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Malek, W., Mortazavi, R., Cialani, C. & Nordström, J. (2023). How have waste management policies impacted the flow of municipal waste? An empirical analysis of 14 European countries. Waste Management, 164, 84-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How have waste management policies impacted the flow of municipal waste? An empirical analysis of 14 European countries
2023 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 164, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Waste management policies aim to divert waste from lower positions on the waste hierarchy such as landfill and incineration to higher positions in the hierarchy such as energy recovery and recycling. However, empirical evaluations of such policies are scarce. This study highlighted the effect of waste management policies on the amount of waste treated with landfill, incineration, energy recovery and recycling by analysing a panel dataset consisting of 14 European countries and the period 1996 to 2018. Findings from a seemingly unrelated regression model suggest that the landfill ban is associated with a decrease in landfill waste, but an increase in incineration, energy recovery and recycling waste. The landfill tax is also correlated with an increase in energy recovery waste but, in contrast, it is associated with a reduction in incineration and recycling waste. Meanwhile, the deposit refund scheme is associated with a decrease in the amount of landfill waste. Concerning the effects on total waste generated, regression results from a fixed effects model indicate that the landfill tax and the deposit refund scheme are both correlated with a reduction in the amount of waste generated. These findings contribute to the scarce academic literature evaluating waste management policies and may better inform policy makers on their longer-term implications.

Keywords
Deposit refund scheme, Deposit return scheme, Incineration tax, Landfill ban, Landfill tax, Waste management
National Category
Environmental Management Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-45845 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2023.03.040 (DOI)000981383700001 ()37037100 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151694108 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-13 Created: 2023-04-13 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Nerhagen, L., Brandt, D. & Mortazavi, R. (2023). Use of public transport as a means to reach national climate objectives - On the importance of accounting for spatial differences and costs, Transport Policy. Transport Policy, 131, 56-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of public transport as a means to reach national climate objectives - On the importance of accounting for spatial differences and costs, Transport Policy
2023 (English)In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 131, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden has since the end of the 1990s, when the environmental objective system was adopted, had the ambitionof being an environmental frontrunner. In line with this, in 2009 the Parliament adopted the goal of achieving afossil free vehicle fleet in 2030. Replacing private car use with public transport is expected to contribute to thisgoal. In 2008, a co-operation between actors in the public transport sector was launched with support from theGovernment with the aim to double its use. Sweden however is a country with important geographical differ-ences. Much of the country is sparsely populated, especially in the north. From previous research it is well knownthat usage of public transport is dependent on population density and accessibility to employment and schools.Understanding how spatial differences influence the cost of public transport provision is therefore crucial whendiscussing if public transport is a cost-efficient way to achieve national goals for the transport sector. In thispaper, Swedish county level panel data, including variables that provide information on geographical differencesbetween the counties, have been used to estimate average marginal costs of boardings. Results show that theseare much lower in the three counties with the largest urbanized areas. In the other counties there is a variationwhich illustrates that there are a number of factors that influence the average marginal costs. In relation to policy, we find that the doubling ambition established in 2008 has not been achieved.

Keywords
Environmental policy; Economic efficiency; Spatial differences; Public transport costs; Sparsely populated áreas
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-45036 (URN)10.1016/j.tranpol.2022.12.002 (DOI)000900068500002 ()2-s2.0-85143671382 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 48548-1
Available from: 2023-01-17 Created: 2023-01-17 Last updated: 2023-03-17Bibliographically approved
Gezelius, M. & Mortazavi, R. (2022). Effect of Having Solar Panels on the Probability of Owning Battery Electric Vehicle. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 13(7), Article ID 125.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Having Solar Panels on the Probability of Owning Battery Electric Vehicle
2022 (English)In: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Greenhouse gas emissions, produced by various sectors, including transportation, are significantly impairing the environment and drive climate change. Battery electric vehicles are increasingly seen as a way to alleviate these problems, but they must be charged with electricity produced through environmentally friendly methods. This paper investigates a possible relationship between battery electric vehicles and solar photovoltaic panels using ENABLE.EU household survey data from ten European countries in autumn 2017–spring 2018. Based on the estimates from a recursive bivariate probit model, it is found that the probability that a household owns a battery electric vehicle increases significantly if said household owns solar photovoltaic panels. This suggests that a policy encouraging the home charging of battery electric vehicles using solar photovoltaic panels that includes an energy storage facility could speed up the transition to the use of these vehicles.

