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Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Huq, A. M. & Carling, K. (2024). Measuring Accountable Information in CSR Reports: A New Operationalization and Analysis Applied to Greenhouse Gas Disclosures. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting, 21(1), 59-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring Accountable Information in CSR Reports: A New Operationalization and Analysis Applied to Greenhouse Gas Disclosures
2024 (English)In: Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting, ISSN 1554-1908, E-ISSN 1558-7940, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 59-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We develop a novel and generic text-based measure to classify and evaluate greenhouse gas (GHG) disclosures. We construct the measure using collocation analysis of GHG-related words and regular expressions. Automated implementation achieved high concordance compared to manual investigations. We move beyond the “bag-of-words” approach in classifying voluminous nonfinancial corporate disclosure. We also outline a methodology that is manyfold scalable and makes replicability straightforward. Compared to past studies, we work with a significantly larger sample of 5,017 reports across 80 countries, thereby dealing with greater complexity and leading to better generalizability. We also contribute to the debate on whether nonfinancial disclosures exhibit accountability or are merely greenwashing. We find a negative trend in accountability worldwide, and firm-level accountability in GHG disclosures is not detectable in a country-level reduction of GHG emissions. Moreover, firms disclose significantly higher accountable information in a civil-law legal environment compared to those in a common-law legal environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Accounting Association, 2024
Keywords
greenhouse gas, accountability, text mining, CSR, institutional environment
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-48010 (URN)10.2308/jeta-2022-002 (DOI)001198272500004 ()
Available from: 2024-02-10 Created: 2024-02-10 Last updated: 2024-04-26Bibliographically approved
Huq, A. M., Zwilling, M. & Carling, K. (2022). ­­­­­Cyber Security Challenges and Opportunities in a Multi-A­­­gent Environment: The case of Swedish Transport Administration. Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna
Open this publication in new window or tab >>­­­­­Cyber Security Challenges and Opportunities in a Multi-A­­­gent Environment: The case of Swedish Transport Administration
2022 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Cyberrisk utgör ett hot mot teknologier, data och individers och organisationers integritet. Svårigheten för organisationer i att skydda sig och reducera hoten har ökat som en följd av att cyberbrottslingar har tillgång till bättre metoder och verktyg för datastöld och systeminfiltration. Detta är i synnerhet sant vad gäller fleragentsystem där agenterna är digitalt sammanlänkade via Internet. Denna skrift rapporterar, med fokus på fleragentsystem, de vanligaste och mest fundamentala cyberhoten samt presenterar luckor och tillkortakommanden i utbudet av verktyg syftande till att reducera cyberhoten. Trafikverket och dess verksamhet ingår i fleragentssystem. Skriften redogör för de mest samtida problemen och möjligheterna relevanta för transportområdet. Vidare så pekar den ut framtida forskningsbehov syftande till att ge vägledning till dem som leder cyberförsvaret i transportområdet. Skriftens slutsatser vilar på en systematisk litteraturgenomgång av vetenskapliga arbeten.

Abstract [en]

Cyber risks are considered as one of the main challenges that harm technology, data, and privacy of individuals and organizations. While cyber criminals tend to use improved methods and tools to steal data or hack into systems, the ability of organizations to mitigate such risks tend to become more difficult. Especially when the organization and various other agents operate in a multi-agent environment that is often connected to the internet. This report highlights some of the most common and fundamental cyber threats and cyber security gaps or vulnerabilities which might be found in risk mitigation tools that are used for cyber defense in a multi-agent environment. The Swedish Transport Administration for example operates in such an environment. The study exhibits latest challenges and opportunities in the transport arena while focusing on unique and specific disciplines related to the Swedish Transport Sector. It suggests future applicative research studies that will yield recommendations to cyber defense managers in the transport sector whose one of the major tasks is to perform mitigation of cyber risks. The study employed a structured literature review methodology drawing on existing scientific scholarship to prepare the report. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2022. p. 18
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2022:03
Keywords
Cyber Security, Cyber Security Mitigation, Transport and Cyber Security, Supply chain Management and Cyber
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-42834 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2022-10-13 Created: 2022-10-13 Last updated: 2023-03-17Bibliographically approved
Huq, A. M., Hartwig, F. & Rudholm, N. (2022). Do audited firms have a lower cost of debt?. International Journal of Disclosure & Governance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do audited firms have a lower cost of debt?
2022 (English)In: International Journal of Disclosure & Governance, ISSN 1741-3591, E-ISSN 1746-6539Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to investigate if audited financial statements add value for firms in the private debt market. Using an instrumental variable method, we find that firms with audited financial statements, on average, save 0.47 percentage points on the cost of debt compared to firms with unaudited financial statements. We also find that using the big, well-known auditing firms does not yield any additional cost of debt benefits. Lastly, we investigate if there are industries where alternative sources of information make auditing less valuable in reducing the cost of debt. Here, we find that auditing is less important in lowering cost in one industry, agriculture, where one lender has a 74% market share and a 100-year history of lending to firms within that industry. As such, it seems that lenders having high exposure to a certain industry might act as an alternative to auditing in reducing the information asymmetry between the firm and the lender. © 2021, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2022
Keywords
Agency theory, Audit complexity, Audit reform, Cost of capital, Endogenous switching model, External audit, Private limited firms, Regulation
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-39299 (URN)10.1057/s41310-021-00133-1 (DOI)000736932300001 ()2-s2.0-85122062262 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-01-11 Created: 2022-01-11 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
Huq, A. M. & Sundberg, K. (2022). Friedman doctrine prevails! Or does it? Evidence from the views of practitioners on corporate sustainability in their firms. In: : . Paper presented at 26th Nordic Academy of Management (NFF) Conference, Örebro, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Friedman doctrine prevails! Or does it? Evidence from the views of practitioners on corporate sustainability in their firms
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-44386 (URN)
Conference
26th Nordic Academy of Management (NFF) Conference, Örebro, Sweden
Available from: 2022-12-19 Created: 2022-12-19 Last updated: 2023-03-17Bibliographically approved
Huq, A. M. (2021). Corporate Disclosures Regulations: Social Solution or a Problem?. (Doctoral dissertation). Borlänge: Dalarna University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corporate Disclosures Regulations: Social Solution or a Problem?
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Regulations are argued to have the answer to solving various social and economic problems that society faces today (e.g., climate change, tax evasion, etc.). However, regulations may instead become the problem (e.g., overregulation). The central research question of this doctoral thesis is “are corporate disclosures regulations a social solution or a problem?” 

