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Johansson, V. (2018). Killing the Buddha: Towards a heretical philosophy of learning. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 50(1), 61-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Killing the Buddha: Towards a heretical philosophy of learning
2018 (English)In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores how different philosophical models and pictures of learning can become dogmatic and disguise other conceptions of learning. With reference to a passage from St. Paul, I give a sense of the dogmatic teleology that underpins philosophical assumptions about learning. The Pauline assumption is exemplified through a variety of models of learning as conceptualised by Israel Scheffler. In order to show how the Paulinian dogmatism can give rise to radically different pictures of learning, the article turns to St. Augustine’s and Robert Brandom’s examples of language learning, and to general strands in scholarship on moral education. Dewey’s view of childhood immaturity and the problem of adult maturity are used as first attempt at a counter picture to the idea that learning must have an end. The article takes Dewey’s idea further by suggesting how the Zen-Buddhist idea of killing the Buddha and Wittgenstein’s method of destroying pictures work on the dogmatic focus on uses of ‘learning’ that assume ends. In conclusion, the article suggests three possible uses of ‘learning’—learning from wonder, intransitive learning and passionate learning—that do not assume that learning has or must have a teleological end.

Keywords
Philosophy of learning, learning, end, dogmatism, pictures, open-ended
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25601 (URN)10.1080/00131857.2017.1336917 (DOI)000427695700007 ()2-s2.0-85020437697 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-14 Created: 2017-07-14 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Johansson, V. (2017). The State of the Learning Soul: An essay on Literature and Humanities in and as Educational Research. In: : . Paper presented at Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain, Annual Conference, Friday 31 March to Sunday 2 April 2017, New College, Oxford, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The State of the Learning Soul: An essay on Literature and Humanities in and as Educational Research
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
Literature, Humanities, Educational Research, Philosophy, Heidegger, Cavell, Knausgård, Hamsun
National Category
Philosophy General Literature Studies Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24674 (URN)
Conference
Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain, Annual Conference, Friday 31 March to Sunday 2 April 2017, New College, Oxford, UK
Note

In this essay I explore and demonstrate the possibility of a poetical and literary form of educational research, where literature and philosophy can be as prominent as social science, political theory, or psychology. How can educational research can be informed by the humanities, and its methods, or by aesthetic, poetic, forms of expression, to disclose the existential dimensions of learning; or, if it is possible, pave the way for thinking of educational research as a form of poetry in itself? In the first part of the essay I explore how this poetic educational research can be thought of as investigating of what the Norwegian novelist Knut Hamsun calls “the state of the soul”. I exemplify the approach through Cora Diamond’s notion “moral adventure” in encounters with ethically controversial authors and texts, such as Hamsun’s and Karl Ove Knausgård’s autobiographical novels, and Heidegger’s philosophy and notebooks. In the second part I continue to explore the role of the humanities in educational research through a discussion Stanley Cavell’s philosophical autobiography. In the third and final part I give an example of educational research that emerges out the readings of a picture book in order to further demonstrate what exploring the state of the learning soul can involve.

Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2017-04-03Bibliographically approved
Johansson, V. (2017). The Weight of Dogmatism: Investigating "Learning" in Dewey's Pragmatism and Wittgenstein's Ordinary Language Philosophy. In: Michael A. Peters & Jeff Stickney (Ed.), A Companion to Wittgenstein and Education: Pedagogical Investigations (pp. 339-352). Singapore: Springer Singapore
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Weight of Dogmatism: Investigating "Learning" in Dewey's Pragmatism and Wittgenstein's Ordinary Language Philosophy
2017 (English)In: A Companion to Wittgenstein and Education: Pedagogical Investigations / [ed] Michael A. Peters & Jeff Stickney, Singapore: Springer Singapore , 2017, p. 339-352Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

What is it to learn something? This essay is an attempt to give a treatment of our expectations and wants from an answer to that question by placing Dewey’s pragmatism and Wittgenstein’s ordinary language philosophy in conversation with each other. Both Dewey and Wittgenstein introduce philosophical visions and methods that are meant to avoid dogmatic responses to such questions. Dewey presents a vision of learning based on the view of the human organism transacting in its environment and in that way being involved with education without any other end than continual growth. By suggesting possible results of a Wittgensteinian investigation of our use of the word “learning ”, the essay also proposes a twist on Dewey’s theory of learning, which dissolves our need for a theory of learning as an answer to the question. This gives the child a voice in contexts where the word “learn” is used. An investigation of the use of “learn” becomes a method of releasing us from the dogmatic requirements that determine what learning is. Further, Dewey’s terminology comes to comprise examples of possible uses rather than being a statement as to what learning is.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2017
Keywords
Wittgenstein, Dewey, Learning, Ordinary language philosophy, Dogmatism
National Category
Philosophy Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24907 (URN)978-981-10-3134-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Johansson, V. (2017). Wildly wise in the terrible moment: Kant, Emerson, and Improvisatory Bildung in Early Childhood Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wildly wise in the terrible moment: Kant, Emerson, and Improvisatory Bildung in Early Childhood Education
2017 (English)In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to show how Emerson provides a reworking of Kantian understandings of moral education in young children’s Bildung. The article begins and ends by thinking of Emersonian self-cultivation as a form of improvisatory or wild Bildung. It explores the role of Bildung and selfcultivation in preschools through a philosophy that accounts for children’s ‘Wild wisdom’ by letting Emerson speak to Kant. The paper argues that Kant’s vision of Bildung essentially involves reason’s turn upon itself andthat Emerson, particularly in how he is taken up by Cavell, shows that such a turn is already present in the processes of children inheriting, learning, and improvising with language. This improvisatory outlook on moral education is contrasted with common goals of moral education prescribed in early childhood education where the Swedish Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98 is used as an example.

