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Carlsson, T., Nilsson, J., Hellström, J., Tinmark, F. & Carlsson, M. (2018). The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives. In: : . Paper presented at 23rd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Dublin 4-7 July 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

THE EFFECT OF BALL TEMPERATURE ON BALL SPEED AND CARRY DISTANCE IN GOLF DRIVES

Carlsson, T.1, Nilsson, J.1,2, Hellström, J.3, Tinmark, F.2, Carlsson, M.1. 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden), 2: The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Stockholm, Sweden), 3: The Swedish Golf Federation (Stockholm, Sweden). 

Introduction

Previously it was reported that golf-ball temperature has influence on the golf balls’ coefficient of restitution, impact duration, and maximal deformation (Allen et al., 2012). They concluded that their research was the first step in a process for determining the effect of temperature on a golf drive. However, how large influence the golf-ball temperature has on golf drives remains to be investigated. The purpose was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. 

Methods

The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4°C, 18°C, 32°C, and 46°C) for twenty-four hours prior to the test, and each of the four different ball-temperature groups consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the four ball-temperature groups were investigate using a one-way analysis of variance. 

Results

The results indicate that there are ball-speed and carry-distance differences within the four ball-temperature groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The post-hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C had both greater ball speeds and carry distances compared to the balls in the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C (all P < 0.05); the intervals for the between-group differences were 2.0 to 2.4 km/h and 2.9 to 3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively.

Conclusion

The novel results of the current study show that the ball’s temperature has a significant effect on the ball speed after club-head impact and carry distance for drives performed by an elite golfer. The ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C gave significantly increased ball speeds and carry distances compared to the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C. This knowledge could be used to maximise the carry distance and/or to minimise the carry-distance variability related to ball temperature.

REFERENCES:

Allen T, Bowley A, Wood P, Henrikson E, Morales E, James D. (2012) Procedia Eng, 34, 634-639.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27742 (URN)
Conference
23rd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Dublin 4-7 July 2018
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-06-13Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Nilsson, J., Hellström, J., Tinmark, F. & Carlsson, T. (2018). The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4 °C, 18 °C, 32 °C, and 46 °C) for 24 h prior to the test and each temperature group consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine the club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the groups were investigated using a one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated that ball-speed and carry-distance differences occurred within the four groups (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The post hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures of 18 °C and 32 °C had greater ball speeds and carry distances than balls at 4 °C and 46 °C (all p < 0.05). The intervals for the between-group differences were 0.6–0.7 m s−1 and 2.9–3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively. Hence, the results showed that ball temperature influences both the ball speed and the carry distance. Based on the findings in this study, standardization of ball temperature should be factored into governing body regulation tests for golf equipment.

Keywords
Golf ball, club-head speed, carry distance, ball speed, ball temperature, launch angle, spin rate, Doppler radar
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28803 (URN)2-s2.0-85059043849 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-20 Created: 2018-10-20 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Isberg, J., Nilsson, J. & Carlsson, T. (2018). The effect of training on side foot-kick performance among swedish first league women´s soccer players. In: : . Paper presented at 23rd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Dublin 4-7 July 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of training on side foot-kick performance among swedish first league women´s soccer players
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

THE EFFECT OF TRAINING ON SIDE FOOT-KICK PERFORMANCE AMONG SWEDISH FIRST LEAGUE WOMEN’S SOCCER PLAYERS

Carlsson, M.1, Isberg, J.1, Nilsson, J.1, Carlsson, T.1 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden)

Introduction

A high completion rate for passes is important for success in soccer, because longer passing sequences are related to more scored goals (Hughes & Franks, 2005). In a recent study, it was found that female players had a lower pass-completion rate than male players at the highest competitive standard of European soccer, which suggests that elite female players in general do not have the same technical characteristics as elite male players (Paul S. Bradley et al., 2014). The purpose of the study was investigate the effect of a 2-week training intervention on side foot-kick performance among Swedish first league women’s soccer players.

 Methods

To investigate the effect of training on side foot-kick performance, a pre-post-intervention study was implemented where four side foot-kick tests were performed before and after a 2-week training period. The side foot-kick accuracy were investigated when kicking a stationary ball using match-relevant ball speed (SBRS) and maximal ball speed (SBMS) as well as subsequent to a 5-m run with the ball from different approach angles (0°, 30°, and 60°) to a predetermined position, where passing of the ball on the move was executed using match-relevant ball speed (RBRS). The fourth test comprised repeated side-foot kicks onto a rebound-box with continuously increasing passing distance (RRB).

Based on the results from the pre-tests, the players were assigned to either the intervention group (INT) or the control group (CON). The training intervention consisted of six 55-min training sessions. In each session, two rounds of five exercises focusing on improvement of side foot-kick accuracy were executed. Within-group and between-group differences were investigated using paired samples Student’s t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively.

