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Lindgren, C., Huq, A., Li, Y., Elbe, J. & Carling, K. (2019). Current practices of CSR around the globe: An exploratory text mining study. In: : . Paper presented at 30th European Conference on Operational Research (EURO 30th), 23-26 June 2019, Dublin.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current practices of CSR around the globe: An exploratory text mining study
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-30276 (URN)
Conference
30th European Conference on Operational Research (EURO 30th), 23-26 June 2019, Dublin
Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Laryea, R., Carling, K. & Cialani, C. (2018). A Food Price Volatility Model for Country Risk Classification. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Food Price Volatility Model for Country Risk Classification
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Decision makers require risk models which satisfies their preferences in decision making processes. A methodological approach to presenting a decision model that satisfies the preferences of the decision maker and aids the decision maker to classify countries into crisis groups based on the price volatility of food staple criteria is discussed in this paper. The price volatility of food staples is obtained from time series plots and a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis method, the UTilitdditives DIScriminantes (UTADIS) classification methodological framework is applied on the price volatility data to develop a food price volatility classification model which suits the decision maker’s preferences. The methodological framework is better applied in this paper by aiding the decision maker to make informed judgements on the price volatility of food staples in predefining their risk classes. This introduces efficiency in the application of the methodological classification framework, by reducing to the barest minimum level, the misclassification errors between the decision makers preferred classification and the UTADIS method’s classification which estimates the utility function or classification model and the utility threshold or cut-off points which would classify the country alternatives into their authentic or original classes with the execution of the methodological framework just once. The resulting utility function or classification model is thus accurate enough to satisfy the preferences of the decision maker in classifying future datasets.

National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28646 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Meng, X., Carling, K., Håkansson, J. & Rebreyend, P. (2018). How do administrative borders affect accessibility to hospitals? The case of Sweden. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 33(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do administrative borders affect accessibility to hospitals? The case of Sweden
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 33, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper, we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional administrative borders and hospital accessibility. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population's spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants' distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

Keywords
administrative barriers, optimal location, population dynamics, public service, travel time
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27519 (URN)10.1002/hpm.2520 (DOI)000442224700014 ()29667273 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045844366 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
Rudholm, N., Li, Y. & Carling, K. (2018). How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach. How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach. How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Using  data  from  2001–2012,  the  effects  of  IKEA  entry  in  four  Swedish  municipalities,   2004–2007,   on   labor   productivity   in   durable   goods   retailing   is   investigated  using  synthetic  control  methods.  We contribute  to  the  literature  on  synthetic   control   methods   by considering   parametric   specifications   of   the   intervention effect, which in our case arguably improves the likelihood of identifying the intervention effect of IKEA entry on labor productivity. As inference relies on a single  treated  observational  unit  (i.e.,  a  single  IKEA-entry  municipality),  statistical  testing  is  a  challenge,  and  randomization  and  replication  for  inference  is  done  with  regard to the pool of control municipalities. Our results indicate that in three out of four  entry  municipalities,  labor  productivity  increased  more  than  in  their  synthetic  counterparts after IKEA entry, and that the size of the positive effect is related to the size of the new IKEA relative to the size of the existing durable goods retail sector in the entry municipalities, with larger positive effects found in municipalities where the new IKEA was large relative to the existing durable goods retail market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2018
Series
HUI Working Paper Series ; 130
Keywords
Productivity growth;Quantitative Case Study; Parametric Synthetic Matching;Bootstrap Confidence Intervals
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, Handel och regional tillväxt. -Kopplingen mellan regionalt tillväxtarbete och lokala etableringsstrategier.
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27305 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-23 Created: 2018-02-23 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Laryea, R., Carling, K., Cialani, C. & Nyberg, R. G. (2018). Sensitivity analysis of a risk classification model for food price volatility. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 21(4), 374-382
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensitivity analysis of a risk classification model for food price volatility
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 374-382Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A sensitivity analysis to vary the weights of an accurate predictive classification model to produce a mixed model for ranking countries on the risk of food price volatility is carried out in this paper. The classification model is a marginal utility function consisting of multiple criteria. The aim of the sensitivity analysis is to derive a mixed model to be used in ranking of country alternatives to aid in policy formulation. Since in real-life situations the data that goes into decision making could be subjected to possibilities of alterations over time, it is essential to aid decision makers to vary the weights of the criteria using both subjective and objective information to introduce imprecision and to generate relative values of the criteria with a scale to form a mixed model. The mixed model can be used to rank future relative alternative value data sets for policy formulation.

Keywords
risk; sensitivity analysis; multiple criteria; weights; decision maker; classification model; imprecision; uncertainty; data; price volatility
National Category
Economics and Business Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28647 (URN)2-s2.0-85055889650 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
Espegren, Y., Carling, K. & Olsmats, C. (2018). Smart online grocery delivery and peri-urbanconsumers’ attitudes.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart online grocery delivery and peri-urbanconsumers’ attitudes
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To explore consumers’ attitudes towards e-commerce, in particular online grocery shopping, and its delivery in non-dense areas for the purpose of designing smart last-mile solutions.

