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Paulsrud, B., Zilliacus, H. & Ekberg, L. (2020). Spaces for multilingual education: language orientations in the national curricula of Sweden and Finland. International Multilingual Research Journal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spaces for multilingual education: language orientations in the national curricula of Sweden and Finland
2020 (English)In: International Multilingual Research Journal, ISSN 1931-3152, E-ISSN 1931-3160Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Both Sweden and Finland have education systems promoting equity and equality. However, recent societal and political changes linked to increased immigration have created new challenges in efforts to support linguistic diversity. This paper aims to explore how multilingualism is represented in the national compulsory school curricula in the two contexts, using the language orientation framework: language as problem, right, or resource. The analysis reveals differences. In Finland, an explicit discourse on multilingual education exists, with an aim of integrating multilingual perspectives into the whole curriculum. In Sweden, however, the discourse is less explicit; and multilingualism as a concept is limited to minority language students. Considering language orientations in the two curricula affords an understanding of the spaces for multilingual education that are key to our possibilities as educators to promote linguistic diversity and social justice in the schools of today’s global societies. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Keywords
compulsory school, Finland, language orientations, Multilingual education, national curriculum, Sweden
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-31816 (URN)10.1080/19313152.2020.1714158 (DOI)000509809100001 ()2-s2.0-85078450432 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-03 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
Paulsrud, B., Juvonen, P., Schalley, A. C., Mellenius, I. & Berg Shamla, P. (2019). Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of teachers on multilingualism – the view from Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at 2019 Research Network Conference: Social and Affective Factors in Home Language Maintenance and Development (HOLM 2019), 9 September 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of teachers on multilingualism – the view from Sweden
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Swedish schools are experiencing new challenges due to increased mobility and linguistic diversity. Efforts to achieve inclusive education for all are dependent upon teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge (ABK) of multilingualism. The interplay between teachers’ ABK and the pedagogical and language-developing practices in schools is defined by four major factors interactively shaping and being shaped by teacher cognition: teachers’ own schooling experience, teacher education, contextual factors (e.g. the organization of education), and classroom practices (Borg 2003, 2006). Against this theoretical backdrop, our study investigates the ABK of multilingualism of Swedish teachers, a key issue in the nation today, as part of a larger international project that investigates what shapes teachers’ ABK of multilingualism across countries. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pre-primary and primary teachers from five Swedish regions (Dalarna, Småland, Stockholm, Värmland, and Västerbotten), representing varied school demographics. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using appraisal theory (Martin & White, 2005; White 2015). Early results indicate that while teachers generally express positive views on multilingualism, echoes of a monolingual mindset are quite strong (“the language” equated with Swedish; “home country” for children born in Sweden; descriptions of a “monolingual” school as the “perfect school”). Teachers with training in language-developing practices acknowledge that mother tongue instruction supports the majority language development as well as students’ overall academic performance. Nonetheless, using all linguistic resources and acknowledging students’ multilingual identities are not common pedagogical strategies. In the school context, Swedish is considered as more important than students’ additional languages, which are often merely seen as an added value not directly relevant to the daily activities in the Swedish school system. Moreover, the findings point to a need for more extensive pre-service teacher education and professional development of teachers, on multilingualism more generally, and on related classroom practices more specifically.

Keywords
multilingualism, teacher attitudes beliefs and knowledge, appraisal theory teacher cognition
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-31488 (URN)
Conference
2019 Research Network Conference: Social and Affective Factors in Home Language Maintenance and Development (HOLM 2019), 9 September 2019
Available from: 2019-12-29 Created: 2019-12-29 Last updated: 2020-01-01Bibliographically approved
Straszer, B. & Paulsrud, B. (2019). Everyday translanguaging and the young child.. In: : . Paper presented at The 3rd Translanguaging Conference: Translanguaging in the Individual, at School and in Society, 2019.04.11-12. at Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Everyday translanguaging and the young child.
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-30866 (URN)
Conference
The 3rd Translanguaging Conference: Translanguaging in the Individual, at School and in Society, 2019.04.11-12. at Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2020-01-01Bibliographically approved
Paulsrud, B. (2019). Ideological tensions: A study of intersections of Swedish policies affecting language in education. In: : . Paper presented at CfP – BAAL Language Policy SIG 2nd annual conference, 30-31 May 2019, University of Edinburgh.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ideological tensions: A study of intersections of Swedish policies affecting language in education
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ideological tensions: A study of intersections of Swedish policies affecting language in education

