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  • Ingberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hanses, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hur patienter med psykisk ohälsa upplever vårdpersonals bemötande inom psykiatrisk vård: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has shown that there are faults in the health care staffs treatment for patients with mental illness. Negative attitudes and behaviors are factors that can affect patients confidence in healthcare. A good treatment and a trusting relationship can be crucial to patient satisfaction, treatment outcomes and patient health. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe mental health care staffs treatment in psychiatric care to patients with mental illness and how the mental health care staffs treatment affects the patient in psychiatric care. Method: The design is a literature review. Data collection occurred in the databases CINAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO which resulted in 15 qualitative articles. Results: Themes that were detected in the results were to be treated as a human being and equal treatment, positive and negative experiences of attitudes and behaviors, communication, dialogue, conversation, to be listened to and experience presence. Also interaction, contact and physical contact appeared. Finally, the themes relationship that included treatment, respect, trust, caring and being seen was detected. Conclusion: This literature review describes that patients with mental illness experience both good and inadequate treatment of mental health care staff. This can affect patients' treatment results and health.

  • Jeong, H.
    et al.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Othman, J.
    Mutual intelligibility of Malay- and Swedish-accented English: An experimental study2017In: Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2301-9468, Vol. 7, no 1, 43-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In using English as an international language (EIL), one important issue is mutual intelligibility among EIL speakers from different language backgrounds. The present study investigates the crosslinguistic intelligibility of Malay-accented English and Swedish-accented English, regarding the three phonetic features – word stress pattern, consonant clusters, and long vowel in particular. We prepared 15 English statements that are evidently true or false if understood, and examined to what extent the three phonetic features are related to 30 Swedish and 38 Malaysian listeners’ understandings of the statements read by a speaker from the other language group. We compared the Malaysian and Swedish listeners’ answers given with understanding as well as processing time to respond. The listeners’ own accounts of their struggles in understanding the speakers’ pronunciations were also analyzed. Results show that Malaysian listeners easily understood Swedish-accented English, while Swedish listeners struggled to understand Malay-accented English. The difference between the two groups of listeners seems to be closely related to the degree of the realization of the three phonetic features by the speakers as well as to the degree of the use of these features as perceptual cues by the listeners. Based on the findings, we discuss potential phonetic core features of EIL for intelligibility and some pedagogical implications for teaching English pronunciation to the learners of the language.

  • Mostagimzadeh, Nezal
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Theander, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Omvårdnad av barn med cancer vid cytostatikarelaterat illamående - En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cancer in children causes immense suffering physically and psychologically with the children. Tough treatments and side effects can cause fear and concerns with the child. The most common side effect with cytostatic treatment is vomiting and nausea which affects the child negatively. The nurse´s role is of great importance to create an environment of trust for the child. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to describe the nurse´s pharmacological and nonpharmacological care measures in cytostatic related nausea and vomiting in children with cancer. Method: The method is a literature review. The articles have been found using the databases Cinahl and Pubmed. This study includes 10 scientific articles, both quantitatives and qualitatives. Results: The results show that non-pharmacologic measurements, such as massage and acupuncture, should be combined with pharmacologic measurements. This will contribute to fewer side effects related to nausea caused by the chemotherapy treatment and it will also relieve the child’s unnecessary suffering. The nurses ‘approach and communication are of great importance in the care of children suffering from nausea caused by chemotherapy treatment. Conclusion: Cancer in children changes the life situation not only for the child but for the entire family. The children are often very sensitive and vulnerable because of the painful treatments they have to endure. This study shows that non-pharmacological care measurements, such as massage and acupuncture, in combination with antiemetic have been very effective in preventing nausea caused by chemotherapy treatment.

  • Ogeryd, Pierre
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Cederlöf, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienter med psykisk sjukdom som vårdas inom somatisk respektive psykiatrisk vård: Faktorer av betydelse för vårdpersonal och patienter: – en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows that individuals with mental illness have an increased risk of somatic diseases, yet won’t receive equal care as other patients. Aim: The aim was to describe factors relevant to nursing staff’s experience of caring for patients with psychiatric disorders within somatic and psychiatric care respectively, and to describe factors of importance for the experiences of patients with psychiatric disorders who receive care within somatic and psychiatric care respectively. Method: Literature search was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cinahl and PsycInfo. After a selection using inclusion and exclusion criteras as well as a quality review 22 articles remained which were analysed using content analysis Results: According to the result of the literature review attitudes and prejudice, professional experience, knowledge and competence and work environment were factors relevant to the experience of caring for patients with psychiatric disorders within somatic care. Within psychiatric care attitudes and prejudice, experience and gender were relevant factors. According to the result of the literature review care relation and person-centered care were factors relevant to the experiences of patients with psychiatric disorders receiving treatment within somatic care. Within psychiatric care, care relation and self-determination and involvement were relevant factors. Conclusion: The results indicate a lack of person centered care in both somatic and psychiatric care and that person-centered care is a prerequisite for the achievement of good health on equal terms.

