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Lidberg, T., Gustafsson, M., Myhren, J. A., Olofsson, T. & Ödlund, L. (2018). Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems. Applied Energy, 227(SI), 231-238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, no SI, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m2 of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

Keywords
District heating; Primary energy; Energy refurbishment; Building simulation; Multi-family house
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25709 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.022 (DOI)000445987200025 ()2-s2.0-85026287103 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
Lidberg, T., Gustafsson, M., Myhren, J. A., Olofsson, T. & Trygg, L. (2017). Comparing different building energy efficiency refurbishment packages performed within different district heating systems. Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2016; Beijing; China. Energy Procedia, 105, 1719-1724
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing different building energy efficiency refurbishment packages performed within different district heating systems
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2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1719-1724Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyses the differences in primary energy (PE) use of a multi-family building refurbished with different refurbishment packages situated in different district heating systems (DHS). Four models of typical DHS are defined to represent the Swedish DH sector. The refurbishment packages are chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency of a representative multi-family building in Sweden. The study was made from a broad system perspective, including valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in PE savings for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of DHS. Also, the package giving the lowest specific energy use per m2 was not the one which saved the most PE. © 2017 The Authors.

Keywords
building simulation, District heating, energy efficient refurbishment, multi-family building, primary energy
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25604 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.492 (DOI)2-s2.0-85020745626 (Scopus ID)
Conference
8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2016; Beijing; China
Available from: 2017-07-15 Created: 2017-07-15 Last updated: 2018-05-29Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, M., Dipasquale, C., Poppi, S., Bellini, A., Fedrizzi, R., Bales, C., . . . Holmberg, S. (2017). Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation packages for European office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 148, 155-165
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation packages for European office buildings
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2017 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 148, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A large share of the buildings in Europe are old and in need of renovation, both in terms of functional repairs and energy efficiency. While many studies have addressed energy renovation of buildings, they rarely combine economic and environmental life cycle analyses, particularly for office buildings. The present paper investigates the economic feasibility and environmental impact of energy renovation packages for European office buildings. The renovation packages, including windows, envelope insulation, heating, cooling and ventilation systems and solar photovoltaics (PV), were evaluated in terms of life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) through dynamic simulation for different European climates. Compared to a purely functional renovation, the studied renovation packages resulted in up to 77% lower energy costs, 19% lower total annualized costs, 79% lower climate change impact, 89% lower non-renewable energy use, 66% lower particulate matter formation and 76% lower freshwater eutrophication impact over a period of 30 years. The lowest total costs and environmental impact, in all of the studied climates, were seen for the buildings with the lowest heating demand. Solar PV panels covering part of the electricity demand could further reduce the environmental impact and, at least in southern Europe, even reduce the total costs. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords
Energy renovation, LCA, LCC, Office buildings, TRNSYS
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25094 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.04.079 (DOI)000404705000013 ()2-s2.0-85019454202 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, M. (2017). Energy Efficient Renovation Strategies for Swedish and Other European Residential and Office Buildings. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficient Renovation Strategies for Swedish and Other European Residential and Office Buildings
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The high energy use in the European building stock is attributable to the large share of old buildings with poor energy performance. Energy renovation of buildings is therefore vital in the work towards energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact in the EU. Yet, the strategies and energy system implications of this work have not been made clear, and the rate of building renovation is currently very low.

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the economic and environmental aspects of energy renovation strategies, with two main objectives:

  • Renovation of Swedish district heated multi-family houses, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and impact on the local energy system;

  • Renovation of European residential and office buildings, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and influence of climatic conditions.

Buildings typical for the respective regions and the period of construction 1945-1970 were simulated, in order to determine the feasibility and energy saving potential of energy renovation measures in European climates. A variety of systems for heating, cooling and ventilation were studied, as well as solar energy systems, with focus on heat pumps, district heating, low-temperature heating systems and air heat recovery.

Compared to normal building renovation, energy renovation can often reduce the life-cycle costs and environmental impact. In renovation of typical European office buildings, as well as Southern European multi-family houses, more ambitious renovation levels can also be more profitable.

Exhaust air heat pumps can be cost-effective complements in district heated multi-family houses, while ventilation with heat recovery is more expensive but also more likely to reduce the primary energy use. From a system perspective, simple exhaust ventilation can reduce the primary energy use in the district-heating plant as much as an exhaust air heat pump, due to the lower electricity use.

Abstract [sv]

Byggnadssektorn står för omkring 40 % av den totala energianvändningen i EU. Den höga energianvändningen i Europeiska byggnader kan till stor del tillskrivas den stora andelen gamla byggnader med dålig energiprestanda. Energirenovering av byggnader, eller energieffektivisering genom renovering, kan därför anses utgöra en central del i arbetet mot EU:s klimat- och energimål för år 2030. Trots detta är det ännu inte helt klarlagt vilka strategier som ska tillämpas för att uppnå detta och hur det påverkar energisystemet, och i nuläget är renoveringstakten fortfarande väldigt låg.

