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Meng, X., Carling, K., Håkansson, J. & Rebreyend, P. (2018). How do administrative borders affect accessibility to hospitals? The case of Sweden. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 33(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do administrative borders affect accessibility to hospitals? The case of Sweden
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 33, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper, we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional administrative borders and hospital accessibility. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population's spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants' distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

Keywords
administrative barriers, optimal location, population dynamics, public service, travel time
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27519 (URN)10.1002/hpm.2520 (DOI)000442224700014 ()29667273 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045844366 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
Paidi, V., Fleyeh, H., Håkansson, J. & Nyberg, R. G. (2018). Smart parking sensors, technologies and applications for open parking lots: a review. IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 12(8), 735-741
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart parking sensors, technologies and applications for open parking lots: a review
2018 (English)In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 735-741Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Parking a vehicle in traffic dense environments often leads to excess time of driving in search for free space which leads to congestions and environmental pollution. Lack of guidance information to vacant parking spaces is one reason for inefficient parking behaviour. Smart parking sensors and technologies facilitate guidance of drivers to free parking spaces thereby improving parking efficiency. Currently, no such sensors or technologies is in use for open parking lot. This paper reviews the literature on the usage of smart parking sensors, technologies, applications and evaluate their applicability to open parking lots. Magnetometers, ultrasonic sensors and machine vision were few of the widely used sensors and technologies on closed parking lots. However, this paper suggests a combination of machine vision, convolutional neural network or multi-agent systems suitable for open parking lots due to less expenditure and resistance to varied environmental conditions. Few smart parking applications show drivers the location of common open parking lots. No application provided real time parking occupancy information, which is a necessity to guide them along the shortest route to free space. To develop smart parking applications for open parking lots, further research is needed in the fields of deep learning and multi-agent systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2018
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27619 (URN)10.1049/iet-its.2017.0406 (DOI)000444389300001 ()2-s2.0-85053198237 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2018-10-08Bibliographically approved
Paidi, V., Fleyeh, H., Håkansson, J. & Nyberg, R. G. (2018). Smart Parking Tools Suitability for Open Parking Lots: A Review. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems: . Paper presented at 4th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, March 16-18 2018, Funchal, Madeira (pp. 600-609). Madeira
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart Parking Tools Suitability for Open Parking Lots: A Review
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, Madeira, 2018, p. 600-609Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Parking a vehicle in traffic dense environments is a common issue in many parts of the world which oftenleads to congestion and environmental pollution. Lack of guidance information to vacant parking spaces isone of the reasons for inefficient parking behaviour. Smart parking sensors and technologies facilitateguidance of drivers to free parking spaces thereby improving parking efficiency. Currently, no such sensorsor technologies are in use for the common open parking lot. This paper reviews the literature on the usage ofsmart parking sensors, technologies, applications and evaluate their suitability to open parking lots. Suitabilitywas made in terms of expenditure and reliability. Magnetometers, ultrasonic sensors and machine vision werefew of the widely used sensors and technologies used in closed parking lots. However, this paper suggests acombination of machine vision, fuzzy logic or multi-agent systems suitable for open parking lots due to lessexpenditure and resistance to varied environmental conditions. No application provided real time parkingoccupancy information of open parking lots, which is a necessity to guide them along the shortest route tofree space. To develop smart parking applications for open parking lots, further research is needed in the fieldsof deep learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Madeira: , 2018
Keywords
Decision support system, sensors, technologies, applications
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27616 (URN)10.5220/0006812006000609 (DOI)2-s2.0-85051933085 (Scopus ID)978-989-758-293-6 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, March 16-18 2018, Funchal, Madeira
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2018-09-03Bibliographically approved
Zhao, X., Carling, K. & Håkansson, J. (2017). An evaluation of the reliability of GPS-based transportation data. In: Proceedings of IAC in Vienna 2017: . Paper presented at IAC (International Academic Conference on Transport, Logistics, Tourism and Sport Science) in Vienna November 24-25 2017 (pp. 323-334). , Article ID IAC201711035.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation of the reliability of GPS-based transportation data
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of IAC in Vienna 2017, 2017, p. 323-334, article id IAC201711035Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error of -10 km/h. Elevation measurements are unreliable with errors bigger than 100 meters.