  • Dahné, Ylva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Thorin, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskan och patienter med strokeinduceradafasi – En litteraturöversikt om kommunikation ochpersoncentrering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Stroke is a collective term for cerebral infarction and cerebral

    hemorrhage. Stroke often causes lifelong detrimental effects, such as aphasia.

    Aphasia means a reduced ability to understand spoken/written language and/or a

    reduced ability to express oneself adequately. To enable a good and person-centred

    care for the patients, an effective communication is a prerequisite.

    Aim: The aim of

    this study is to describe the factors that influence the person-centred care and

    communication between the nurse and patients affected by stroke induced aphasia.

    Method:

    The study is a literature review on bachelor level. The study is based on 15

    scientific articles that have been red and analyzed and where common themes have

    been identified.

    Result: The results revealed a number of strategies that promoted

    and hindered good communication between the nurse and people affected by stroke

    induced aphasia. These strategies concern seven areas:

    Verbal communication, Nonverbal

    communication, Seeing the patient as a competent and unique individual,

    Attention and involvement, The time aspect of communication with patients with

    aphasia, The importance of the surrounding environment for communication

    and The

    personnel's education and skills

    . Conclusion: There is no standard answer to how

    communication shall be achieved, each individual is unique and every situation

    requires a different solution. However, there are a number of aspects and methods

    that are important and useful when communicating with aphasic people. These are

    used to different degrees in health care.

  • Vildebrandt, Ems
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Omvårdnadsdiagnoser hos militärpersonal i relation till militärt etos – En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background The International Council of Nurses (ICN) states in it’s ethical code that the nurse practitioner is responsible for giving each patient correct and culturally adapted care. Military culture is unique and comes with its own challenges and needs of nursing care. Aim The aim is to find the prominent nursing diagnoses in military personnel in relation to the military ethos. Method A literature review of twenty articles found through searches in PubMed, Cinhal and Summon. Results The prominent nursing diagnoses were risk-prone health behavior together with pain issues and sleep disturbances. Two thirds of military personnel consumed high amounts of alcohol, pain issues was the most prevalent, up to half of all personnel experienced sleep disturbances and willingness to seek care was low. Stress, depression, consequences of pain and effects on the family process was also found. Result of military duty could also be infections, wounds, dermatological problems, hearing impairment and diarrhea. Conclusion Military culture is unique and reports health differently than the civilian population. Because of this it is important to know the prominent diagnoses to be able to give this patient group appropriate nursing interventions and competent care.

  • Aronsson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Grandin, Simone
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Långvarig smärta efter cancerbehandling - En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cancer is increasing among the population, which can lead to an increased number of complications as chronic pain, not only from the cancer treatment but from the disease itself. Patients have also been found to feel that their pain problems are not taken seriously by the healthcare professionals. The nurses should work to relieve any suffering which is caused by pain. Suffering is a unique experience that is different for everyone. As suffering may be due to the overall life situation, the nurses need a greater understanding of the situation in order to fulfill their responsibilities. Aim: The aim of this literature review was to compile research on chronic pain after cancer treatment. Method: An integrative literature review with 11 included articles. Result: Two main themes were identified; daily life and quality of life, and six subthemes regarding how the chronic pain influences and impacts the following; physical activities, daily activities, the professional life, drug use, general wellbeing, and sex life. Conclusion: Many patients experienced a negative impact on their daily life in both mental, physical and social dimensions. Patients felt that work, physical activity and daily tasks were limited due to the chronic pain. This varied in all aspects depending on the type of cancer and which treatment the patients received.

  • Recensioner2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 206-243 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Carleheden, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Debatt: Därför behövs Sociologisk Forskning2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 202-205 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Weber, Max
    Nationalstaten och den ekonomiska politiken: Installationsföreläsning2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 178-201 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Max Webers Freiburger Antrittsrede: Om migrationsprocesser, social urbäddning och social förändring2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 148-177 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Max Weber in Freiburg. On migration, disembedding and social change

    This article sets out to introduce the central topics in Max Weber’s inauguration lecture in Freiburg. It is argued that the central, but largely implicit, argument in Weber’s lecture concerns the transformation from a patriarchal to a capitalist mode of employment. Upon this interpretation, Max Weber’s objective is to explain specific migration processes in terms of a configuration of causes, where the social disembedding of rural labour is the key factor.