Keywords
Emerson; Kant; Bildung; Early Childhood Education; Curriculum
National Category
Pedagogy Philosophy
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26537 (URN)10.1080/00131857.2017.1389270 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-11-10 Created: 2017-11-10 Last updated: 2017-11-10Bibliographically approved
Johansson, V. (2016). Difficulties of the Will: Philosophy of education through children's literature. In: Amanda Fulford, Naomi Hodgson (Ed.), Philosophy and Theory in Educational Research: Writing in the Margin (pp. 74-82). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Difficulties of the Will: Philosophy of education through children's literature
2016 (English)In: Philosophy and Theory in Educational Research: Writing in the Margin / [ed] Amanda Fulford, Naomi Hodgson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 74-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2016
Keywords
Philosophy, Education, Method, Children's Literature
National Category
Pedagogy Philosophy
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-21724 (URN)9781138899186 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-06-16 Created: 2016-06-16 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Johansson, V. (2016). Entangling Education: Messy Knowledge, Philosophical Perplexity, and Learning to Be in Early Childhood. In: PESA CONFERENCE Conference Proceedings 8 Dec - 12 Dec 2016: Knowledge Ecologies. Paper presented at PESA CONFERENCE Conference Proceedings 8 Dec - 12 Dec 2016, Knowledge Ecologies (pp. 121-138).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entangling Education: Messy Knowledge, Philosophical Perplexity, and Learning to Be in Early Childhood
2016 (English)In: PESA CONFERENCE Conference Proceedings 8 Dec - 12 Dec 2016: Knowledge Ecologies, 2016, p. 121-138Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper begins by reading Gunilla Bergström’s picture book How far can Alfons Reach? Abouta child who is perplexed by the beginning and end of personhood. Alfons’ perplexities about hispersonhood leads him to a realization of his intimate entanglement with the world. This story is usedto explore perplexities and entanglements of pre-school children participating in a philosophicalresearch project. Reading Alfons provides ways to understand how these pre-school children’s playinvolves them with philosophical perplexities that shows how they are deeply entangled in the world,and how they use their immediate environment and local practices to philosophize. The children’splays and entanglements are further explored as forms of philosophical exercises that demonstrateddifferent versions of Plato’s cave metaphor. The paper problematizes Badiou’s hyper-translation ofcave metaphor by suggesting Ibsen’s play The Wild Duck as an alternative translation of themetaphor to demonstrate that philosophical perplexities of childhood can serve as both exercises insearch of truth as well as life-lies. The difficulties in children’s philosophizing these readings of thecave illustrate are dissolved in remarks from Wittgenstein where the cave metaphor’s clear cut truthsand falsities merge into a form of messy “knowledge” of ordinary life. Exploring children’sphilosophizing through Alfon’s perplexities, play, and the cave metaphor lead to a philosophicalpedagogy that messes with our understanding of ontology, epistemology and ethics. In our engagementwith these children ontology, epistemology, and ethics becomes an intimate entanglement with theworld, not as a doctrine or a theory, but as a practice of being in the world by turning to the ordinary.In such a practice ontology, epistemology, and ethics, merge into a form of being as acting entangledwith the world and others, a lived philosophy, a philosophical pedagogy that becomes a practice ofliving entangled with children.