Keywords
battery electric vehicle; binary choice; random utility model; recursive bivariate probit; solar photovoltaic panels
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-41923 (URN)10.3390/wevj13070125 (DOI)000835676600001 ()2-s2.0-85133801655 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-07-13 Created: 2022-07-13 Last updated: 2023-03-17Bibliographically approved
Cialani, C. & Mortazavi, R. (2021). Sectoral analysis of club convergence in EU countries’ CO2 emissions. Energy, 235, 1-10, Article ID 121332.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sectoral analysis of club convergence in EU countries’ CO2 emissions
2021 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 235, p. 1-10, article id 121332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines convergence clubs for per capita CO2 emissions among 28 European countries intwo main activity sectors (Industry and Manufacturing) between 1970 and 2018, with a focus on theenergy sector. The method used is the Phillips-Sul log t-test using two ordering criteria to run the algorithmfor the panel countries. The first one is using the last observation and the second one uses thesample average. The results of analyses of data strongly support the existence of convergence clubs,indicating that five groups of European countries are converging to distinct steady states for theaggregate CO2 emissions. We also find evidence of convergence clubs for industry sectors whilemanufacturing sector shows clubs convergence only when we use the first criterion while in the secondcase, we find only a single steady state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
CO2 emissions, Club convergence, EU, Log t-test
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-37736 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2021.121332 (DOI)000703195800005 ()2-s2.0-85109599941 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-07-13 Created: 2021-07-13 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
Mortazavi, R. (2021). The relationship between visitor satisfaction, expectation and spending in a sport event. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 27(1), Article ID 100132.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between visitor satisfaction, expectation and spending in a sport event
2021 (English)In: European Research on Management and Business Economics, ISSN 2444-8834, Vol. 27, no 1, article id 100132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academia Europea de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, 2021
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-35310 (URN)10.1016/j.iedeen.2020.10.002 (DOI)000621428300003 ()2-s2.0-85095742051 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-11-01 Created: 2020-11-01 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
Mortazavi, R. & Lundberg, M. (2020). Expenditure-based segmentation of tourists taking into account unobserved heterogeneity: The case of Venice. Tourism Economics, 26, 475-499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expenditure-based segmentation of tourists taking into account unobserved heterogeneity: The case of Venice
2020 (English)In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 26, p. 475-499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Visitors to big tourist cities are very likely heterogeneous and can be classified into different segments, for example, low and high spenders. Previous studies on visitor expenditure-based segmentation seem to have only taken into account observed heterogeneity, usually segmenting tourists based on observed characteristics. In the present study, however, the visitors to Venice, Italy, are segmented with respect to their spending into different groups based on both observed and unobserved heterogeneity using a finite mixture model. The results indicate that the visitors belong to three latent classes with respect to their expenditure. Interestingly, different variables affect expenditure differently depending on the latent class belonging. The overall conclusion is that segmenting tourists into different classes based on unobserved heterogeneity with respect to their spending is preferable and more informative than treating the visitors as one homogeneous group. The approach is also more useful for different types of policymaking.

Keywords
expenditure-based segmentation, finite mixture model, latent classes, unobserved heterogeneity, visitor expenditure
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Research Profiles 2009-2020, Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-29892 (URN)10.1177/1354816619841713 (DOI)000526380400007 ()2-s2.0-85064614171 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2021-11-12Bibliographically approved
Cialani, C. & Mortazavi, R. (2020). The Cost of Urban Waste Management: An Empirical Analysis of Recycling Patterns in Italy. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, 2(8), 1-9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Cost of Urban Waste Management: An Empirical Analysis of Recycling Patterns in Italy
2020 (English)In: Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, E-ISSN 2624-9634, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Italy is facing high pressure to meet objectives to recycle waste and national waste management targets set by the European Union Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC; EC European Commission, 2008). However, waste collection and recycling waste costs pose major problems (addressed here) at municipal level for the Italian waste management system. The empirical literature on waste management has paid much more attention to demand-side aspects (reduction and discouragement of land disposal and promotion of recycling and recovery) than to supply-side issues such as analysis of waste management costs. This paper addresses the gap in this research field by estimating the cost function of providing waste collection and recycling services for Italian municipalities during the years 2011–2017. Specifically, we estimate cost elasticity and marginal costs to determine if there are economies of scale for recycling urban waste. Our findings suggest that increasing recycling rates would not substantially increase total costs for most of the municipalities, so recycling should be encouraged, especially for municipalities with low recycling rates. In particular, we observe that cost elasticity is higher in northern municipalities than in central and southern Italian municipalities. Our cost function exhibits economies of scale until a certain amount of recycled waste. The results provide insights into the cost structure of recycling that may lead to more efficient waste management.