Approach: The state-of-the-art of smart e-commerce delivery in dense areas was identified by a review of the literature. It was expected that this knowledge could be transferred to non-dense areas. This prediction was examined and explored further by making use of four focus groups recruited in a Swedish mid-sized town.

Findings: Respondents were generally positive towards e-commerce, although mixed attitudes were found with regard to online grocery shopping. Further, the willingness to pay for flexible, smart and sustainable delivery was low, with a notable exception for local produce.

Originality: The knowledge acquired and solution developed in dense areas is not readily transferred to non-dense areas. There is scope for developing new Business Models for the supply chain of local produce. For the prototype testing and roll-out of smart e-commerce delivery platforms, the online local produce market is recommended.

Publisher
p. 30
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 03
Keywords
Consumer’ attitudes, Local produce, Online shopping, Parcel handover, Route optimization, Willingness-to-pay
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - transports
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28254 (URN)
Projects
SAILOR
Available from: 2018-07-23 Created: 2018-07-23 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
Carling, K. (2017). A comment on outlier detection and skewed distributions. Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comment on outlier detection and skewed distributions
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It seems that a paper of mine appearing in Computational Statistics & Data Analysis (Carling, 2000) has prompted the development of outlier detection methods for highly skewed data. However, I wrote the paper in the spirit of Exploratory Data Analysis (Tukey, 1977) and I shared Tukey’s opinion, and I still hold it, that skewed data are better to be transformed for approximate symmetry prior to detection of outliers (or other data analyses).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2017
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2017:02
Keywords
Box-plot, Non-Normality, Outlier rules
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - methods
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26447 (URN)
Available from: 2017-10-20 Created: 2017-10-20 Last updated: 2017-10-20Bibliographically approved
Zhao, X., Carling, K. & Håkansson, J. (2017). An evaluation of the reliability of GPS-based transportation data. In: Proceedings of IAC in Vienna 2017: . Paper presented at IAC (International Academic Conference on Transport, Logistics, Tourism and Sport Science) in Vienna November 24-25 2017 (pp. 323-334). , Article ID IAC201711035.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation of the reliability of GPS-based transportation data
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of IAC in Vienna 2017, 2017, p. 323-334, article id IAC201711035Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error of -10 km/h. Elevation measurements are unreliable with errors bigger than 100 meters.

Keywords
Transportation, GPS tracking, Reliability, Road network
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26981 (URN)978-80-88203-04-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IAC (International Academic Conference on Transport, Logistics, Tourism and Sport Science) in Vienna November 24-25 2017
Available from: 2018-01-26 Created: 2018-01-26 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
Zhao, X., Carling, K. & Håkansson, J. (2017). On assessing governmental sustainable residential planning and its alignment with residents’ and estate investors’ objectives. Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On assessing governmental sustainable residential planning and its alignment with residents’ and estate investors’ objectives
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are three key actors in forming the sustainable spatial distribution of residency in an area, (local) government, the estate investor and the resident, each with its own objective. Most urban planning studies have mainly focused on the ex-post evaluation of residential development by considering the objective of each actor separately. This paper outlines a conceptual model where the three key actors and their unique objectives are integrated with the aim of providing an ex-ante evaluation of residential development for government to make policies operational on a micro level. The methodology is implemented on a Swedish city, where sustainable residential development is in high need due to the influx of immigrants. The case study demonstrates that the model can integrate the macro and micro actors well. The model can provide noteworthy insights for the government on where the objectives of sustainability, livability and profit can be met. A sensitivity check of the parameter settings shows that the implementation of the model is robust for replication in other cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2017. p. 20
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2017:01
Keywords
Sustainable urban development; CO2 emissions; Multi-agent system model; Urban mobility
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24514 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
Zhao, X., Carling, K. & Håkansson, J. (2017). Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission: a microscopic look at Borlänge in Sweden. European Planning Studies, 25(9), 1597-1614
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission: a microscopic look at Borlänge in Sweden
2017 (English)In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1597-1614Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a city there are hotspots that attract citizens, and most of the transportation arises when citizens move between their residence and primary destinations (i.e. hotspots). However, an ex ante evaluation of energy-efficient mobility and urban residential planning has seldom been conducted. Therefore, this paper proposes an ex ante evaluation method to quantify the impacts, in terms of CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban car mobility, of residential plans for various urban areas. The method is illustrated in a case study of a Swedish midsize city, which is presently preoccupied with urban planning of new residential areas in response to substantial population growth due to immigration. In general, CO2 emissions increase from the continued urban core area (CUCA), to the sub-polycentric area (SPA), to the edge urbanization area (EUA), where CO2 emission of EUA is twice that of the CUCA. The average travel distances also increase in the same pattern, though the relative increase is more than four times. Apartment buildings could be more effective in meeting residential needs and mitigating CO2 emissions than dispersed single-family houses. 

Keywords
Ex ante evaluation, GPS-tracking data, spatial distribution, urban form
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24824 (URN)10.1080/09654313.2017.1317722 (DOI)000404932100007 ()2-s2.0-85017904082 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2317-9157

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