  • Eldén, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet.
    “Om hon lever vill människor se mer och mer”: Rykten, splittrad kvinnlighet och heder bland svenska kvinnor från Mellanöstern2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 115-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “If she is alive, people want to see more and more”: Gossip, divided femaleness and honour among Swedish women from the Middle East

    This article analyses how Swedish women from the Middle East talk about gossip. In interviews, the women talk about a “good reputation” as something “necessary” and “very important”, and about “bad reputation” as something one has to avoid at any cost. Using a contextual and relational understanding ofthe concepts of  “identity” and “culture”, the article analyses the women's talk about gossip as a construction of gender identity in the eyes of  “others”. This construction, it is argued, is related to a contrast between what others can see and what others cannot see. Further, it can be analysed in the light of cultural notions of divided femaleness, here understood as a construction of “the whore” - an irrevocably stained woman - and “the virgin” - a pure and untouched woman - as mutually exclusive categories. Through this analysis, a widened understanding of the concept of honour is reached, where different cultural notions, like gossip, hijab, honour and divided femaleness are held together.

  • Schierup, Carl-Ulrik
    Arbetslivsinstitutet; Linköpings universitet.
    Uteslutningens politiska ekonomi. Mot en transatlantisk konvergens?2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 71-114 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political economies of exclusion: Transatlantic convergence or transatlantic split?

    The paper takes its point of departure in a discussion of US American theories on poverty, race and ethnic divisions of labour which have influenced current European research on poverty and social exclusion among immigrants and new ethnic minorities with immigrant background. The focus is in particular on theories of the Black US urban ghetto and its workless and welfare dependent poor and on seemingly divergent theories on the dualisation of the so-called “global city”, new immigration and the new working poor. Their explanatory value is debated seen in relation to the development of the United States since the mid 1970s and the question of which demands to place on a more comprehensive and synthesising model with explanatory potential in the complex reality of the European Union. This is an emerging social formation which in a number of respects is markedly unlike that of the United States, even though the racialisation and ethnification of a new spectre of social exclusion also poses one of the most urgent social issues on this side of the Atlantic.

  • Berglund, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Pelleberg, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans bemötande av patienter med psykisk ohälsa inom somatisk vård: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People with mental health problems often have a somatic comorbidity. Research shows that patients with mental health problems often experience that they are treated unfairly and being misunderstood when seeking somatic care. Good encountering is a prerequisite for the creation of a caring relationship which forms the foundation for good care. Encountering also affect the patient's health, compliance, and experience of care. Aim: The aim was to illuminate factors of significance for the encountering of patients with mental health problems in somatic care from nurse’s perspective. Method: A literature review based on 15 articles with both quantitative and qualitative design. Searches were made in the databases PubMed and Cinahl. Result: Factors of significance for encountering could be divided into three themes: attitudes, factors related to the patient meeting and factors related to organization. Both positive and negative attitudes to patients with mental health emerged. Factors related to the patient meeting were anxiety and fear, complex communication, and insufficient skills. Factors related to organization were environment, time and resources, support and prioritization of somatic care. Conclusion: Conclusions that may be drawn from this study are that several different factors may be relevant to encountering, and that there is room for improvement. Important areas of improvement that emerged are nurse´s attitudes and competence. The result also indicates that the organization within somatic care is not adapted to the care and encountering of patients with mental health problems.

  • Dahlstedt, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Demokrati och nationella fantasier: Föreställningar om identitet och tillhörighet i studier av demokrati2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 40-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Democracy and national imagination: assumptions of  identity and belonging in studies on democracy

    Until recently, questions of migration and ethnic relations were hardly discussed within political research on democracy. Categories such as ‘nation’, ‘culture’ and ‘ethnicity’ have been taken for granted, looked upon as self-evident and independent factors. Research on democracy has generally been permeated by what might be called ‘national imagination’, a nation-state-centred and ethnocentric paradigm, where homogenous national belongings and national borders have been assumed, advocated and legitimated as fundamental elements of political life. Within this kind of paradigm, ethnic minorities have been represented as fundamentally ‘different’ from the ‘norm ality’, that is ethnic majority populations. In general, phenomenon such as mix of cultures, border-crossing and migration have been portrayed as in itself abnormal, disrupting and problematic features of political life. The conclusion in the article is that it is necessary to question and to challenge hegemonic conceptions of identity and belonging in research on democracy.