Results

Prior to the training intervention, there were no significant differences between the groups for any of the investigated test variables. The INT group improved RBRS (P = 0.036) and RRB (P = 0.010) during the training intervention, whereas no significant within-group changes were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05). No within-group differences were found for any of the test variables in the CON group (all P > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were found for RBRS (P = 0.040) and RRB (P = 0.005), whereas no differences were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05).

Conclusion

The fundamental soccer skill of passing a moving ball could be improved in elite women players by a 2-week training period focusing on improving   side foot-kick performance.

References

Bradley PS, Carling C, Diaz AG, Hood P, Barnes C, Ade J, Boddy M, Krustrup P, Mohr M (2013) Hum Mov Sci, 32, 808-821.

Hughes M, Franks I (2005) J Sports Sci, 23, 509-514.

National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27743 (URN)
Conference
23rd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Dublin 4-7 July 2018
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, T., Isberg, J., Nilsson, J. & Carlsson, M. (2018). The influence of task conditions on side foot-kick accuracy among swedish first league women’s soccer players. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), 17(1), 74-81
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of task conditions on side foot-kick accuracy among swedish first league women’s soccer players
2018 (English)In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 74-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27403 (URN)000425786500009 ()2-s2.0-85042639268 (Scopus ID)
Note

Open Access APC beslut 8/2018

Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, T., Wedholm, L., Nilsson, J. & Carlsson, M. (2017). The effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling capacity of elite junior cross-country skiers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117(8), 1523-1532
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling capacity of elite junior cross-country skiers
2017 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 117, no 8, p. 1523-1532Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

To compare the effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling gross efficiency (GE), maximal speed (Vmax), peak oxygen uptake (V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak) for elite male and female junior cross-country skiers.

Methods

Thirty-three elite junior cross-country skiers completed a 6-week training-intervention period with two additional 40-min training sessions per week. The participants were matched in pairs and within each pair randomly assigned to either a strength-training group (STR) or a ski-ergometer-training group (ERG). Before and after the intervention, the participants completed three treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, Vmax, and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak. Mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to evaluate differences between and within groups. Paired samples t tests were used as post hoc tests to investigate within-group differences.

Results

Both groups improved their Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.01). For the gender-specific sub-groups, it was found that the female skiers in both groups improved both Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.05), whereas the only within-group differences found for the men were improvements of Vmax in the STR group. No between-group differences were found for any of the investigated variables.

Conclusions

Physiological and performance-related variables of importance for skiers were improved for both training regimes. The results demonstrate that the female skiers’ physiological adaptations to training, in general, were greater than those of the men. The magnitude of the physiological adaptations was similar for both training regimes.

Keywords
Cross-country skiing; VO2peak; double polnig; gross efficiency; maximal speed; gendeer differences
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25100 (URN)10.1007/s00421-017-3621-1 (DOI)000407726800001 ()28597103 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2018-04-24Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, T., Tonkonogi, M. & Carlsson, M. (2016). Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 7, 153-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers
2016 (English)In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V̇O2max (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V̇O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V̇O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min-1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105 ∙ VO -6.002maxand 6.95×1010 ∙ LM-5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043) and 52% (P=0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V̇O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V̇O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher V̇O2max or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these variables to monitor skiers’ performance-related training adaptations linked to changes in aerobic power and anaerobic capacity.

Keywords
V̇O2max, anaerobic capacity, cross-country skiing, allometric scaling
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23398 (URN)10.2147/OAJSM.S116672 (DOI)27877070 (PubMedID)
Note

Open Access APC beslut 4/2017

Available from: 2016-11-17 Created: 2016-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Carlsson, T., Wedholm, L., Nilsson, M., Malm, C. & Tonkonogi, M. (2016). Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(8), 2138-2144
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 2138-2144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and VO2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and VO2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the VO2max expressed absolutely (P = 0.0040), Vmax (P = 0.012), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (P = 0.048), VO2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (P = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.046), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (mL·min·kg) (P = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by VO2max and VO2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

Keywords
double poling; lactate threshold; maximal speed; Vo 2 max; women
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-20469 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000001327 (DOI)000380752800009 ()26808846 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-12-20 Created: 2015-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, T., Carlsson, M., Hammarström, D., Rønnestad, B. R., Malm, C. & Tonkonogi, M. (2015). Optimal V. O2max-to-mass ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 6, 353-360
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal V. O2max-to-mass ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers
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2015 (English)In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 6, p. 353-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (V. O2max) as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for V. O2max among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their V. O2max. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classicaltechnique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for V . O2max to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be race speed = 8.83⋅(V . O2max m-0.53) 0.66 and lap speed = 5.89⋅(V . O2max m-(0.49+0.018lap)) 0.43e0.010age, which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that V. O2max divided by the square root of body mass (mL⋅min−1 ⋅kg−0.5) should be used when elite male skiers’ performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for V . O2max was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dove Medical Press, 2015
Keywords
Allometric scaling, maximal oxygen uptake, cross-country skiing, pacing
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-20467 (URN)10.2147/OAJSM.S93174 (DOI)26719730 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-12-20 Created: 2015-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, T. (2015). The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction Performance in cross-country skiing is influenced by the skier’s ability to continuously produce propelling forces and force magnitude in relation to the net external forces. A surrogate indicator of the “power supply” in cross-country skiing would be a physiological variable that reflects an important performance-related capability, whereas the body mass itself is an indicator of the “power demand” experienced by the skier. To adequately evaluate an elite skier’s performance capability, it is essential to establish the optimal ratio between the physiological variable and body mass. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the importance of body-mass exponent optimization for the evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing.

