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Alatalo, T., Vinterek, M., Tegmark, M. & Winberg, M. (2018). Amount of text read at school and the motivation for reading: a large scale study in grade 6 and 9. In: : . Paper presented at ECER, Bolzano, Italy, September 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amount of text read at school and the motivation for reading: a large scale study in grade 6 and 9
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on some preliminary results from the project “To read or not to read: A study of reading practices in compulsory school” funded by the Swedish Research Council. The aim of the project is to develop knowledge of existing reading practices and to find out what kind of teaching that promotes such practices in a way that enables students to learn from reading. The decline in students’ reading literacy is something that concerns and worries many European and other Western countries. But surprisingly it is difficult to find large scale studies focusing on how much students read at school. To be a good reader one needs to practice (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003; Campell et al., 2001); it takes more than 5000 hours of reading to achieve a well-functioning reading capacity (Lundberg & Herrlin, 2005). To learn from text one needs to be able to read a longer text (Topping et al., 2007; Merisuo-Storm & Soininen, 2014). Prior research in the field further shows that it is important for students to read different types of texts (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003) and thus develop vocabulary and reading skills in many subjects (see, for example, Biemiller, 2001).The amount of reading, at school or at leisure, correlates positively with reading ability (Anderson et al., 1988; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997; Taylor et al., 990). In our study we therefore are interested in the total amount of coherent and continuous text students read during an average school day in all their subjects, with a particular focus on reading habits in Swedish (L1), English (L2), Chemistry and History. We also want to find out how the amount of reading correlates with the students’ self-assessed motivation for their school-initiated reading activities. In the first part of the project there is a predominantly quantitative focus in which we seek to find out the extent to which students read continuous prose texts – fictional as well as non-fictional – as part of their everyday school work, and how their reading is related to different types of motivation. The second part of the project has a predominantly qualitative focus where a limited number of groups will be selected for a series of closer classroom studies of teachers as well as students through observations, interviews and questionnaires in order to find out what characterizes the reading practices of these schools and classes. This paper will report on some preliminary results from the first part of the project where the following research questions are to be answered:

  • To what extent do students in years 6 and 9 read continuous prose text—fiction as well as nonfiction— as part of their school work?
  • What kind of motivation do students express for reading nonfiction and fiction texts in different school subjects?
  • What is the nature of the relationship between students’ reading motivation and the extent of their reading in school?
  • What differences in the interest of reading and in the reading habits among females and males, between school years 6 and 9, and between schools can be detected?

The overall framework of the study is the didactic triangle and the meeting between the teacher, the student and the subject matter in terms of meaning making and reading activities that occur in this meeting (Uljens, 1997; Hudson & Meier, 2011; Liberg et.al. 2002.) We also draw on motivation theories that stress the importance of constructing classroom practices that support student reading motivation by fulfilling the basic needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 2008; De Naeghel et al, 2014)  

Keywords
Reading, nonfiction, fiction, school subjects, motivation
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Education and Learning, Att läsa eller inte läsa: En studie av grundskolans läspraktiker
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28884 (URN)
Conference
ECER, Bolzano, Italy, September 2018
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04747
Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
Vinterek, M., Alatalo, T., Tegmark, M. & Winberg, M. (2018). The decrease of school related reading in compulsory school 2007–2017. In: : . Paper presented at Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE), Sydney, December 2-6 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The decrease of school related reading in compulsory school 2007–2017
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we will report some results from a project (funded by the Swedish Research Council) with an aim to develop knowledge of existing reading practices to better understand what kind of support students receive at school to develop reading skills. In this we lean on earlier research that stresses the importance of many hours of diverse reading practice to develop necessary reading skills to be an active part of a democratic society. 

Data were collected 2017 and relate to the findings of a similar study conducted in 2007. The main research questions addressed in this paper are:

  • To what extent do students in grade 6 and 9 read continuous text, nonfiction as well fiction, as part of their school work?
  • What differences in the amount of reading between grade 6 and 9, among boys and girls respectively, can be detected?
  • What can be noticed about changes in students´ reading at school during the last decade?

In the year 2017 data were collected by a questionnaire, distributed to schools with grade 6 and grade 9 in a mid-Swedish region, the same was done in 2007 for all students in grade 5 and 8 in one of Sweden’s largest municipalities.  Students were asked to estimate how many pages of continuous text, fiction and non-fiction, they had read in class during the day of the questionnaire. For the 2017 study we also asked about the amount of text read out of school as some kind of school assignment (e.g. homework). In total 1526 (2007) and 3289 (2017) answers remained after data cleaning.