  • Danielsson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Gustavsson, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som kan försvåra möjligheten för sjuksköterskor att ge personcentrerad vård – en litteraturöversikt.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to the new patient law, patients' involvement in their own care will be expanded and strengthened further. As part of this work, personcentred care has been introduced in several Swedish regions and county councils. Positive effects of person-centred care have been proven to exist for both patients and healthcare providers. Aim: To describe factors that can complicate the ability for nurses to provide person-centred care. Methods: The thesis project was conducted as a literature review. Ten scientific articles published between 2010-2016 were included in the study. The articles were searched in the CINAHL and PubMed databases, as well as through Google Scholar free text search. Results: There were several themes with associated factors that could complicate the possibility for nurses to provide a person-centred care. Prominent factors include the attitude of the nurse and his or her view of the profession and the patient, lack of patient participation, lack of teamwork and communication, weak support from organization and management, poor environment and education, and high workload. Conclusion: Several factors that could make it difficult for the nurse to provide person-centred care were discovered, some of which were perceived to be more crucial than others. In order for nurses to be able to provide care based on patient participation, it is very important that awareness of these aggravating factors is increased. By working with a person-centred approach already during nursing education, the likelihood of successful implementation of person-centred care in Swedish healthcare increases

  • Franzén, Eva
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Socialbidrag bland invandrare: erfarenheter från Sverige2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 9-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants on social assistance: experiences from Sweden

    In this study differences in social assistance recipiency in Sweden between foreign born and Swedish born are analysed for the period of 1983-1995, using a large data set, consisting of two random samples from the total population; 1 percent of the native population and 10 percent of foreign born. Both the numbers of recipients of social assistance and immigration increased in Sweden in the 1990s. We find that the number of recipients of social assistance varies dramatically between groups of immigrants of different origins. The overrepresentation for immigrants can not be explained by observable socio-economic characteristics. However, using a logit multivariate model, we find that the utilisation of social assistance decreases with time spent in Sweden - irrespective of level of education and reasons for migrating. But the pace of economic assimilation is slow. For some immigrant groups it takes two decades until their social assistance recipiency is equivalent to that of a Swedish born person. Analysing the years 1983 and 1995 we find that the increase in social assistance recipiency almost exclusively can be ascribed to recently immigrated groups.

  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, 4-7 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2001:3-42001Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Yosufi, Jalal
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Vänsterpartiet och kommunismen: En idealtypsanalys av partiets principprogram och partiledarens tal mellan 1987 och 20162017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will address the question of the extent and the way in which the communist ideology is expressed in the left party of Sweden from 1987 until 2016. Before the 1990s, the party was called Left party communists (VPK) in order not to be connected with communism and the Soviet Union and the party had to modernize and become independent, therefore the party had to change their name to left-party (V). This Ideological development has been studied through the ideal type analysis based on the key variables found in the communist ideology and comparing it with the party programs and party leader's speech to answer the main question. It will also present what other left-wing ideologies are expressed and what significance they have had for the party's ideological alignment today.

  • Lundgren, Berit
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language. Stockholms universitet.
    15 års forskning om sfi - en överblick: Förstudie inför ett Ifous FOU-program2017Report (Other academic)
  • Falkevall, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Exemepel-vis: Det oväntade och föreställningar om religionskunskapslärares professionella kunnande2017In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2, 44-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is a critical interpretation of different perceptions of teacher’s professional knowledge as it is implicit in evidence based studies and Learnings Studies, two common ways of grounding the professional knowledge in educational science and in school politics today and therefore studied in teacher education. These two perceptions are analyzed with two metaphors from a research overview by Clandinin & Clandinin, called the conduit metaphor and teacher as curriculum maker. Strengths and shortcomings are pointed out. Especially in relation to unexpected events in teaching situations. A third perception of teacher’s professional knowledge is introduced and labelled teacher as jazz musician and the professional knowledge is viewed as improvisation. Based on the assumption from Gudmundsdottir experienced teachers have developed a curriculum story that helps them to improvisator – the re-active dimension of teaching. The two later perceptions are used in discussing three cases from students teaching. The thesis advocated is that the metaphor jazz - improvisation gives wider focus on RE as a school subject with content and meaning than the other two.

  • Samuelson, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utformning av ny butik i Sunne: Arkitektritning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project work includes project planning, structural engineering and construction. The report contains a new proposal of how to build a completely new business premises. The proposal solves the lack of commercial space and parking for Ica Sunne who wants to develop their business. This project is part of "fair trading" because other shops in the centre have parking near their stores. It is impotrant for the whole centre that ICA maintain their business operations in central Sunne. The project work includes research and interviews compiled into a final architectural drawings for the business requirements and the model of a new commercial building with apartments on the second and third floor and the design of new parking lots. The exterior is of importance since it must comply with the existing built environment. The goal is to eventually try to implement this project.