Målet med denna avhandling är att undersöka ekonomiska och miljömässiga aspekter av strategier för energirenovering, såväl byggnadsskalsåtgärder som aktiva system, för typiska bostads- och kontorsbyggnader i Sverige och i andra Europeiska regioner. Mer specifikt har arbetet följande två inriktningar:

  • Renovering av svenska, fjärrvärmevärmda flerfamiljshus, inklusive livscykelkostnadsanalys och livscykelmiljöanalys samt påverkan på det lokala energisystemet;

  • Renovering av Europeiska bostads- och kontorsbyggnader, inklusive livscykelkostnadsanalys och livscykelmiljöanalys samt påverkan av klimatförutsättningar.

Byggnader typiska för respektive region och byggnadsperioden 1945-1970 modellerades och användes i simuleringar för att fastställa den övergripande möjligheten och energibesparingspotentialen för olika renoveringsåtgärder i Europeiska klimat. En rad system för värme, kyla och ventilation studeras, samt solenergisystem, med fokus på värmepumpar, fjärrvärme, lågtemperaturvärmesystem och värmeåtervinning ur frånluft.

Jämfört med renovering av byggnader utan energieffektiviseringsåtgärder kan energirenovering i många fall minska såväl livscykelkostnaden som miljöpåverkan. Vid renovering av typiska Europeiska kontorsbyggnader lönar det sig mer att renovera ner till ett uppvärmningsbehov på 25 kWh/(m²∙år) än 45 kWh/(m²∙år), då den minskade kostnaden för köpt energi väger upp den ökade kostnaden för isolering. För flerfamiljshus i södra Europa kan mer ambitiösa mål gällande värmebehov också vara lönsamma, medan en mer måttlig nivå är lämplig för småhus.

Solvärme- eller solelsystem kan användas för att minska byggnaders miljöpåverkan. Utan subventioner eller inmatningstariff för överskottsel kan det bli svårt att få lönsamhet i dessa system för kontorsbyggnader i Nord- och Centraleuropa samt för småhus. För flerfamiljshus kan solenergisystem dock sänka den totala livscykelkostnaden, såväl i södra som i norra Europa.

Värmeåtervinning och lågtemperaturvärmesystem visade sig båda ha större inverkan i kallare klimat. Lågtemperaturvärmesystem förbättrar värmefaktorn för värmepumpar, i synnerhet när uppvärmningsbehovet är stort i förhållande till varmvattenbehovet. Vid renovering av byggnader med vattenburna radiatorer kan konvertering till tilluftsradiatorer sänka framledningstemperaturen i värmesystemet.

I svenska flerfamiljshus kan frånluftsvärmepump vara ett kostnadseffektivt komplement till fjärrvärme, medan från- och tilluftsventilation med värmeåtervinning är dyrare men mer sannolikt att ge en minskad primärenergianvändning. I ett systemperspektiv kan frånluftsventilation utan värmeåtervinning minska primärenergianvändningen i fjärrvärmeverket lika mycket som en frånluftsvärmepump, tack vare den lägre elanvändningen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 73
Keywords
Energy efficiency, renovation, low-temperature heating, air heat recovery, district heating, heat pump, Energieffektivitet, renovering, lågtemperaturuppvärmning, värmeåtervinning, fjärrvärme, värmepump
National Category
Energy Engineering Building Technologies Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25726 (URN)978-91-7729-401-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-15, B1, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
iNSPiRe
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314461]
Available from: 2017-08-09 Created: 2017-08-09 Last updated: 2017-08-09Bibliographically approved
Wallinder, M., Perman, K., Causse, E., Schröpfer, V., Gyori, G., Grauer, M., . . . Gustafsson, M. (2016). Report on Non-Technical Barriers to the market placement.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Report on Non-Technical Barriers to the market placement
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2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The iNSPiRe project addresses the need for energy efficiency measures by focussing on making so called deep renovations using multifunctional, industrialised kits in order to speed up the on-site installation process and reduce costs. Energy renovation investment is a multi-factor decision and many of these factors are not technical, which is why this report analyses the non-technical barriers to this investment decision. The study focusses on the kits developed within the iNSPiRe project, but many of the findings are relevant for other single stage deep renovation projects. Both the planning and implementation phases are considered. The aim was to develop suggestions for overcoming these non-technical barriers so that the iNSPiRe kits can more easily be deployed in the market.