We found that reading at school has declined substantially the last decade (e.g. 22% had read less than one page in 2007, 30% in 2017). An even higher percentage of students don’t read any pages of continuous school texts in grade 9 compared to grade 6, and girls still read more than boys. We also found that the amount of text read as part of the students’ schoolwork out of school (2017) is lower than for text read at school. These patterns are the same for non-fiction as well as for fiction.  

In the next part of the study we are taking a closer look at the actual reading practices in a selection of these classrooms trying to understand the results. There is also a need for more studies of the amount of text read at school.

Keywords
continuous text, fiction, grade 6, grade 9, non-fiction, Swedish school, reading
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Education and Learning, Att läsa eller inte läsa: En studie av grundskolans läspraktiker
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-29035 (URN)
Conference
Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE), Sydney, December 2-6 2018
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04747_3
Available from: 2018-12-09 Created: 2018-12-09 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved
Tegmark, M. (2017). Hur kan språklärare utforma undervisning som motiverar elever att läsa på ett andra- eller främmande språk? En forskningsbakgrund. In: : . Paper presented at Litteraturstudiers betydelse för språkutbildning: litteraturdidaktiska perspektiv för ungdomsskola och högskola. Jönköping University, 6-7 Oct. 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hur kan språklärare utforma undervisning som motiverar elever att läsa på ett andra- eller främmande språk? En forskningsbakgrund
2017 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Läsförståelsen bland svenska grundskoleelever har enligt internationella kunskapsmätningar gradvis sjunkit sedan millennieskiftet. Trots en liten uppgång i 2015 års PISA-undersökning ligger resultaten för läsförståelse bland svenska 15-åringar en bra bit under 2000 och 2003 års nivåer. Vi vet också att likvärdigheten mellan elever såväl som skolor ökar, och att skolans socioekonomiska sammansättning har fått ökad betydelse för elevernas resultat. Men frågan är vad dagens grundskolor gör för att motverka denna trend? Samtidigt som vi vet att det bästa sättet att förbättra sin läsförmåga är att läsa mer råder stor okunskap om hur omfattande elevers läsning inom ramen för skolarbetet faktiskt är och hur läsundervisningen går till.  

För att besvara dessa frågor har jag tillsammans med kollegor på Högskolan Dalarna, Uppsala universitet och Umeå universitet påbörjat ett större forskningsprojekt som syftar till att utveckla mer kunskap om grundskolans läspraktiker i åk 6 och 9. Jag själv kommer särskilt undersöka den läsning och läsundervisning som sker på engelska och inom ramen för engelskämnet, sakprosa såväl som skönlitteratur.  I ett första steg håller jag på att gå igenom tidigare didaktisk forskning inom området läsundervisning på ett andra- eller främmande språk. I min presentation ger jag en kort sammanfattande rapport av vad jag hittills funnit av relevans i tidigare svensk och internationell forskning inom detta område. 

Keywords
läsa på främmande språk, literacy, grundskolans läspraktiker, motivationsteori
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Education and Learning, Att läsa eller inte läsa: En studie av grundskolans läspraktiker
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26736 (URN)
Conference
Litteraturstudiers betydelse för språkutbildning: litteraturdidaktiska perspektiv för ungdomsskola och högskola. Jönköping University, 6-7 Oct. 2017
Projects
Att läsa eller inte läsa: En studie av grundskolans läspraktiker
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Tegmark, M. (2015). The Price of the Prize: The Construction of "Irish" and "American" Subject Positions in Frank McCourt's Angela's Ashes. In: John Lynch andf Katherina Dodou (Ed.), The Leaving of Ireland: Migration and Belonging in Irish Literature and Film (pp. 69-91). Oxford: Peter Lang Publishing Group
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Price of the Prize: The Construction of "Irish" and "American" Subject Positions in Frank McCourt's Angela's Ashes
2015 (English)In: The Leaving of Ireland: Migration and Belonging in Irish Literature and Film / [ed] John Lynch andf Katherina Dodou, Oxford: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015, p. 69-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article looks at how cultural and national subject positions are constructed and negotiated in Frank McCourt’s award-winning memoir Angela’s Ashes (1996). The memoir has enjoyed tremendous commercial and critical success, especially in America, where it not only won two of the most prestigious literary prizes in the category of autobiography, but also managed to stay on the New York Times bestseller list for more two years, and three years after its first publication it had sold over two million copies in the US alone. However, critical voices were also raised against the memoir, especially from Irish readers who resented the way in which the expatriate McCourt commercializes their past misery.

