutions, in this case either a public common sector or the market, remain highly subsidiary in relationship to the family with regard to reproduction work women have fewer possibilities to participate in paid work and gender inequality remains at a high level. Just as the distribution of resources and capabilities following from the class-based division of work on the labour market may be modified by political intervention, political decisions may modify the distribution of resources and capabilities that follow from the gender-based division of work. In the absence of political intervention, it is left to the market to determine the criteria for distributing work among citizens. In order to gauge the degree of subsidiarity of other institutions to the family, the distinction between participation and non-participation in market work, and even between full-time and part-time participation, has however to be qualified. All market work is paid work, but pure participation on the labour market cannot be equated with amore equitable division of total work in society. A loose attachment to the labour market, which is a recurring phenomenon in many countries, is in fact compatible with the continuing weight of the total reproduction work on the family. By using data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) variations in the extent of married women’s market work is examined in nine countries. The degree of subsidiarity of other institutional spheres to the family with regard to reproduction work is shown to be a phenomenon not confined to countries where Catholic religion has a strong foothold, or where Christian democratic parties have been frequently in government.