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Blackman, Corey
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Blackman, C., Gluesenkamp, K. R., Malhotra, M. & Yang, Z. (2019). Study of optimal sizing for residential sorption heat pump system. Applied Thermal Engineering, 150(5), 421-432
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of optimal sizing for residential sorption heat pump system
2019 (English)In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 150, no 5, p. 421-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gas-driven sorption heat pumps (GDSHP) show significant potential to reduce primary energy use, associated emissions and energy costs for space heating and domestic hot water production in residential applications. This study considered a bivalent heating system consisting of a sorption heat pump and a condensing boiler, and focuses on the optimal heating capacity of each of these components relative to each other. Two bivalent systems were considered: one based on a solid chemisorption cycle (GDSHPA), and one based on a resorption cycle (GDSHPB). Simulations of year-round space heating loads for two single family houses, one in New York and the other Minnesota, were carried out and the seasonal gas coefficient of performance (SGCOP) calculated. The sorption heat pump’s design heating capacity as a fraction of the bivalent system’s total heating capacity was varied from 0 to 100%. Results show that SGCOP was effectively constant for sorption heat pump design capacity greater than 41% of the peak bivalent GDSHPA design capacity in Minnesota, and 32% for GDSHPB. In New York, these values were 42% and 34% for GDSHPA and GDSHPB respectively. Payback period was also evaluated based on postulated sorption heat pump component costs. The fastest payback was achieved with sorption heat pump design capacity between 22–44%.

Keywords
Sorption heat pump, sizing, residential, bivalent
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-29258 (URN)10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.12.151 (DOI)000462418200037 ()2-s2.0-85059855024 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
Zhu, C., Gluesenkamp, K. R., Yang, Z. & Blackman, C. (2019). Unified thermodynamic model to calculate COP of diverse sorption heat pump cycles: Adsorption, absorption, resorption, and multistep crystalline reactions. International journal of refrigeration, 99, 382-392
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unified thermodynamic model to calculate COP of diverse sorption heat pump cycles: Adsorption, absorption, resorption, and multistep crystalline reactions
2019 (English)In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 99, p. 382-392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A straightforward thermodynamic model is developed in this work to analyze the efficiency limit of diverse sorption systems. A method is presented to quantify the dead thermal mass of heat exchangers Solid and liquid sorbents based on chemisorption or physical adsorption are accommodated. Four possible single-effect configurations are considered: basic absorption or adsorption (separate desorber, absorber, condenser, and evaporator); separate condenser/evaporator (two identical sorbent-containing reactors with a condenser and a separate direct expansion evaporator); combined condenser/evaporator (one salt-containing reactor with a combined condenser/evaporator module); and resorption (two sorbent-containing reactors, each with a different sorbent). The analytical model was verified against an empirical heat and mass transfer model derived from component experimental results. It was then used to evaluate and determine the optimal design for an ammoniate salt-based solid/gas sorption heat pump for a space heating application. The effects on system performance were evaluated with respect to different working pairs, dead thermal mass factors, and system operating temperatures. The effect of reactor dead mass as well as heat recovery on system performance was also studied for each configuration. Based on the analysis in this work, an ammonia resorption cycle using LiCl/NaBr as the working pair was found to be the most suitable single-effect cycle for space heating applications. The maximum cycle heating coefficient of performance for the design conditions was 1.50 with 50% heat recovery and 1.34 without heat recovery.

Keywords
Resorption, Ammonia, Sorption heat pump, Dead thermal mass, Analytical, Heat recovery
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-29227 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2018.12.021 (DOI)000461334900038 ()2-s2.0-85060929731 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-12-29 Created: 2018-12-29 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Blackman, C. (2017). Experimental Evaluation and Concept Demonstration of a Novel Modular Gas-Driven Sorption Heat Pump. In: : . Paper presented at 12th IEA Heat Pump Conference, Rotterdam 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evaluation and Concept Demonstration of a Novel Modular Gas-Driven Sorption Heat Pump
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gas-driven sorption heat pumps (GDSHPs) exhibit possibilities in the reduction of energy use and environmental impact of heating systems that utilise natural gas. By utilising renewable thermal energy from the environment, that is, air, ground or water sources, significant reduction of primary energy use can be achieved. However, high cost, low coefficient of performance (COP) and large volume per unit thermal power produced have limited the proliferation of GDSHPs. In this work, exploiting the benefits of reversible chemical reactions in sorption systems, with no internal moving parts, noise, vibration and maintenance-free reactor design, two novel modular prototype sorption components were developed and evaluated experimentally. They were designed to operate as part of an intermittent cycle GDSHP to deliver heat directly to a load or to a stratified hot water store. Prototype 1 was an ammonia-salt basic sorption unit while prototype 2 was an ammonia-salt resorption unit both employing proprietary composite sorbent materials. Test results showed that the prototype 2 reactor produced a specific heating capacity of 46 W/litre at a temperature lift of 50°C yielding a COP of 1.38. Prototype 1 demonstrated higher heating capacity of 73 W/litre at a temperature lift of 70°C but exhibited lower COP of 1.10. Given its higher COP but lower temperature lift, prototype 2 could be employed in a GDSHP designed for moderate heating demands or where a ground source heat exchanger is employed as the low temperature heat source. In the case where a higher temperature lift is required, for example, for an air-source GDSHP unit then the prototype 1 design would be more applicable.