  • Recensioner2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 122-147 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Michailakis, Dimitris
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Autopoiesis och styrning: En studie av handikappolitiska program2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 90-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autopoiesis and steering: a study on disability policy programs

    In this article Luhmanns autopoiesis theory is discussed in relation to a specific case; namely political programs with regard to inclusion of disabled persons in the labour market and the implementation difficulties that arise. The article does not attempt to explain the increasing amount of disabled persons excluded from the labour market system. It attempts to explain something more fundamental; how inequality in the labour market system can have such a permanent character. The central question is thus: How come that different programs designed to steer towards an increasing integration of disabled people in the labour market system, does not lead to the intended effect? According to autopoiesis theory, real steering can only be self-steering. Even when steering addresses systems in the environment, is it still self-steering because it is directed towards the system’s own environment, that is, as it is internally constructed by the steering system. Disability policy programs with the objective to increase the inclusion in the labour market of disabled persons, are political programs and as such unable to steer the labour market system.

  • Tursunovic, Mirzet
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fokusgruppsintervjuer i teori och praktik2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 62-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus Groups in Theory and Practice

    The ultimate goal of this article is to provide a linkage between the theoretical framework of focus groups and their use in a number of studies. Focus groups are today, as a method of collecting qualitative data, widely used within many different research fields. Basically they are a form of group interviews where data is produced through participants’ discussion led by a moderator, on the topic determined by the researcher. There is not only one way of doing focus groups. Their features, size, composition, purpose as well as areas where they are practiced vary. Focus groups are used as a self-contained method; as a supplementary method for qualitative and quantitative methods; and finally they are used in multimethod studies. Like other research methods focus groups also have strengths and weaknesses, which makes focus groups more or less appropriate as a data gathering method for a particular study. The strategic questions posed to the focus groups, in my own work - the project about Bosnian youngsters’ political socialization - cover aspects of their social context, contacts with media and political groups, as well as their own plans for the future. The students in five focus groups are followed for a period of three sessions where a topic (school, parents, mass media) is covered.

  • Håkanson, Kaj
    Uppsala universitet.
    Den blinda fläcken: Medvetande, kropp elle materia?2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 28-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Blind Spot: Mind, Body or Matter?

    Using Nick Crossley’s recently published The Social Body. Habit, identity and desire as a starting-point the author questions certain contemporary attempts to overcome dualism (often connected with present-day sociological interest in the body). He argues that they, if committed to materialism, crude or sophisticated, will reproduce dualism. They will end in materialist reductionism, he argues,unless ”knowing” or ”mind”, a no-thing-ness, is recognized as inalienable to reality. This does not, as often assumed, imply ”solipsism” unless one accepts the very dualist presupposition that mind is some-thing ”private”, ”inside” of basically separate selves. Introducing non-dualist traditions outside of the body of academic sociology he presents certain practical forms of inquiry. Directed at or including the very inquirer they do not approach the mind/body-issue as a purely ”theoretical” issue. Mind/body-dualism is further seen as an aspect of the broader dualism of self/other, in its turn the basis for human suffering and unfreedom. He asks at last why sociology, given a certain disciplinary self-understanding, bothers about dualism. He proposes the reason it does might be an unrecognised, academically indecent ”existential” search for ”wholeness” . This “existential” aspect need be accepted, for the “problem of dualism ” to find a solution.

  • Aspers, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Interaktionsformer2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 6-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forms of interaction

    In this article, the theoretical notion of forms of interaction is introduced, which comprehends how the network and domain structures provide a background for interaction. This general approach is used to discuss how persons can style their identities. Today’s forms of interaction enable people to hide information in interaction with other people. People can, for example, present themselves as individualized, important and successful in interaction with others. This facilitates the emergence of certain values. Especially individualistic values are studied in this article.

  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, 4- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Erixon, Eva-Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Matematiklärares kompetensutveckling online: policy, diskurs och meningsskapande2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Different forms of professional development online are becoming increasingly common for teachers and the aim of the thesis is to contribute knowledge about online professional development for mathematics teachers and the relationship between professional development, educational policy, and mathematics teaching practice. In the thesis, professional development refers to organized professional development in terms of university courses.

    The thesis consists of four studies, each of which has been presented in the form of an article. The four studies together explore transnational and national policy discourses, meaning-making activities that can be distinguished in online professional development, discourses pertaining to mathematics teaching in the classroom and in the subsequent seminar discussions in the course, and teachers’ experience of professional development online. The different arenas have been explored using the concept of discourse with reference to Fairclough, Gee, and Sfard. The term ”discourse” refers primarily to communication and language in use.