Methods In total, 83 elite cross-country skiers (56 men and 27 women) volunteered to participate in the four studies. The physiological variables of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to a blood-lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙l-1 (V̇O2obla) were determined while treadmill roller skiing using the diagonal-stride technique; mean oxygen uptake (V̇O2dp) and upper-body power output () were determined during double-poling tests using a ski-ergometer. Competitive performance data for elite male skiers were collected from two 15-km classical-technique skiing competitions and a 1.25-km sprint prologue; additionally, a 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique was used as an indicator of upper-body performance capability among elite male and female junior skiers. Power-function modelling was used to explain the race and time-trial speeds based on the physiological variables and body mass.

Results The optimal V̇O2max-to-mass ratios to explain 15-km race speed were V̇O2max divided by body mass raised to the 0.48 and 0.53 power, and these models explained 68% and 69% of the variance in mean skiing speed, respectively; moreover, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the body-mass exponents did not include either 0 or 1. For the modelling of race speed in the sprint prologue, body mass failed to contribute to the models based on V̇O2max, V̇O2obla, and V̇O2dp. The upper-body power output-to-body mass ratio that optimally explained time-trial speed was m-0.57 and the model explained 63% of the variance in speed.

Conclusions The results in this thesis suggest that V̇O2max divided by the square root of body mass should be used as an indicator of performance in 15-km classical-technique races among elite male skiers rather than the absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression. To optimally explain an elite male skier’s performance capability in sprint prologues, power-function models based on oxygen-uptake variables expressed absolutely are recommended. Moreover, to evaluate elite junior skiers’ performance capabilities in 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trials, it is recommended that divided by the square root of body mass should be used rather than absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression of power output.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2015. p. 58
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1712
Keywords
allometric scaling, power-function modelling, maximal oxygen uptake, body mass, elite skiers, distance skiing, lactate threshold, double poling, sprint skiing, competition, power output, time trial
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Health and Welfare
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-20471 (URN)978-91-7601-270-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-05, Föreläsningssal 6, Högskolegatan 2, 791 88, 14:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Incorrect ISBN in printed thesis: 973-91-7601-270-3

Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2017-10-12Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Carlsson, T., Knutsson, M., Malm, C. & Tonkonogi, M. (2014). Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub‑techniques predicts sprint performance in elite male cross‑country skiers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(12), 2587-2595
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub‑techniques predicts sprint performance in elite male cross‑country skiers
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 12, p. 2587-2595Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose. To investigate the relationship between sprint-prologue performance (using the classical technique) and the oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold ( V˙O2obla), maximal oxygen uptake ( V˙O 2max), and mean oxygen uptake during double poling ( V˙O 2dp).

Methods. Eight elite male cross-country skiers [age 24.8 ± 4.8 years, (mean ± SD)] completed two treadmill roller-skiing tests using the diagonal-stride technique and a 60 s double-poling test on a ski-ergometer to determine their V˙O2obla, V˙O 2max, and V˙O 2dp. Performance data were generated from a 1.25 km sprint prologue. Power-function modelling was used to predict the skiers’ race speeds based on the oxygen-uptake variables and body mass.

Results. There were correlations between the race speed and the absolute expression of the V˙O2obla (r = 0.79, P = 0.021), V˙O 2max (r = 0.86, P = 0.0069), and V˙O 2dp (r = 0.94, P = 0.00062). The following power-function models were established for race-speed prediction: 1.09 · V˙O 2obla0.21, 1.05 · V˙O 2max0.21, and 1.19 · V˙O 2dp0.20; these models explained 60 % (P = 0.024), 73 % (P = 0.0073), and 87 % (P = 0.00073), respectively, of the variance in the race speed. However, body mass did not contribute to any of the models (P = 0.97, 0.88, and 0.21, respectively).

Conclusions. Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub-techniques is an indicator of elite male sprint-prologue performance. The absolute expression of the investigated oxygen-uptake variables should be used when evaluating elite male sprint-prologue performances; if skiers oxygen uptake differs by 1 %, their performances will likely differ by 0.2 % in favour of the skier with higher oxygen uptake.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014
Keywords
Double poling; Sprint skiing; Scaling; V˙O; V ˙ O 2max; Lactate threshold
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Hälsa och välfärd
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-14999 (URN)10.1007/s00421-014-2980-0 (DOI)000344740500014 ()25138966 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7178-5357

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