Keywords
Gas-driven sorption heat pump, sorption module, advanced sorption cycle, resorption, absorption
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26830 (URN)
Conference
12th IEA Heat Pump Conference, Rotterdam 2017
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
Blackman, C. (2017). Study of Optimal Sizing for Residential Sorption Heat Pump System. In: : . Paper presented at ISHPC 2017 International Sorption Heat Pump Conference, 7-10 August 2017, Tokyo.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of Optimal Sizing for Residential Sorption Heat Pump System
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gas-driven sorption heat pumps (GDSHP) show significant potential to reduce primary energy use, associated emissions and energy costs for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) production in residential applications. In this study a bivalent system was considered, characterised by the integration of a novel modular sorption heat pump component and a condensing boiler. The modular heat pump component, or sorption module (SM), has been developed in two types: Type A and Type B, either of which could be integrated into a bivalent GDSHP system. The Type A sorption module had a functioning principle based on a solid chemisorption cycle, while Type B operates under a resorption cycle. To investigate the applicability of each SM type, a bivalent GDSHP system with a Type A SM (GDSHPA) and one with a Type B SM (GDSHPB) were evaluated. Simulations of year-round space heating loads for two single family houses, one in New York and the other Minnesota, were carried out and the seasonal gas coefficient of performance (SGCOP) for each GDSHP system calculated. The impact of the ratio of the design heating capacity of the SM compared to the peak heating capacity of the bivalent GDSHP was studied. Results show that SGCOP was not significantly affected for SM design heating capacity ratios greater than 66% of the peak GDSHPA design capacity in Minnesota, and 21% for GDSHPB. In New York, the ratios were 55% and 35% for GDSHPA and GDSHPB respectively.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26833 (URN)
Conference
ISHPC 2017 International Sorption Heat Pump Conference, 7-10 August 2017, Tokyo
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
Blackman, C. (2017). Test Platform and Methodology for Model Parameter Identification of Sorption Heat Pump Modules. In: : . Paper presented at ISHPC 2017 International Sorption Heat Pump Conference, 7-10 August 2017, Tokyo.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Test Platform and Methodology for Model Parameter Identification of Sorption Heat Pump Modules
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sorption heat pumps are employed in various heat-driven cooling and heat pumping applications. These heat pumps may be driven by solar energy, natural gas, biogas, geothermal energy or waste heat. Given that a plethora of heat sources and sorption materials can be exploited for different applications, various sorption heat pump modules have been developed. The sorption modules are pre-engineered sorption components for increased ease of sorption system development, improved cost effectiveness and reduced system complexity for various applications. However, in the design of sorption modules, component and system modelling and simulation are useful in the process of determining the optimal candidate of several possible sorption working couples for a given application. A test platform has been developed and a test methodology devised for the rapid characterisation of the transient behaviour of the sorption modules. The testing apparatus was used to derive various model parameters to be used for validation of a dynamic sorption module component model. The test method was analogous to that employed for dynamic testing and performance modelling of electrochemical accumulators (i.e. electric batteries) given the similarities between them and sorption modules (also known as thermochemical accumulators). The model parameter identification was based on various heating and cooling power performance parameters as a function of state of charge (SoC) of the sorption modules. A 7-step procedure was used to characterise the performance of the sorption modules based on experimental data. A reference performance for charge and discharge of the sorption modules was measured followed by several measurements at ‘off-reference’ conditions. Performance curves for ‘off-reference’ conditions were then correlated to reference conditions to generate performance curves that describe the transient cooling and heating power delivery of the sorption module at any point within the test range. Results showed that the discharge performance of the sorption modules could be predicted within a reasonable margin of error with a test run sequence of 39 cycles.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26832 (URN)
Conference
ISHPC 2017 International Sorption Heat Pump Conference, 7-10 August 2017, Tokyo
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
Blackman, C., Bales, C. & Thorin, E. (2015). Techno-economic evaluation of solar-assisted heating and cooling systems with sorption module integrated solar collectors. Paper presented at 3rd International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry (SHC), OCT 13-15, 2014, Beijing, China. Energy Procedia, 70, 409-417
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic evaluation of solar-assisted heating and cooling systems with sorption module integrated solar collectors
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 70, p. 409-417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Currently the use of solar energy for heating and cooling isn't widespread. In order to reduce primary energy consumption in the built environment along with improving the thermal performance of the current building stock, retrofit solutions are required to utilise renewable energy. Using solar energy to reduce primary energy consumption is seen as a possible solution. With the precipitous fall in the prices of crystalline solar photovoltaic modules, utilising this technology to reduce electrical energy consumption for cooling is an attractive solution. Recently, a sorption module integrated collector has been developed in order to improve cost-effectiveness and simplify solar thermal heating and cooling systems. A techno-economic analysis has been performed to evaluate solar photovoltaic cooling and solar thermal cooling systems for residential renewable energy retrofit. The analysis is based on potential energy and cost savings according to simulated heating and cooling loads under climatic conditions of Madrid, Spain. Simplified models were used to determine heating and cooling demands and the solar energy contribution to heating and cooling loads. Additionally, given the sorption collector's unique capacity to store solar energy thermally and provide cooling at night an analysis has been carried out to identify the combined benefit of solar-assisted heating and cooling via photovoltaics during the day and solar sorption at night. For system sizes between 5m(2) and 20m(2) solar fractions between 16% and 64% could be achieved which translated to annual energy cost savings between (sic)153 to (sic)615. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords
solar cooling, sorption, photvoltaic, solar heating
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-19011 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.02.142 (DOI)000358196500051 ()
Conference
3rd International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry (SHC), OCT 13-15, 2014, Beijing, China
Available from: 2015-08-14 Created: 2015-08-14 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
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