    The result of the studies indicates that the participants have not been offered enough opportunities to reflect on how or whether the use of several concepts and everyday life connections really deepened the students’ understanding of the mathematical content. Moreover, the analysis of the interviews with the participants shows that it was difficult for them to deepen their reflections in the synchronous communication online. There is a lack of reciprocal participation and reflection in the conversation and it is hard for the participants to get an idea of how the others respond to their messages. When a participant has completed his or her message the next speaker continues with a new message and as a result, the communication often takes a new direction instead of allowing in-depth reflection.

  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2002:12002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Recensioner2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 2, 126-153 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Uggla, Ylva
    Örebro universitet.
    Risksamhälle och trygghetskultur: Föreställningar om politikens möjligheter och uppgift2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 2, 104-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk society and culture of safety. Understandings of the task and possibilities of politics

    This paper analyses three different periods with the Swedish Social Democratic Party in office (1960-1965, 1970, 1975 and 1995-2000). The paper analyses how questioning of modernity and the role of science and technology is dealt with in policy documents, such as speeches from the throne, governmental declarations and party programmes. In this discussion the environmental issue is of special interest, since it in a special way challenge the modernistic ideas of progress and possibility to control the future. The analysis shows an increasing emphasis of the modern in the late 1990s. This could be defined as a modernistic answer to the challenges modern society and its institutions have met during the latest decades. Furthermore, environmental protection work - by aid of science and new technology - is defined as a springboard to economic prosperity, which in turn is seen as the basis for the safety of the citizens. In this line the politics of the 1990s is a reminiscens of the 1960s optimistic belief in progress.

  • Kupferberg, Feiwel
    Aalborg universitet.
    Entreprenörskap som existentiell handling2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 2, 68-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship as existential act

    In this paper I argue that business economics tends to present an overrationalized view of entrepreneurial action. Entrepreneurship is basically an existential type of action, as it includes elements of tradition-breaking activities and emotions related to coping with uncertainty. These existential aspects are best revealed as one studies aspects of entrepreneurship that have been marginalized in entrepreneurial studies, such as first time entrepreneurs, women entrepreneurs, ethnic entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs with an academic background and entrepreneurship in undersocialized industrial populations. The existential aspects of entrepreneurship are only partially taken into account by the new economic sociology, emphasizing the value of socializing for it own sake. More generally a focus upon the existential aspects of entrepreneurial action challenges the classical sociological views of order and individuality, pointing to a neo-classical view of modernity which puts uncertainty in the center of modernity as well as recognizing its unmistakingly romantic traits.

  • Sverrisson, Árni
    Stockholms universitet.
    Digitalt fotografi: tekniska och visuella innovationer, perspektiv och kontaktnätverk2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 2, 40-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital photography: technical and visual innovations, perspectives and social networks

    This article analyses the diffusion of digital cameras and other digital imaging techniques among professional photographers. It is based on interviews with photographers and others in the image industry and a survey conducted in the spring of 1999. Digital cameras have diffused more slowly than expected, whereas other types of digital image techniques are widely used. The article focuses this difference, and analyses obstacles to the diffusion of digital cameras. First, the competition between new and old image technologies is discussed briefly. The photographic production chain is analysed next. It is found that techniques used in core activities in photography diffuse slowly, but techniques used in peripheral activities diffuse more easily. This leads to a discussion of prevalent perspectives on photography among its practitioners. It is concluded that a visual innovation dynamic prevails whereas technical innovations are less important for the competition among photographers. Lastly, contact networks among photographers are analysed and it is shown that digital camera users interact much more with each other than would be expected on the assumption of randomness. It is concluded that in this case, diffusion depends on 1) which parts of the production chain are affected and how central they are for professional role identities; 2) the social construction of the relation between technical and visual innovations and 3) whether users are able to communicate among themselves and with others about the concrete problems and possibilities of digital image technologies.

  • Bihagen, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Vad alla bör ha råd med: en analys av vilken konsumtion som anses vara nödvändig i dagens Sverige2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 2, 8-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What everyone should be able to afford. An analysis of w hat kinds of consumptionare regarded as necessary in contemporary Sweden

    Some degree of consensus concerning perceptions of consumption is important to create and refine social policy as well as measures of poverty. Possible reasons for both consensus and certain social cleavages about what is perceived as necessities are discussed. Analysing data from Statistics Sweden’s 1998 Survey of Living Conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. There are 12 items for which there is a fairly high level of consensus. This indicates the possibility of calculating both a generally accepted level for supplementary benefits and an accepted measure of poverty/living standards. However, there are also cleavages. The most interesting, and even surprising, ones show a more restricted view on necessities among groups that are relatively economically advantaged, i.e. well-educated and ‘higher’ social classes. Moreover, there are sex differences and expected political differences - ‘neoliberals’ have a somewhat more restricted view.