Education in Sweden aims to promote equity and equality, articulated in the motto “one school for all”. This presentation addresses the layers of three policies affecting language practices in the Swedish education system: the Swedish Language Act, the national curriculum, and the teacher education programmes regulated by federal guidelines. Multilingualism is officially recognised in the Language Act (Språklag 2009), which promotes and protects Swedish as well as the “language diversity in Sweden”, and stipulates that those with a mother tongue other than Swedish “are to be given the opportunity to develop and use their mother tongue”. However, the national curriculum for the compulsory school does not clearly represent Sweden’s long experience and expertise with mother tongue instruction, mother tongue study guidance, and the subject Swedish as a Second Language, despite the presence of over 140 languages in Swedish schools. Instead, a monolingual ideology for a multilingual school persists, exemplified by implicit language hierarchies and little acknowledgement of the increasing linguistic diversity in today’s schools. Vague spaces for multilingualism in the official curriculum place great responsibility on teachers as well as teacher educators. Interviews with pre-service teachers reveal that they do not feel properly prepared for teaching in the linguistically diverse classroom, indicating a deficiency in teacher education programmes. Furthermore, there is uncertainty among teacher educators concerning who is responsible for teaching about multilingualism in teacher education. Thus, tensions exist in the intersection of the Swedish Language Act, the national curriculum, and the teacher education programmes. These three policies have been investigated through policy analyses and interviews. The presentation outlines how the affordances and constraints of the policies affect the ideological and implementational spaces for language policy processes, with a consideration of the implications for multilingual practices in the Swedish compulsory school.

 

Swedish Language Act (2009). Språklag 2009:600.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-31486 (URN)
Conference
CfP – BAAL Language Policy SIG 2nd annual conference, 30-31 May 2019, University of Edinburgh
Available from: 2019-12-29 Created: 2019-12-29 Last updated: 2020-01-01Bibliographically approved
Paulsrud, B. (2019). Just a little plus: The CLIL Student Perspective. In: Liss Kerstin Sylvén (Ed.), Investigating Content and Language Integrated LearningInsights from Swedish High Schools: (pp. 285-300). Multilingual Matters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Just a little plus: The CLIL Student Perspective
2019 (English)In: Investigating Content and Language Integrated LearningInsights from Swedish High Schools / [ed] Liss Kerstin Sylvén, Multilingual Matters, 2019, p. 285-300Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multilingual Matters, 2019
National Category
Educational Sciences General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27856 (URN)2-s2.0-85061037522 (Scopus ID)9781788922425 (ISBN)9781788922418 (ISBN)9781788922401 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Paulsrud, B. (2019). Mapping CLIL in Sweden. In: Liss Kerstin Sylvén (Ed.), CLIL in Sweden: A longitudinal investigation at senior high school level: (pp. 19-34). Multilingual Matters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping CLIL in Sweden
2019 (English)In: CLIL in Sweden: A longitudinal investigation at senior high school level / [ed] Liss Kerstin Sylvén, Multilingual Matters, 2019, p. 19-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multilingual Matters, 2019
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27858 (URN)2-s2.0-85061055094 (Scopus ID)9781788922401 (ISBN)9781788922425 (ISBN)9781788922418 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Paulsrud, B., Juvonen, P. & Schalley, A. C. (2019). “One used to think that it was more difficult for children with several languages, but it is actually the opposite”: A study of teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of multilingualism. In: : . Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Bilingualism from 25 to 27 March 2019 at the Valletta campus of the University.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“One used to think that it was more difficult for children with several languages, but it is actually the opposite”: A study of teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of multilingualism
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Pre-primary and primary educational settings are changing because of increased migration and mobility, with many classrooms characterized by considerable linguistic diversity. This heterogeneity poses challenges in particular to inclusive education: that is, the aim of offering quality education for all while also respecting diversity as well as different needs, abilities, characteristics and learning expectations. Pre-primary and primary teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge (ABK) of multilingualism are critical factors to achieving inclusive education. Teacher cognition addresses the interplay between teachers’ ABK and the pedagogical and language developing practices in schools and classrooms. Four major factors have previously been identified to interactively shape and be shaped by teacher cognition: teachers’ own schooling experience, teacher education, contextual factors such as the organization of education, and classroom practices. With these factors in mind, our study addresses multilingualism, teacher cognition and inclusive education in Sweden, offering an empirical investigation of pre-primary and primary teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of multilingualism. We employ a mixed-methods approach (semi-structured interviews and large-scale online survey), studying which factors correlate with these.

 

In this presentation, we offer an overview of our larger ongoing project, before moving to preliminary results from the first interviews with pre-primary and primary teachers from varied school demographics. Our focus is on their experiences with multilingualism in the classroom as well as their insights from their own backgrounds and teacher training. Our results are expected to generate new understandings of teachers’ perceptions of classroom diversity and of children who speak languages in addition to Swedish, as well as how these perceptions are shaped and how they influence classroom practices. Thus, our study will contribute to the theoretical perspectives of teacher cognition and inclusive education, as well as offer insights to researchers and educators beyond the Swedish context.

