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Eldh, A. C., Olai, L., Jönsson, B., Wallin, L., Denti, L. & Elf, M. (2018). Supporting first-line managers in implementing oral care guidelines in nursing homes – a pilot study. Nordic journal of nursing research (2), 87-95
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting first-line managers in implementing oral care guidelines in nursing homes – a pilot study
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2018 (English)In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated first-line managers’ experience of and responses to a concise leadership intervention to facilitate the implementation of oral care clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in nursing homes. Leadership is known to be an important element in knowledge implementation but little is known as to what supports managers to facilitate the process. By means of a process evaluation with mixed methods, the context and a three-month leadership program was explored, including activities during and in relation to the program, and the effects in terms of oral care CPG implementation plans. While the managers appreciated the intervention and considered improved oral care to be a priority, their implementation plans mainly focused the dissemination of an oral care checklist. The findings suggest that extended implementation interventions engaging both managers and clinical staff are needed, and that a concise intervention does not facilitate first-line managers to adopt behaviors known to facilitate knowledge implementation.

Keywords
context, frail older people, knowledge implementation, leadership, nursing home, oral care
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26788 (URN)10.1177/2057158517713379 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Oscarson, N., Espelid, I. & Jönsson, B. (2017). Is caries equally distributed in adults? A population-based cross-sectional study in Norway - the TOHNN-study. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 75(8), 557-563
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is caries equally distributed in adults? A population-based cross-sectional study in Norway - the TOHNN-study
2017 (English)In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 75, no 8, p. 557-563Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of dental caries in an adult population and identify factors associated with being caries free.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from a randomized population sample in Northern Norway (N = 1932; 988 women; mean age 47.0 years, SD 15.3). The study included a structured questionnaire and a clinical examination. The sum of enamel and dentine caries, DS1-5, formed the main outcome measures for caries prevalence.

RESULTS: Mean DMFT was 15.1 (95% CI 14.8, 15.4), mean DFT was 12.0 (CI 11.7, 12.2), and mean DT was 1.1 (CI 1.0, 1.2). The mean value for dentine caries (DS3-5) was 0.8 (CI 0.7, 0.9), and mean DS1-5 was 3.8 (CI 3.6, 4.1). Mean DS1-5 was highest in the youngest age group (mean 6.9, 95% CI 6.3, 7.6) and in rural areas (mean 5.0, CI 4.4, 5.6). The most caries-prone 20% in the youngest age group had 52% of the total number of carious lesions compared with 80% in the two oldest age groups. Tooth brushing twice daily (p = .005), drinking sugar containing soft drink (p =.029), and attending dental services every year (p < .001), were associated with being caries free.

CONCLUSION: Dental caries is still a common condition, particularly in the youngest age group. Living in a rural area, low socioeconomic status, less frequent tooth cleaning and sugar containing soft drinks were associated with a higher prevalence of dental caries. The different caries distribution among adults calls for different preventive strategies at both population and individual levels.

Keywords
Diagnostic threshold, oral hygiene, prevalence, socioeconomics, soft-drinks
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25653 (URN)10.1080/00016357.2017.1357080 (DOI)000414914000002 ()28754061 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85026356183 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-31 Created: 2017-07-31 Last updated: 2018-04-26Bibliographically approved
Holde, G. E., Oscarson, N., Trovik, T. A., Tillberg, A. & Jönsson, B. (2017). Periodontitis prevalence and severity in adults: A cross-sectional study in Norwegian circumpolar communities. Journal of Periodontology, 88(10), 1012-1022
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Periodontitis prevalence and severity in adults: A cross-sectional study in Norwegian circumpolar communities
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 88, no 10, p. 1012-1022Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, severity and extent of periodontitis in the adult population of circumpolar communities in Norway using data from the study Tromstannen - Oral Health in Northern Norway.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, data were collected from a randomized population sample (20-79 years) in Northern Norway. Periodontal conditions were assessed for 1,911 dentate adults with a full-mouth periodontal examination. Probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BoP) were measured at six sites per tooth. Radiographic bone loss (BL) was examined using orthopantomograms.

RESULTS: According to the CDC/AAP case definition, 49.5% of participants had periodontitis and 9.1% had severe periodontitis. Periodontitis prevalence and severity increased with age. The extent of BL and PD ≥ 4 mm also increased with age, but more rapidly and to a greater extent for BL. The prevalence of periodontitis was higher among men and varied between urban and rural areas. Periodontitis prevalence was positively associated with smoking, lower levels of education and income.

CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a high burden of periodontitis among adults living in circumpolar communities in Norway. The results showed sociodemographic disparities regarding periodontitis, and highlights the importance of further investigation of factors influencing periodontal health.

Keywords
arctic regions, dental health surveys, epidemiology, periodontal diseases
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25645 (URN)10.1902/jop.2017.170164 (DOI)28671509 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85030831234 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-25 Created: 2017-07-25 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
Lundgren, A.-M., Öhrn, K. & Jönsson, B. (2016). Do adolescents who are night owls have a higher risk of dental caries?: A case-control study. International Journal of Dental Hygiene, 14(3), 220-225
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do adolescents who are night owls have a higher risk of dental caries?: A case-control study
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 220-225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the association between circadian rhythm and the risk of caries in adolescents, as well as their dietary and toothbrushing habits.

METHODS: A group of 196 adolescents (15 and 16 years old) were divided into two equal groups based on caries risk (case = high risk; and control = low risk). Before their dental examinations, they were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on circadian rhythm, dietary and oral self-care habits, and demographic variables. The participants were divided into three circadian types: evening types who are alert in the evening and tired in the morning; morning types who are the opposite; and neutral types who are neither particularly alert in the evening nor extremely tired in the morning.

RESULTS: The most common sleep-cycle group type was neutral (50%). After this came evening types (37%) and finally morning types (13%). Morning and neutral types reported more frequently than evening types that they had breakfast every morning and brushed their teeth twice a day. More evening types were categorized as at high risk of caries. Circadian rhythm, breakfast habits and toothbrushing frequency were associated with a high risk of caries. The predicted probability of being at high risk of caries was almost four times higher for evening types than for morning types (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-10.9).

CONCLUSION: Adolescents who belonged to the evening circadian rhythm group brushed their teeth more seldom, ate breakfast less regularly and had a higher risk of caries than morning types. A patient's circadian rhythm should be considered when planning oral health education for adolescents with a high risk of caries.

Keywords
circadian rhythm; diet habits; Morningness–eveningness; oral hygiene
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-19834 (URN)10.1111/idh.12165 (DOI)000379948100009 ()26198407 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-10-28 Created: 2015-10-28 Last updated: 2017-10-27Bibliographically approved
Holde, G. E., Oscarson, N., Tillberg, A., Marstrander, P. & Jönsson, B. (2016). Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 75, Article ID 30169.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway
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2016 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 75, article id 30169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the Tromstannen - Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination.

METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20-79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20-34, 35-49, 50-64 and 65-79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world).

RESULTS: From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20-34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001) and education level (p < 0.001). The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service.

CONCLUSION: The TOHNN study has the potential to generate new knowledge on a wide range of oral health conditions beneficial to the population in Troms County. Due to the high participation rate, generalization both nationally and to the circumpolar area ought to be possible.

Keywords
epidemiology; survey; dental health; adults; prevalence
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-21168 (URN)10.3402/ijch.v75.30169 (DOI)000375138800001 ()26900910 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-02-25 Created: 2016-02-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Olai, L., Elf, M., Eldh, A. C., Wallin, L. & Jönsson, B. (2015). Implementing oral health-care guidelines in long-term-care: the role and support of managers. In: : . Paper presented at 20th Congress of the European Association of Dental Public Health, Turkey, 17th-19th Sept. 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing oral health-care guidelines in long-term-care: the role and support of managers
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Aim: There is an essential need to bridge the know-do gap in terms of oral-health-care for frail older people; while there are evidence based guidelines readily available, these guidelines are not altogether implemented in long-term-care (LTC) for older people. Facilitating knowledge translation has been found a complex undertaking, encompassing for example tailoring of evidence in relation to the specific context, considering the barriers and strengths of each setting. While managers and leaders have been found to influence implementation, studies focusing strategies to support the managers have only recently been launched. The aim of this pilot study in Swedish LTC is to support managers in facilitating implementation of evidence-based oral-care guidelines. Methods: Oral-health and knowledge translation experts provided a three month support programme for five managers in four LTC units, including knowledge of national guidelines tailored to LTC, and guidance for the managers on how to collate and execute guideline implementation plans, considering their behaviours, attitudes and actions as leaders in facilitating guideline implementation, underpinned by Gifford’s Model of Leadership. Oral-health measures were collected before and after the intervention, along with managers and staff experience. Results: Although the older people residing in the LTC units mainly had individual care plans for their oral care, and these aligned with the national guidelines, the oral care routines applied varied considerably. The managers were eager to support guideline implementation, and suggested that the intervention programme sustained their ambition. However, unclear roles and urgent everyday issues took its toll, leaving limited opportunities for managers to engage. Conclusions: Implementation of evidence based oral health-care guidelines requires support from primary leaders. Yet, they themselves need to be supported by the context, including top level management as well as staff, and all stakeholders involved in oral care issues need to be engaged.