Keywords
Transportation, GPS tracking, Reliability, Road network
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26981 (URN)978-80-88203-04-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IAC (International Academic Conference on Transport, Logistics, Tourism and Sport Science) in Vienna November 24-25 2017
Available from: 2018-01-26 Created: 2018-01-26 Last updated: 2018-01-26Bibliographically approved
Zhao, X., Carling, K. & Håkansson, J. (2017). On assessing governmental sustainable residential planning and its alignment with residents’ and estate investors’ objectives. Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On assessing governmental sustainable residential planning and its alignment with residents’ and estate investors’ objectives
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are three key actors in forming the sustainable spatial distribution of residency in an area, (local) government, the estate investor and the resident, each with its own objective. Most urban planning studies have mainly focused on the ex-post evaluation of residential development by considering the objective of each actor separately. This paper outlines a conceptual model where the three key actors and their unique objectives are integrated with the aim of providing an ex-ante evaluation of residential development for government to make policies operational on a micro level. The methodology is implemented on a Swedish city, where sustainable residential development is in high need due to the influx of immigrants. The case study demonstrates that the model can integrate the macro and micro actors well. The model can provide noteworthy insights for the government on where the objectives of sustainability, livability and profit can be met. A sensitivity check of the parameter settings shows that the implementation of the model is robust for replication in other cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2017. p. 20
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2017:01
Keywords
Sustainable urban development; CO2 emissions; Multi-agent system model; Urban mobility
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24514 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
Zhao, X., Carling, K. & Håkansson, J. (2017). Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission: a microscopic look at Borlänge in Sweden. European Planning Studies, 25(9), 1597-1614
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission: a microscopic look at Borlänge in Sweden
2017 (English)In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1597-1614Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a city there are hotspots that attract citizens, and most of the transportation arises when citizens move between their residence and primary destinations (i.e. hotspots). However, an ex ante evaluation of energy-efficient mobility and urban residential planning has seldom been conducted. Therefore, this paper proposes an ex ante evaluation method to quantify the impacts, in terms of CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban car mobility, of residential plans for various urban areas. The method is illustrated in a case study of a Swedish midsize city, which is presently preoccupied with urban planning of new residential areas in response to substantial population growth due to immigration. In general, CO2 emissions increase from the continued urban core area (CUCA), to the sub-polycentric area (SPA), to the edge urbanization area (EUA), where CO2 emission of EUA is twice that of the CUCA. The average travel distances also increase in the same pattern, though the relative increase is more than four times. Apartment buildings could be more effective in meeting residential needs and mitigating CO2 emissions than dispersed single-family houses. 

Keywords
Ex ante evaluation, GPS-tracking data, spatial distribution, urban form
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24824 (URN)10.1080/09654313.2017.1317722 (DOI)000404932100007 ()2-s2.0-85017904082 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
Carling, K., Håkansson, J., Meng, X. & Rudholm, N. (2017). The effect on CO2 emissions of taxing truck distance in retail transports. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 97, 47-54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect on CO2 emissions of taxing truck distance in retail transports
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 97, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In competitive retail and transportation markets, such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Spatial distribution of e-tailing and consumers; CO2 emissions measurement; online retailing; environmental taxes; carbon footprint; road network
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - transports; Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - retail
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23917 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2017.01.010 (DOI)000395612300004 ()
Funder
Swedish Retail and Wholesale Development Council
Available from: 2017-01-11 Created: 2017-01-11 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
Håkansson, J., Lagin, M. & Wennström, J. (2017). Town centre cooperation: Changing perception of property owners. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 45(11), 1200-1212
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Town centre cooperation: Changing perception of property owners
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 1200-1212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate if, and how, different stakeholders perceive property owners (PO) have changed their activities in a town centre after increased competition, and if this has led to a different perception of the PO' stakeholder group. Design/methodology/approach – A comparative follow-up case study is conducted through semi-structured interviews on changes in the town centre management (TCM) stakeholders' perceptions of the role, benefit, and contribution of PO. The interviews are carried out before and after the establishment of a big-box retailer, which makes it possible to analyse possible changes in the perceptions in relation to the overall role of the PO when retail competition increases. Findings – A limited number of PO and local authorities have started working more strategically and proactively by creating a time-restricted alliance that goes beyond the work of the TCM organisation. Although the activities of the PO have increased, this is not fully understood by everyone in the town centre, especially the retailers. Research limitations/implications – In comparison with other studies, this study clearly indicates that the property owner plays a key strategic role in enabling town centre development. This role is broader than what the original TCM literature suggests and is based on the aspects of resource coordination and distribution. Practical implications – In order to create the opportunity to develop a town centre in the long run, it is of strategic importance that the PO are in agreement with the development plans. In addition, it is necessary to consider those members who should be part of the strategic alliance. Originality/value – By conducting a comparative follow-up case study, the authors are able to contribute with a deeper understanding of how stakeholders' perceptions change over time. The authors extend the current literature by showing that the PO are a key stakeholder due to their organisational resources and their ability to facilitate town centre development. © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited.