Keywords
Philosophy for children, entanglement, Ibsen, Plato, Wittgenstein, Pre-school, Early childhood
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23793 (URN)978-1-5262-0662-6 (ISBN)
Conference
PESA CONFERENCE Conference Proceedings 8 Dec - 12 Dec 2016, Knowledge Ecologies
Available from: 2016-12-30 Created: 2016-12-30 Last updated: 2017-01-01Bibliographically approved
Johansson, V. (2016). Imaginative Learning: Play, Picture Books and Philosophy in Early Childhood. In: : . Paper presented at Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA) 46th Annual Conference 2016 Knowledge Ecologies, Warwick Hotel, Coral Coast, Fiji, Dec 8 - Dec 12, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Imaginative Learning: Play, Picture Books and Philosophy in Early Childhood
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper (or presentation) is centred on a project in Scandinavian pre-schools and studies ways in which young children brings philosophical themes from picture books into their own play. The paper explores three aspects of learning that goes on in these contexts: First, how children, like recent literary humanist (Harrison 2015, Gaskin 2014, Gibson 2007), can use fiction, as an extra- realistic space, to engage in philosophical investigations and create philosophical experiences about life. Second, the paper account for the role of the non-instrumental ways in which children’s play with themes from the picture books. Third, the paper accounts for ways in which the children in the project play with rather than discuss or systematically explore philosophical themes. This way of philosophizing by playing in fictitious spaces is related to Wittgenstein’s ways of “imagining possibilities” through fictitious examples as a method of making philosophy a form of grammatical investigations (Savickey 2011, 2015). The paper concludes in a discussion of what an epistemology of learning philosophy can consist in by sketching out an epistemology of play emerging in the encounter with children’s play with fictitious themes. Moreover, this epistemological sketch demonstrate how philosophy can inform pedagogical encounters with children’s play readings of literature at the same time as children play with philosophical themes in fictitious spaces transforms the same philosophical accounts. The paper shows how childhood speaks back to philosophy (Kohan 2014).

Keywords
Philosophy for children, early childhood, picture books, learning
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23795 (URN)
Conference
Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA) 46th Annual Conference 2016 Knowledge Ecologies, Warwick Hotel, Coral Coast, Fiji, Dec 8 - Dec 12, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-30 Created: 2016-12-30 Last updated: 2017-01-01Bibliographically approved
Johansson, V. (2016). Passionate Immediacy: Wittgenstein and Cavell on Desire in Children’s Philosophizing and Early Childhood Education. In: : . Paper presented at Education and the Figure of the Child in Wittgenstein and Cavell, University of Lausanne, Switzerland, 11 & 12 March 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passionate Immediacy: Wittgenstein and Cavell on Desire in Children’s Philosophizing and Early Childhood Education
2016 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the philosophy of young children’s. How can philosophy happen

in early childhood (education)? What can philosophy look like in early childhood

education? What does it mean to hear philosophy in young children’s expression?

What kind of listening does it require? In order to explore such questions I will turn

to the ordinary language philosophy of Austin, Wittgenstein and Stanley Cavell. In

Cavell’s discussion of Austin’s elaboration on the notion of performative utterances

he suggest a passionate dimension of philosophizing that involves not just “the

responsibility of implication”, as Cavell puts it, but also “the rights of desire”. I shall

suggest that in order to see the philosophical aspects of children’s questions and

expressions we need to look beyond mere words, look at how children’s expressions

are used and the several uses they have, involving understanding the context, the

place, and the body as expressions used for philosophical inquiry. Going on from

Cavell, I will suggest that there are passionate dimensions of children’s philosophical

expressions that call for improvisatory responses, a pedagogy of immediacy.

Keywords
Philosophy for children, early childhood, pre-school, passion, immediacy, Wittgenstein, Cavell
National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23796 (URN)
Conference
Education and the Figure of the Child in Wittgenstein and Cavell, University of Lausanne, Switzerland, 11 & 12 March 2016
Available from: 2016-12-30 Created: 2016-12-30 Last updated: 2017-01-01Bibliographically approved
Johansson, V. (2015). Questions from the Rough Ground: Teaching, Autobiography and the Cosmopolitan ‘‘I’’. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 34(5), 441-458
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Questions from the Rough Ground: Teaching, Autobiography and the Cosmopolitan ‘‘I’’
2015 (English)In: Studies in Philosophy and Education, ISSN 0039-3746, E-ISSN 1573-191X, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 441-458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article I explore how cosmopolitanism can be a challenge for ordinary language philosophy. I also explore cosmopolitan aspects of Stanley Cavell’s ordinary language philosophy. Beginning by considering the moral aspects of cosmopolitanism and some examples of discussions of cosmopolitanism in philosophy of education, I turn to the scene of instruction in Wittgenstein and to Stanley Cavell’s emphasis on the role of autobiography in philosophy. The turn to the autobiographical dimension of ordinary language philosophy, especially its use of “I” and “We”, becomes a way to work on the tension between the particular and the universal claims of cosmopolitanism. I show that the autobiographical aspects of philosophy and the philosophical significance of autobiographical writing in ordinary language philosophy can be seen as a test of representativeness—a test of the ground upon which one stands when saying “I”, “We” and “You.”

National Category
Philosophy, Ethics and Religion Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-19232 (URN)10.1007/s11217-014-9446-z (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Roth, K., Gustafsson, M. & Johansson, V. (2014). Introduction: Perfectionism and Education: Kant and Cavell on Ethics and Aesthetics in Society. The Journal of Aesthetic Education, 48(3), 1-4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction: Perfectionism and Education: Kant and Cavell on Ethics and Aesthetics in Society
2014 (English)In: The Journal of Aesthetic Education, ISSN 0021-8510, E-ISSN 1543-7809, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Kant, Cavell, Aesthetics, Ethics, Philosophy of Education
National Category
Pedagogy Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-19222 (URN)000342261900001 ()
Available from: 2014-09-09 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0298-3832

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