National Category
Health Sciences Nursing
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-19053 (URN)
Conference
20th Congress of the European Association of Dental Public Health, Turkey, 17th-19th Sept. 2015
Available from: 2015-08-26 Created: 2015-08-19 Last updated: 2015-11-24Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, B. & Öhrn, K. (2014). Evaluation of the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on oral health-related quality of life: estimation of minimal important differences 1 year after treatment. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 41(3), 275-282
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on oral health-related quality of life: estimation of minimal important differences 1 year after treatment
2014 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 275-282Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To evaluate an individually tailored oral health educational programme on patient-reported outcome compared with a standard oral health educational programme, assess change over time and determine minimal important differences (MID) in change scores for two different oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument after non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT).

Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial evaluating two educational programmes, patients (n=87) with chronic periodontitis completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 12months. OHRQoL was assessed with the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and the UK oral health-related quality-of-life measure (OHQoL-UK). In addition, patients' global rating of oral health and socio-demographic variables were recorded. The MID was estimated with anchor-based and distributions-based methods.

Results: There were no differences between the two educational groups. The OHRQoL was significantly improved after treatment. The MID was approximately five for OHQoL-UK with a moderate ES, and three for GOHAI with a Small ES, and 46-50% of the patients showed improvements beyond the MID.

Conclusion: Both oral health educational groups reported higher scores in OHRQoL after NSPT resulting in more positive well-being (OHQoL-UK) and less frequent oral problems (GOHAI). OHQoL-UK gave a greater effect size and mean change scores but both instruments were associated with the participants' self-rated change in oral health. The changes were meaningful for the patients supported by the estimated MID.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2014
Keywords
clinical relevance, cognitive behaviour strategies, individually tailored programme, oral hygiene behaviour, patient-reported outcome, periodontitis
National Category
Dentistry Health Sciences
Research subject
Hälsa och välfärd
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-13869 (URN)10.1111/jcpe.12202 (DOI)000330577300008 ()24372439 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-03-06 Created: 2014-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, B. & Öhrn, K. (2013). Stage of Change for Interdental Cleaning in Patients with Peridontitis. Paper presented at 91st General Session & Exhibition of the IADR, Seattle, Washington, USA, 20-23 March 2013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stage of Change for Interdental Cleaning in Patients with Peridontitis
2013 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Objective: In the Transtheoretical model, behavioral change processes through a series of stages (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action and Maintenance). The purpose of the study was to determine if there were an association between decisional balance, self-efficacy and stage of change. A further aim was to assess stage of change for interdental cleaning before and after two different oral hygiene interventions.

Method: A randomized (n = 104), evaluator-masked, clinical trial, with two different active oral hygiene behavior interventions, was analyzed with respect to stage of change at baseline and 12 months after non-surgical treatment. An individually tailored oral health educational program [ITOHEP] based on social cognitive principles were compared with a standard oral hygiene education program [ST]. A questionnaire consisting of Stage of Change instrument, Decisional balance instrument, and Self-efficacy instrument was used.

Result: Nearly 36 % was in maintenance stage and 47% in the preparation stage. Individuals in the maintenance stage had significant higher self-efficacy than those in contemplation stage (p<0.001). There were no association between stage of change and decisional balance. Significantly more individuals was in the maintenance stage after treatment than before (p<0.001). At baseline there were no differences between groups. At the 12 month follow-up significantly more individuals in the ITOHEP group was in the maintenance stage (p< 0.05) and significantly more individuals in the ST group was in the preparation stage (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Individuals with higher self-efficacy were to a greater extent in maintenance stage. Oral hygiene behavior interventions influence patients to move on to the maintenance stage. Patients receiving an individually tailored program were more successful in movement towards maintenance stage compared to patients receiving standard health education.