The report is based on a study of policy documents, the experiences of European umbrella organisations for architects, property owners and local governments as well as on a large number of in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders. Many of the 60 participants were made in conjunction with stakeholder workshops that were organised for specific focus groups such as architects, private property owners, public procurers and the stakeholders of the European Housing Forum. The non-technical barriers have been split into economic, political and social barriers, with most interviewed stakeholders emphasising the economic aspects.

Subsidies are considered by most as essential for property owners to take the decision to make a deep renovation, but stability of the subsidy programs is essential to have a good impact. Low-interest loans are not as favoured. Other key economic issues are the increase in the asset value of the property after such a renovation and the green value of the resulting low energy building. These are both difficult to quantify, partly due to the fact that such renovated buildings are not as yet so common, and vary in the different property markets.

The EU has many policies on energy efficiency that are relevant for renovation of buildings, with the 2010 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD recast) and the 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) being the most important. Many member states were late in implementing these and most have problems with forcing compliance with them. National tenancy laws can also make energy renovations difficult by restricting the possibility of raising rents for. For the iNSPiRe kits, regulations and standards are seen as a barrier in the short term as the kits combine several different functions into one product that are covered by several different regulations and/or standards.

The social barriers are mostly concerned with the tenants, while architectural considerations are also important. In buildings with owner-occupied flats, the decision process for renovation is difficult and even more so when deep renovation is to be considered. In rental properties the owners and tenants have different interests and incentives, leading to possible conflicts. All have uncertainties about the use of multifunctional kits and how well they will perform technically as well as about how much they will save economically.

The report makes a number of suggestions for overcoming these barriers. Especially important for the iNSPiRe kits is training of relevant installers and planners and use of Life Cycle Cost calculations to show the expected benefits over the lifetime of the products.

In each section of the report, in addition to the analysis of the specific barrier, there are sections with specific comments from the interviewed stakeholders.