The memoir thus clearly has the power either to make the reader feel secure and confident in his or her own cultural identity, or to cause him or her to react very strongly to the identity positions that it constructs. But which are these subject positions that are constructed and negotiated in the memoir? Where, how, and by whom are they constructed? This article will show how the memoir is built around a number of binary oppositions between what is constructed as “Irish” and “American” subject positions. Whereas the “Irish” position is characterized by religious intolerance, social determinism, selfish pride and personal guilt, the “American” position is characterized by religious pluralism, social mobility, communal solidarity and personal fulfilment. Other binary oppositions that the memoir constructs between the “Irish” and the “American” positions are wet vs. dry, cold vs. warm, tradition vs. popular culture, past suffering vs. future opportunities, sexual inhibition vs. sexual freedom, narrowness vs. openness, authority vs. liberty, failure vs. success, and so on.

The construction of these opposite subject positions will be analysed by looking at the different “truth regimes” that the protagonist is exposed to during his childhood and adolescence. Drawing on Foucault’s claim that a subject can only recognize itself, and others, within a specific regime of truth, the article will show how McCourt’s memoir operates on two narrative levels simultaneously. At the story level the protagonist has to abandon his “Irish” subject positions in order to recognize himself as an “American”. At the discourse level it is the reader who has to make the same identification with the “American” position and to accept the “American” regime of truth as constructed by McCourt the author in order to appreciate the memoir.  The analysis will be further guided by Judith Butler’s claim that “telling the truth about oneself comes at a price, and the price of that telling is the suspension of a critical relation to the truth regime in which one lives” (Giving an Account of Oneself pp. 121-122). The article will thus argue that the enormous success that the memoir has enjoyed in the United States is, to a large extent, dependent on its uncritical acceptance of an “American” regime of truth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015
Series
Reimagining Ireland, ISSN 1662-9094 ; 67
Keywords
subject positions, Irish and American identity, Frank McCourt, regimes of truth, literary awards
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Culture, Identity and Representations, Det amerikanska subjektets rekonstruktion: en studie av prisbelönad amerikansk skönlitterär prosa från 1990-talet
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-20362 (URN)978-3-0343-1896-9 (ISBN)978-3-0353-0751-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-04 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2015-12-07Bibliographically approved
Tegmark, M. (2015). Vad kan den svenska lärarutbildningen lära från internationell lärarutbildningsforskning?. In: : . Paper presented at Nationell konferens i pedagogiskt arbete, Karlstad, 14-15 augusti, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad kan den svenska lärarutbildningen lära från internationell lärarutbildningsforskning?
2015 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Enligt Högskolelagen ska all utbildning vid svenska lärosäten vila på vetenskaplig grund och beprövad erfarenhet. Sedan 2010 stipulerar Skollagen att samma sak gäller för den verksamhet som bedrivs i barn- och ungdomsskolan. Denna statliga styrning har satt press på landets lärarutbildningar att utbilda lärare med god vetenskaplig kompetens för att kunna ta till sig tidigare forskning, genomföra egna vetenskapliga undersökningar samt bedriva undervisning som vilar på vetenskaplig grund. Likaså har gradvis mer resurser satsats på forskning inom skolans och förskolans område för att det som lärs ut på lärarutbildningarna ska vara forskningsbaserat, och nyligen inrättades ett nytt statligt Skolforskningsinstitut med uppgift att sammanställa forskningsresultat som kan bidra till att lärare och förskollärare använder sig av vetenskapligt underbyggda metoder och arbetssätt.

Men hur vet vi att den svenska lärarutbildningen i sig vilar på vetenskaplig grund? Hur vet vi att det sätt vi utbildar lärare på är det bästa? Även om lärarutbildningen har reformerats ett flertal gånger under de senaste decennierna, så har grundstrukturen och omfattningen förblivit ungefär desamma. Och även om forskningen för lärarutbildningen har ökat, är forskningen om den svenska lärarutbildningen mycket begränsad, framför allt i ett internationellt perspektiv. Denna presentation syftar till att presentera ett urval av internationell lärarutbildningsforskning och reflektera över vilka lärdomar vår svenska lärarutbildning kan dra från denna forskning i vår ambition att bygga utbildningar som i sig kan sägas vila på vetenskaplig grund.