  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 2, 4-7 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2002:22002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Recensioner2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 3-4, 146-218 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • Kolfjord, Ingela
    Malmö högskola.
    Förättsligandet av ungdomars konflikter2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 3-4, 116-145 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The juridification of conflicts among juveniles

    In the last few years, we have witnessed an increasing tendency in Sweden to submit conflicts among juveniles to the legal system. In this article, I address issues concerning the process and consequences of juridification of conflicts in this group. The legal system is a relatively autonomous system, but it is also open for other discourses. The article uses discourse analysis, in an attempt to unravel both how the legal system operates to redefine everyday events in legal terms, and how extraneous, racialized discourses make their way into court. In this sense, it also sets out to trace how stratification is reproduced and permeated by the legal system. The empirical material consists of an analysis of a trial between two juveniles, Lars and Moustafa. Apart from legal documents pertaining to the case, I also make use of observation notes from trial, and the analysis is supplemented with newspaper materials from the period. The analysis describes how the legal system transforms and redefines the juveniles’ comprehension of an event into the categories and internal logic of the legal system. It also uncovers how media and scientific discourse helps to shape the court’s construction and deconstruction of the conflict.

  • Sjöström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Jacobsson, Maritha
    Umeå universitet.
    Hollander, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kollegialitet, terapi och medling: expertgranskning i psykiatrimål2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 3-4, 86-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collegealism, therapy and mediation - experts’ interpretative repertoires in court hearings relating to compulsory psychiatric care

    This article investigates the role of court appointed psychiatrists (AP) in Swedish court hearings relating to compulsory psychiatric care. Data consists of tape recordings and documents from twelve court hearings together with informal interviews with actors in court. The discourse in court is analyzed in terms of interpretative repertoires. The possibility for APs to examine each case is limited by shortage of time and resources. Furthermore, APs may have to take into account an out-of-court, professional relationship to the treating psychiatrist(CP). We find that conversation between APs and CPs frequently are carried out in a collegiate repertoire. These circumstances inhibit a detailed critical examination of the CP’s application for compulsory care, which in turn helps explaining why APs seldom assess cases different from CPs. How, then, is the AP’s status as expert reproduced in courtroom conversation? This is accomplished by using a disclosing repertoire, which invites the patient to produce incoherent talk. Expert status is also reproduced when APs give medical advise to patients in a therapeutic repertoire. Applying a mediating repertoire, APs attempt to resolve clinical conflicts between CPs and patients. As a result, the legal conflict at stake is downplayed.

  • Torpman, Jan
    Södertörns högskola.
    Det rena rättslärandet: kognitiva funktioner i ett normativt system2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 3-4, 58-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure legal learning: cognitive functions in a normative system

    Norms are the obvious foundation for most of legal sociology and jurisprudence. Norms can be defined as counterfactual expectations, expectations that do not change even when counter-evidence of reality is presented. Thus learning is counter to our intuition of law. However, law does change, and some of the changes can be described as learning. Law changes by political decisions when the legislator acts, it can change incrementally when the judge makes a decision, it changes when new practices become binding, and it changes when doctrine is developed in legal science. If we differentiate between learning within a worldview and a learning that changes world-views, most cases of legal change can be interpreted as decision-making within a world-view, not the development of one. In this article, the author develops a conceptual frame of reference, in terms of pure legal learning, for a specific type of legal change. Pure legal learning denotes a learning process, which is not merely a change within a world-view, but a change in the legal world-views themselves. This is therefore the process where degrees of freedom for legal change are defined.

  • Platzer, Ellinor
    Växjö universitet.
    Kulturellt utbyte eller billig arbetskraft? - au pair i Sverige2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 3-4, 32-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural exchange or cheap labour power? Au pairs in Sweden

    During mid 1980’s domestic services were re-introduced in Sweden. It is mostly the dual-career families that demand these services because of the unchanged gender division of labour in the households and their particular career life-styles. An au pair system has established itself in Sweden and many au pairs are recruited from Eastern Europe. This form of domestic service is hidden behind formal rules, stating that the purpose of the au pair system is to let young people get to know Sweden and to learn the Swedish language. Instead, the au pair’s are being used as cheap labour power without being entitled to any labour or civil rights. In this example of commodification though, labour power is not totally disembodied. It is embodied in the sense that some social categories are looked upon as more suitable than others for performing paid household work.