Publisher
p. 43
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments, iNSPiRE
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24230 (URN)
Projects
iNSPiRe
Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2017-02-07Bibliographically approved
Fedrizzi, R., Dipasquale, C., Bellini, A., Gustafsson, M., Bales, C., Ochs, F., . . . Cotrado, M. (2015). D6.3a Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Method.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>D6.3a Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Method
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2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the primary objectives of the iNSPiRe project was to develop a tool that predicts the energy and cost saving impacts of various systemic retrofit interventions. This tool is now available for all those involved in the renovation of older buildings (from consulting offices, moving through construction companies and to decision makers) to use as a means of selecting which retrofit package will deliver the greatest costs savings and most improved energy efficiencies.To this purpose, we have produced three databases that provide valuable information about the energy performance of a variety of buildings in different climates, based on different energy requirements. These are the results of a three stage process:1. Collection of energy use data (statistics) for the whole of EU 27, the structuring of a building stock database and the definition of reference buildings that represent the most typical buildings of the building stock. Data for six different age categories were derived, including typical construction information and insulation standards for these periods. Seven climatic regions were also defined to cover the EU 27. The structured data are available in the Building Stock Statistics database.2. Derivation of a complete and consistent database of heating and cooling demands in residential and office buildings covering the whole of the EU 27 based on the simulation of the defined reference buildings in seven climatic regions. The simulations were calibrated against the energy use statistics, and are thus consistent with these, but offer the full range of heating and cooling demands for all climates and building types for six different age categories. The results are available in the Reference Building Simulation database.3. Definition of a range of retrofit measures for the reference buildings including climatic shell, HVAC system and heating/cooling distribution. The matrix of these measures was then simulated for all building types for the seven different climatic regions to provide data for the third database, the Systemic Renovation Packages database.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments, iNSPiRE
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-29989 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314461
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Fedrizzi, R., Dipasquale, C., Bellini, A., Gustafsson, M., Bales, C., Ochs, F., . . . Cotrado, M. (2015). D6.3b Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Single Family Houses.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>D6.3b Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Single Family Houses
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2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the primary objectives of the iNSPiRe project was to develop a tool that predicts the energy and cost saving impacts of various systemic retrofit interventions. This tool is now available for all those involved in the renovation of older buildings (from consulting offices, moving through construction companies and to decision makers) to use as a means of selecting which retrofit package will deliver the greatest costs savings and most improved energy performance.The whole set of Renovation Packages in the published database includes results for a range of SFH typologies, from detached to row houses, with different external surface over building volume ratio.In order to compare the same Envelope Renovation when applied to different SFH typologies and climates, we adopted the detached constructions as the basis to define insulation, windows and mechanical ventilation measures that match the heating demand standards sought (15, 25, 40, 70 kWh/m2y). Since the solutions found are the most conservative, lower heating demands are obtained for semi-detached and row houses.The solutions elaborated in terms of window features, and walls/roof cross sections and materials, are reported in Deliverable 6.3a for the whole range of buildings and the 7 climates analysed.In this document we comment the results relative to the reference buildings built 1945-1970, renovated with four generation systems (AWHP, GWHP, gas boiler and biomass boiler) and three distribution systems (radiant ceilings, radiators and fan coils). In order to limit the number of solutions discussed, here we report results only for the detached SFHs. The full range of solutions is published on the iNSPiRe website.The generation plants are hybrid solutions designed to combine heat pumps or boilers with solar thermal and/or PV technologies. These combinations integrate multiple renewable energy sources, thus allowing to reach in the best cases the 50 kWh/m2y primary energy consumption limit that is the objective of the retrofit packages devised.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments, iNSPiRE
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-29988 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314461
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Fedrizzi, R., Dipasquale, C., Bellini, A., Gustafsson, M., Bales, C., Ochs, F., . . . Cotrado, M. (2015). D6.3c Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Multi-Family Houses.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>D6.3c Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Multi-Family Houses
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2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this report, we comment the results relative to the reference buildings built within the first age (1945-1970), and renovated with 4 generation systems (air to water heat pump, ground water heat pump, gas boiler and biomass boiler) and 3 distribution systems (radiant ceilings, radiators and fan coils).According to the buildings classification (see D2.1a and D2.1c), two different Multi Family Houses typologies are identified, small Multi Family House (s-MFH) and large Multi Family House (l-MFH). In the published database, only s-MFHs are included, varying the number of floors (3, 5 and 7 floors) and, consequently, the surface over volume (S/V) ratio.As well as for the SFHs, we adopted a reference S/V ratio as the basis to define insulation, windows and mechanical ventilation measures to match the sought heating demand targets (15, 25, 45, 70 kWh/m²y), that is 5 floors and 10 apartments.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments, iNSPiRE
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-29987 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314461
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Bales, C., Gustafsson, M., Chiara, D., Roberto, F., Alessandro, B., Matteo, D., . . . Sarah, B. (2014). D2.1c Simulation Results of Reference Buildings.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>D2.1c Simulation Results of Reference Buildings
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is the third part of the deliverable D2.1, where the other two parts report on the energy consumption in the building stock in Europe based on the available energy statistics (D2.1a) and the energy policies related to buildings (D2.1b).The aim of this report is to give complementary information about the heating and cooling demands of residential and office buildings based on simulations, so that the many gaps in the energy statistics can be filled and the statistics can be critically evaluated. The methodology results in a complete and consistent overview of the heating and cooling demands in residential and office buildings for seven different climate regions covering the whole of the EU and six different periods of construction, covering pre-1945 to post 2000. In addition, the data for the residential building stock is split into single family houses, small and large multifamily houses, while for offices the results are given for low and high rise offices with 6 or 12 office units per floor.The simulation models have been benchmarked (calibrated) against the energy statistics for each of the seven climate regions based on the aggregated data for the whole residential building stock and then for the office building stock in that climate region (in D2.1a). The methodology derives the aggregated average using weighted averages of data split into periods of construction and typology for both energy statistics and simulation results. The weighting is done based on heated and cooled floor area. As nearly all of the energy statistics are given in terms of consumption, while simulation results were calculated as demand, the demand data were converted to consumption data. One fixed conversion factor was used for heating (average efficiency 0.8) and one for cooling (average EER 2.5). Since the calculated demands strongly depend on the imposed heating or cooling set temperatures, this simulation parameter was varied so that the aggregated simulation result was the same as that for the consumption derived from the energy statistics. The calibrated models were then used to derive the average heating and cooling consumptions of the building stock in the seven climate regions.The methodology has a number of uncertainties, both in terms of the energy statistics as well as in terms of the simplifications and assumptions in the simulation models. During the calibration process a number of inconsistencies have been detected for individual countries and climate regions between simulation results and energy use from statistic data. The mismatches are analytically assessed, showing improvements necessary both in terms of statistic data necessary for reliable energy estimations and data to be gathered in order to guarantee consistent simulations outcomes.Beside the building stock survey completion and statistic data quality assessment, the work is also the basis for the definition of suitable Energy Renovation Packages and Products within the iNSPiRe project. The simulation results will be used to identify which building typologies, periods of construction and climate region have the largest potential for impact on the European scenario. Such information will be used within the iNSPiRe project to define reference Target buildings, as virtual demonstration cases to prove the potential improvements and impacts following the renovation process of a given share of the European building stock.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments, iNSPiRE
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-29990 (URN)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314461
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Kuhn, T., Fath, K., Bales, C., Gustafsson, M., Nouvel, R. & Fedrizzi, R. (2014). D2.3 RES availability survey and boundary conditions for simulations.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>D2.3 RES availability survey and boundary conditions for simulations
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2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
National Category
Building Technologies Environmental Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments, iNSPiRE
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25748 (URN)
Projects
iNSPiRe
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314461
Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-10 Last updated: 2017-08-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6722-3220

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