 

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-31487 (URN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Bilingualism from 25 to 27 March 2019 at the Valletta campus of the University
Available from: 2019-12-29 Created: 2019-12-29 Last updated: 2020-01-01Bibliographically approved
Paulsrud, B. & Rosén, J. (2019). Translanguaging and language ideologies in education: Northern and Southern perspectives. In: Brunn, S. & Kehrein, R. (Ed.), Handbook of the Changing World Language Map: (pp. 1-15). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translanguaging and language ideologies in education: Northern and Southern perspectives
2019 (English)In: Handbook of the Changing World Language Map / [ed] Brunn, S. & Kehrein, R., Springer, 2019, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter we examine language ideologies as part of a translanguaging framework in education. We begin with an overview of the concept translanguaging, from its origins as a term in bilingual education in Wales to its development in research on multilingual classrooms mainly in the North American and British contexts. From there, translanguaging has spread as both a theoretical and pedagogical concept used by researchers and educators to approach linguistically and culturally diverse environments, in and outside of the classroom. Hence, the theoretical and pedagogical objectives have emerged side by side and enhanced one another. Employing a perspective based in critical pedagogy, we present and analyze empirical studies from different educational and political contexts to illustrate how ideologies are expressed through implicit and explicit policies in the classroom. The three foci include studies of translanguaging in the early years in continental Europe, in secondary schools in Scandinavia, and in higher education in South Africa. Many studies of translanguaging present examples of classroom practices in multilingual contexts and where English is often the majority/dominant language. However, our aim is not to examine the pedagogical practices per se but rather to explore the language ideologies made visible, negotiated and challenged through translanguaging in the selected studies. With a focus on translanguaging and language ideologies in education, the ways translanguaging may resist language hierarchies and monolingual norms, and instead promote social justice, become especially relevant. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the implications of such ideological stances in education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
translanguaging, language ideologies, education, linguistic resources, linguistic norm
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27725 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-73400-2_124-1 (DOI)978-3-030-02438-3 (ISBN)978-3-319-73400-2 (ISBN)
Note

online first

Available from: 2018-05-25 Created: 2018-05-25 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Paulsrud, B. & Zilliacus, H. (2018). En skola för alla: Flerspråkighet och transspråkande i lärarutbildningen. In: : . Paper presented at ASLA-symposiet 2018: Klassrumsforskning och språk(ande), 12–13 april 2018, Karlstads universitet..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>En skola för alla: Flerspråkighet och transspråkande i lärarutbildningen
2018 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Språklig mångfald i den svenska skolan ställer krav på verksamma lärare, liksom på lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter. För att undersöka synpunkter på och erfarenheter av flerspråkighetspedagogik och utforska om transpråkande får utrymme i den svenska lärarutbildningen, har vi utfört en intervjustudie med lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter. Vårt fokus är på hur studenterna förbereds inför sitt arbete med den språkliga mångfalden i dagens skola samt vilka möjligheter, alternativ begränsningar, för transspråkande finns i lärarutbildningen. Vi vill även belysa hur transspråkande kan relateras till social rättvisa och strävan efter en skola för alla. I studien har vi intervjuat femton lärarutbildare från fyra lärosäten enskilt och fjorton lärarstudenter från tre av dessa lärosäten i grupp. Vi har gjort en tematisk analys av deras svar. Målet med intervjuerna var att uppmuntra deltagarna att prata fritt om just språklig mångfald i relation till lärarutbildningen samt om deras synpunkter och erfarenheter som utbildare eller student.

Lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter uppger att de ser på den språkliga mångfalden både inom lärarutbildningen och i den svenska skolan som central i dagens undervisning. Däremot pekar deras svar åt olika möjligheter och begränsningar, vilket i sin tur avslöjar vilken plats transspråkande kan ha i lärarutbildningen. I vårt paper ska vi presentera resultat uppdelade i teman: först på hur lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter ser på språklig mångfald i lärarutbildningen och skolan, och sedan på vilken plats flerspråkighetspedagogik tar i utbildningen. I dessa teman uppdagas frågor om bland annat bristperspektiv på språk, språkhierarkier, vikten av verksamhetsförlagd utbildning samt ovisshet om vem som har ansvar för flerspråkighetspedagogik i lärarutbildningen. Vi ämnar att föra en diskussion om transspråkande i lärarutbildningen, samt om transspråkande och social rättvisa.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27847 (URN)
Conference
ASLA-symposiet 2018: Klassrumsforskning och språk(ande), 12–13 april 2018, Karlstads universitet.
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2018-06-14Bibliographically approved
Paulsrud, B. & Zilliacus, H. (2018). Flerspråkighet och transspråkande i lärarutbildningen. In: BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin (Ed.), Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang: (pp. 27-48). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flerspråkighet och transspråkande i lärarutbildningen
2018 (Swedish)In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 27-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28286 (URN)9789144119755 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-08-10 Created: 2018-08-10 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9024-330X

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