  • Hydén, Håkan
    Lunds universitet.
    Om att förstå en handling - från kausalanalys till normanalys2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 3-4, 10-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to understand an action - from causal analysis to norm-analysis

    In order to explain and understand actions, one has to find concepts that are sufficiently encompassing to make room for every aspect of underlying causes. Since norms govern and guide behaviour, whether it be social, economic, political/administrative or technical behaviour, the concept of “norm” has this capacity. In this article, the author argues for, and gives an exposition of, what he calls norm-analysis. Causal analysis is used as a point of contrast, and analyses of power as a point of departure, in elaborating the characteristics of normanalysis. It is argued that the proposed concept of “norm” has several advantages when it comes to understanding and explaining human action. The concept has three dimensions: (a) will and values, (b) knowledge and cognition, and (c) systemic possibilities for action. The three dimensions cover different aspects of human actions and behaviour, but the main point is that explanations of human action should be conceived in terms of a combinatory effect of these different dimensions. The norm model is not a theory but a kind of screening device in order to sort out relevant facts in a case. It thereby lays the foundation for a theory of action.

  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 3-4, 4-8 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2002:3-42002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • Hylander, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Åslund, Jessica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Icke- farmakologiska metoder mot postoperativ smärta hos vuxna: en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Postoperative pain is common and affects the patients’ wellbeing. Nurses have a central role in pain management, there are many non-pharmacological methods that can be used as postoperative pain relief.

    Aim:

    The aim of this literature review was to identify non-pharmacological methods that the basic trained nurse can perform or provide as a complement to a postoperative pain relief for adults and to evaluate their effect.

    Method:

    A literature review

    Results:

    Four non-pharmacological methods were observed: music therapy, relaxation exercises, touching methods and patient education. Music therapy for 30 minutes showed a significant pain relieving effect. Massage therapies and relaxation exercises gave a gradually increased pain relieving effect. Patient education gave a pain relief up to 48 hours after surgery.

    Conclusion:

    Non- pharmacological methods can be used as a complement to a pharmacological treatment as to relieve postoperative pain.

  • Bjärenäs, Åsa-Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    Conocer un país a través de sus expresiones: Un estudio comparativo entre España y Suecia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Åberg, Anna Cristina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Örebro universitet.
    Inpatient geriatric care in Sweden: Important factors from an inter-disciplinary team perspective2017In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 172, 113-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors of importance for the quality of inpatient geriatric care from an inter-disciplinary team perspective, an area that has not been previously studied to our knowledge. The study design was qualitative descriptive with data being collected from focus-group interviews with members of geriatric care teams. The data collection was conducted at a Swedish university hospital with 69 beds for geriatric care. It comprised five group interviews with a total of 32 staff members, including representatives of all the seven professions working with geriatric care. Data was analysed using qualitative content analysis and a thematic framework approach. Three main themes were identified as being perceived as characterising important factors essential for quality geriatric care:

    • Interactive assessment processes,
    • A holistic care approach, and
    • Proactive non-hierarchical interaction

    Aspects of time and goal-orientation were additionally running like common threads through these themes and informed them. Accessibility, open communication, and staff continuity were experienced as prerequisites for well-functioning teamwork. Including patients and relatives in care planning and implementation was seen as essential for good care, but was at risk due to budget cuts that imposed shortened hospital stays. To meet the care demands of the growing population of older frail people, more specialised team-based care according to the concept of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment – which is possibly best provided by older-friendly hospitals – appears as a constructive solution for reaching high degrees of both staff and patient satisfaction in geriatric care. More research is needed in this area.

  • Suchora, Marta
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Spanish.
    ¡No te hagas el sueco! : Las actitudes del profesorado hacia la incorporación de las frases hechas con nacionalidades y grupos étnicos en la enseñanza del español en el nivel avanzado2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we try to discover and analyze the teachers' attitudes towards incorporating the set phrases while teaching Spanish in the advanced level, for example phrases about nationalities and ethnic groups. In addition, we attempt to measure teachers' perspectives towards teaching ethically incorrect phrasal expressions in the classroom. In particular, we focus on the role of the socio-cultural aspect in the learning process of a foreign language.

    Based on our study, the teachers' perspectives on incorporating those set phrases while teaching Spanish in the advanced level are very positive. Our informants have recognized that the phrases are very common in the Spanish language. In addition, the cultural and historic contents reveal a lot about both the past and the reality of Spain to this day. Almost all informants (except one) have confirmed that they could work with the ethically incorrect phrases in their classes. The phrasal expressions of this type are also commonly used in the Spanish language, so the opinion of our informants is that the best option is to explain them to students and discuss the prejudices they represent in the classroom. Regarding the socio-cultural aspect, the informants agree that it is very important in the process of learning a foreign language because it helps to understand the demeanor of the people from a different culture and facilitates the use of the target language in a suitable context.