Keywords
Retail development, Strategic alliances, Town centre management
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26631 (URN)10.1108/IJRDM-01-2017-0006 (DOI)2-s2.0-85033580994 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Zhao, X., Carling, K. & Håkansson, J. (2016). Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission. Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In a city there are hotspots that attract the citizens and most of the transportation in the city arises when citizens move between their residence and the hotspots. However, the evaluation between energy-efficient mobility and urban residential planning has been found to be rather weak. In this paper, we propose an ex-ante evaluation method to quantify the impacts in terms of CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban car mobility due to different residential plans implemented at various urban areas. The method is illustrated by a Swedish midsize city which is presently preoccupied with urban planning of new residential areas in response to substantial population growth due to immigration. On average, the CO2 emissions increase from the continued urban core area (CUCA) to the suburban polycentric area (SPA) to the edge urbanization area (EUA), EUA is almost 3 times more than CUCA. The average travel distances also increase in the same sequence, the overall increase is more than 4 times. Apartment buildings could be more effective in meeting residential needs and mitigating CO2 emissions than dispersed single-family houses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2016. p. 29
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2016:05
Keywords
Ex-ante evaluation; Spatial distribution; Urban form; Counterfactual; GPS-tracking data
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - transports
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23954 (URN)
Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2017-04-04Bibliographically approved
Håkansson, J. & Trumberg, A. (2016). Stayers and movers: Understanding the sorting dynamics that cause socio-economic residential segregation. Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stayers and movers: Understanding the sorting dynamics that cause socio-economic residential segregation
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Although many argue that residential segregation is related to selective migration, certainly in Sweden, this view has recently been somewhat challenged when a broader demographic analysis, the so-called demographic conveyer approach, has been used to study the segregation process. However, the number of studies and cases using the demographic conveyer approach to study segregation is limited. In this paper, we apply an elaborated demographic conveyer approach in a new context to describe and analyse the underlying sorting dynamics that over time cause residential segregation. To do so, we follow the individual’s socio-economic carriers, between 1990 and 2008 in three neighbourhoods that have become socio-economically weak. We compare the career outcomes of stayers, in-migrants and out-migrants, and by doing so, we draw conclusions about the underlying dynamics that cause socio-economic segregation. The analysis is conducted in a medium-sized Swedish city which has rapidly become highly segregated since the early 1990s, making it possible to basically follow the evolution of the current segregated situation. Our main conclusion is that the segregation process is due to migration, however, not to internal migration, but rather external immigration. The degree of segregation is highly related to institutional circumstances, since immigrants basically settle in dwellings owned by the public housing company. In our case, the public housing apartments are highly concentrated to the studied area. We also find a general improvement in socio-economic situations regarding both educational levels and unemployment levels for in-migrants, out-migrants and stayers. However, the relationship between the inflows and outflows changes essentially from a situation when the inflows improved the population’s socio-economic status to a situation where the reverse is true. This is accentuated when income is taken into account. The paper also shows that individuals moving away from a segregated neighbourhood, who do not end up in similar neighbourhoods in the city, have better socio-economic carriers than those who stay in one of the three neighbourhoods during the period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2016
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2016:09
Keywords
Segregation, neighbourhood, demographic conveyer approach, Sweden, medium-sized city
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - others
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23574 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2016-12-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4871-833X

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