Keywords
costs, urban waste management, recycling, cost elasticities, marginal cost, municipalities, regions, Italy
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Research Profiles 2009-2020, Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-32406 (URN)10.3389/frsc.2020.00008 (DOI)000751652700008 ()2-s2.0-85123076851 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-08 Created: 2020-04-08 Last updated: 2023-02-02
Cialani, C. & Mortazavi, R. (2020). The effect of objective income and perceived economic resources on self-rated health. International Journal for Equity in Health, 19(196), 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of objective income and perceived economic resources on self-rated health
2020 (English)In: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 19, no 196, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Several studies have demonstrated that self-rated health status is affected by socioeconomic variables. However, there is little knowledge about whether perceived economic resources affect people’s health. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between self-rated health status and different measures of income. Specifically, the effect of both objective income and perceived economic resources are estimated for a very large sample of households in Italy. By estimating this relationship, this paper aims at filling the previously mentioned gap.

Methods

The data used are from the 2015 European Health Interview Survey and were collected using information from approximately 16,000 households in 562 Italian municipalities. Ordinary and generalized ordered probit models were used in estimating the effects of a set of covariates, among others measures of income, on the self-rated health status.

Results

The results suggest that the subjective income, measured by the perceived economic resources, affects the probability of reporting a higher self-rate health status more than objective income. The results also indicate that other variables, such as age, educational level, presence/absence of chronic disease, and employment status, affect self-rated health more significantly than objective income. It is also found that males report more frequently higher rating than females.

Conclusions

Our analysis demonstrates that perceived income affects significantly self-rated health. While self-perceived economic resources have been used to assess economic well-being and satisfaction, they can also be used to assess stress levels and related health outcomes. Our findings suggest that low subjective income adversely affects subjective health. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between effects of income and individuals’ perceptions of their economic resources or overall financial situation on their health. From a gender perspective, our results show that females are less likely to have high rating than males. However, as females perceive an improved economic situation, on the margin, the likelihood of a higher self-rated health increases compared to males.

Keywords
Self-rated health status, Objective income, Perceived economic resources, Ordered probit model
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - others
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-35359 (URN)10.1186/s12939-020-01304-2 (DOI)000590080900001 ()2-s2.0-85094966339 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-11-04 Created: 2020-11-04 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Mortazavi, R. (2018). Endogeneity of satisfaction as a predictor for spending. Annals of Tourism Research, 72, 168-171
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endogeneity of satisfaction as a predictor for spending
2018 (English)In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 72, p. 168-171Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Research Profiles 2009-2020, Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27402 (URN)10.1016/j.annals.2018.02.012 (DOI)000442713600014 ()2-s2.0-85043487766 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2021-11-12Bibliographically approved
Cialani, C. & Mortazavi, R. (2017). Econometric Estimation of Energy Demand. In: Sergio Ulgiati and Laura Vanoli (Ed.), Energy futures, environment and well-being: . Paper presented at BIWAES 2017, 10th Edition, Biennial International Workshop “Advances in Energy Studies” Villa Doria d´Angri, Naples, Italy, 25-28 September, 2017 (pp. 547-556).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Econometric Estimation of Energy Demand
2017 (English)In: Energy futures, environment and well-being / [ed] Sergio Ulgiati and Laura Vanoli, 2017, p. 547-556Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a relatively simple procedure to examine the responsiveness of energy demand to measures of economic activity and electricity price. We estimate the demand function for electricity both for households and for industry in 29 countries, mainly European countries, in the last 10 years, using a panel aggregate data.

Preliminary results suggest, as expected, that price has a negative significant effect on the electricity consumption. This is the case for both households and industry level for the same sample of countries. Our results also suggest that short-run elasticity of electricity consumption with respect to aggregate output seems to have been stable and unit elastic during the last decade. Moreover, price elasticity is more elastic and more stable in the industry sector than households are.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Research Profiles 2009-2020, Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26573 (URN)10.3217/978-3-85125-513-3 (DOI)978-3-85125-513-3 (ISBN)978-3-85125-514-0 (ISBN)
Conference
BIWAES 2017, 10th Edition, Biennial International Workshop “Advances in Energy Studies” Villa Doria d´Angri, Naples, Italy, 25-28 September, 2017
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2021-11-12Bibliographically approved
Projects
ReTraCE (Realising the Transition to the Circular Economy: Models, Methods and Applications); Publications
Malek, W., Mortazavi, R., Cialani, C. & Nordström, J. (2023). How have waste management policies impacted the flow of municipal waste? An empirical analysis of 14 European countries. Waste Management, 164, 84-93
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8599-7185

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