Keywords
lärarutbildning, vetenskaplig grund, utbildningssystem
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-21749 (URN)
Conference
Nationell konferens i pedagogiskt arbete, Karlstad, 14-15 augusti, 2015
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2016-06-20Bibliographically approved
Tegmark, M. & Jarl, M. (2014). Besinna er och låt lärarutbildningen vara. Dagens samhälle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Besinna er och låt lärarutbildningen vara
2014 (Swedish)In: Dagens samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2014
Keywords
Lärarutbildning
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-21752 (URN)
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2016-12-13Bibliographically approved
Tegmark, M. (2013). Constructions of transcultural subjectivity: Going beyond nationalism and ethnicity in A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain. In: Irene Gilsenan Nordin, Julie Hansen, Carmen Zamorano Llena (Ed.), Transcultural Identities in Contemporary Literature: (pp. 93-112). Amsterdam: Rodopi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constructions of transcultural subjectivity: Going beyond nationalism and ethnicity in A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
2013 (English)In: Transcultural Identities in Contemporary Literature / [ed] Irene Gilsenan Nordin, Julie Hansen, Carmen Zamorano Llena, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2013, p. 93-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Published sixteen years after the end of the Vietnam War, Robert

Olen Butler’s Pulitzer-winning short-story cycle A Good Scent from

a Strange Mountain (1992) is an imaginative attempt by a Euro-

American writer to come to terms with the consequences of the armed conflict

for the many thousands of Vietnamese refugees who emigrated to, and

settled in, the USA during and after the conflict. The stories dramatize the

internal and external conflicts that the predominantly Vietnamese-American

protagonists experience owing to their cultural and national relocation as firstgeneration

immigrants, or due to their cultural and ethnic hybridity as secondgeneration

immigrants. This essay aims to show how both the form and central

theme of the volume can be understood not only as a negotiation between

American and Vietnamese identities, but also as going beyond the compulsion

to identify self and other along national and ethnic lines. It will argue that

Butler’s text transcends national and ethnic determinations by imagining a

transcultural subjectivity, according to which characters can enjoy something

close to mutual understanding. As will be shown, this transcultural transcendence

takes place on different levels in the text: on the level of the characters,

on the level of the narrators, and on the level of the author. Thus, the text

itself can be seen as an example of transculturality in the sense that the author

 crosses cultural boundaries in order to imagine and narrate his stories from a

Vietnamese-American perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2013
Series
Cross Cultures: Readings in Post/Colonial Literatures and Cultures in English ; 167
Keywords
transcultural subjectivity, Levinas, Robert Olen Butler
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Intercultural Studies; Intercultural Studies, Det amerikanska subjektets rekonstruktion: en studie av prisbelönad amerikansk skönlitterär prosa från 1990-talet
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-21742 (URN)978-90-420-3735-9 (ISBN)978-94-012-0987-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2016-06-20Bibliographically approved
Tegmark, M. (2013). Den svenska lärarutbildningen – en arena för politik eller en utbildning för en skola på vetenskaplig grund?. Specialpedagogisk tidskrift - att undervisa (4), pp. 11-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Den svenska lärarutbildningen – en arena för politik eller en utbildning för en skola på vetenskaplig grund?
2013 (Swedish)In: Specialpedagogisk tidskrift - att undervisa, ISSN 2000-429X, no 4, p. 11-12Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2013
Keywords
Lärarutbildning
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-21753 (URN)
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2016-12-13Bibliographically approved
Tegmark, M. (2012). Studying Fictional Representations of History in the L2 Classroom. L2 Journal, 4(1), 21-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying Fictional Representations of History in the L2 Classroom
2012 (English)In: L2 Journal, ISSN 1945-0222, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

can be—and should be, it is argued—an integral part of all foreign and second language teaching

and learning. In particular, it is argued that the study of literary fiction within tertiary foreign

language education can function as a gateway for students to develop not only a stronger interest

in and knowledge of cultural history, but also a better understanding of the complexity of historical

representation, public memory and self-identity. Drawing on current theories of narrative discourse

and historical representation, as well as the experience of having taught a foreign language course

in Sweden dealing with fictional representations of culturally important periods in US history, the

paper shows how a personal engagement with these “little narratives,” to use Lyotard’s term, can

enhance foreign language students’ understanding of, not only important historical events and

periods in the shaping of contemporary American culture, but also of the importance of textual

representation and cultural “grand narratives” in the shaping of collective identities and personal

subjectivities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012
Keywords
historical fiction, alternative narratives, L2 teaching and learning, critical literacy, American history and culture
National Category
Specific Literatures
Research subject
Intercultural Studies, Det amerikanska subjektets rekonstruktion: en studie av prisbelönad amerikansk skönlitterär prosa från 1990-talet
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-11923 (URN)
Available from: 2013-02-26 Created: 2013-02-26 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Tegmark, M. (2012). Svensk lärarutbildning är bra. Svenska Dagbladet (2 maj)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Svensk lärarutbildning är bra
2012 (Swedish)In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 2 majArticle in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2012
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-21751 (URN)
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2016-06-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9990-5501

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