Keywords
Oral hygiene, Periodontal disease, Preventive dentistry and Psychology
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Hälsa och välfärd
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-12191 (URN)
Conference
91st General Session & Exhibition of the IADR, Seattle, Washington, USA, 20-23 March 2013
Available from: 2013-05-06 Created: 2013-05-06 Last updated: 2015-10-28Bibliographically approved
Öhrn, K. & Jönsson, B. (2012). A comparison of two questionnaires measuring oral health-related quality of life before and after dental hygiene treatment in patients with periodontal disease. International Journal of Dental Hygiene, 10(1), 9-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparison of two questionnaires measuring oral health-related quality of life before and after dental hygiene treatment in patients with periodontal disease
2012 (English)In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of two different questionnaires assessing oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) at the basic examination and after initial dental hygiene treatment (DHtx).

Methods: A total of 42 patients referred for periodontal treatment completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) at the basic periodontal examination. They underwent DHtx and completed the questionnaires once again after the treatment.

Results: No statistically significant differences could be found between the two assessments, neither for the total scores nor for any of the separate items of the OHIP-14 or the GOHAI. However, the GOHAI questionnaire seems to result in a greater variety in the responses indicating that the floor effect is not as pronounced as for the OHIP-14. Those who had rated their oral health as good reported significantly better OHRQoL on both questionnaires. The same pattern was found for patients who reported that they were satisfied with their teeth. After DHtx and necessary extractions, there was a statistically significant correlation between the number of teeth and the total scores on both questionnaires. No other statistically significant correlations with periodontal variables could be found.

Conclusion: No statistically significant difference could be found after DHtx compared to before in regard to OHRQoL assessed with OHIP-14 and GOHAI. However, there was a greater variety in the responses with the GOHAI questionnaire; it may hereby be more useful for patients with periodontal disease.

Keywords
dental hygiene;General Oral Health Assessment Index;Oral Health Impact Profile-14;oral health-related quality of life;periodontitis
National Category
Nursing Dentistry
Research subject
Hälsa och välfärd
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-6165 (URN)10.1111/j.1601-5037.2011.00511.x (DOI)000299100000003 ()21564538 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-12-20 Created: 2011-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Jönsson, B., Öhrn, K., Lindberg, P. & Oscarson, N. (2012). Cost-effectiveness of an individually tailored oral health educational programme based on cognitive behavioural strategies in non-surgical periodontal treatment. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 39(7), 659-665
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-effectiveness of an individually tailored oral health educational programme based on cognitive behavioural strategies in non-surgical periodontal treatment
2012 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 659-665Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim. The aim of this cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), performed from a societal perspective, was to compare costs and consequences of an individually tailored oral health educational programme (ITOHEP) based on cognitive behavioural strategies integrated in non-surgical periodontal treatment compared with a standard treatment programme (ST).

Material and Methods. A randomized (n = 113), evaluator-blinded, controlled trial, with two different active treatments, was analysed with respect to their costs and consequences 12 months after non-surgical treatment. Costs referred to both treatment costs and costs contributed by the patient. Consequences (outcome) were expressed as the proportion of individuals classified as having reached the pre-set criteria for treatment success after non-surgical treatment (“successful-NSPT”).

Results. More individuals in the ITOHEP group reached the pre-set criteria for treatment success than individuals in the ST group did. The CEA revealed an incremental cost-effectiveness of SEK1724 [€191.09; SEK9.02 = €1 (January 2007)] per “successful-NSPT” case, of which treatment costs represented SEK1189 (€131.82), using the unit cost for a dental hygienist.

Conclusion. The incremental costs per “successful-NSPT” case can be considered as low and strengthens the suggestion that an ITOHEP integrated into non-surgical periodontal treatment is preferable to a standardized education programme.

Keywords
cognitive behaviour strategies;cost-effectiveness analysis;costs and cost analysis;non-surgical periodontal treatment;oral hygiene behaviour;periodontitis
National Category
Nursing Dentistry
Research subject
Hälsa och välfärd
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-10276 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-051X.2012.01898.x (DOI)000305130000008 ()22612765 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-07-06 Created: 2012-07-06 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7781-8527

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