To answer the central research question, Papers I and II examine the economic effects of an EU-wide audit reform, the Annual Accounts Directive: 2013/34/EU, on firms and the society. Papers III, IV, and V examine firm behavior to assess the need for public regulation of nonfinancial reporting in the light of an EU-wide reform, the Nonfinancial Reporting Directive: 2014/95/EU, commonly known as the NFRD.

The thesis posits that the current implementations of these reforms in some settings are imperfect and thus costly for the firms and society. It recommends deregulation of the monitoring of financial disclosure, i.e., to allow more small firms the option of deciding if an audit is beneficial for them or not. On the other hand, recommends a different approach for regulating nonfinancial reporting, e.g., sustainability reporting. For instance, regulations that can influence firms’ governance structure, e.g., board diversity. A firm with a diverse board is more likely to adopt a sustainability agenda which is better aligned with the expectations of the EU regulators. 

Stakeholders use firms’ disclosures to evaluate its performance and behavior for various decision making. For example, shareholders, in their investing or divesting decisions; analysts, in making various forecasts and recommendations; or governments, in assessing the need for reforms. Historically, stakeholders commonly used financial information for these types of decision making. Hence, there are well established generic measures to evaluate firms’ financial information (e.g., earnings quality measures and financial-statement ratios). Nowadays, stakeholders are increasingly using firms’ sustainability related information in their decision-making process as well. However, replicable and scalable generic measures to evaluate such information are missing. This thesis develops objective approaches and a generic measure, to evaluate firms’ sustainability related disclosures. The developed approaches for analyzing unstructured text data may be applied to other fields that can benefit from the use of natural language processing tools.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Dalarna University, 2021
Series
Dalarna Doctoral Dissertations ; 17
Keywords
audit choice, audit regulations, corporate governance, corporate sustainability, EU-wide accounting reforms, firm growth, greenhouse gas emissions, machine learning, microdata analysis, natural learning processing, new institutional economics, nonfinancial reporting, survey
National Category
Business Administration Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-38100 (URN)978-91-88679-16-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-11-12, Room 311, Borlänge, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-10-18 Created: 2021-09-14 Last updated: 2023-08-17Bibliographically approved
Huq, A. M., Daunfeldt, S.-O., Hartwig, F. & Rudholm, N. (2021). Free to Choose: Do Voluntary Audit Reforms Increase Employment Growth?. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 28(1), 163-178
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Free to Choose: Do Voluntary Audit Reforms Increase Employment Growth?
2021 (English)In: International Journal of the Economics of Business, ISSN 1357-1516, E-ISSN 1466-1829, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 163-178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-35183 (URN)10.1080/13571516.2020.1802963 (DOI)000570781100001 ()2-s2.0-85091035773 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-10-14 Created: 2020-10-14 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
Huq, A. M. & Sundberg, K. (2021). Friedman doctrine prevails! Or does it?: Evidence from the views of practitioners on corporate sustainability in their firms. Borlänge: Dalarna University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Friedman doctrine prevails! Or does it?: Evidence from the views of practitioners on corporate sustainability in their firms
2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights on the views of firms regarding corporate sustainability (CS) and how the structure of the board affects this. We surveyed the CEOs, CFOs, and Environment Officers of about 850 Swedish firms (response rate 21%) affected by mandatory sustainability reporting after the implementation of the EU Directive 2014/95/EU. The six-transcending ambition levels (namely: pre-CS, compliance-driven, profit-driven, caring, synergistic, and holistic) of corporate sustainability proposed by van Marrewijk & Werre (2003) were used to classify the views of key officers on the sustainability agenda of their respective firms. We find that the drive by firms for higher CS ambition levels is positively influenced by a diverse board (i.e., representation of female board members), and the effect is more pronounced if the board is constituted with a female top executive. Moreover, younger top executives are more likely to have a higher CS ambition level. On the other hand, external CEOs, external board members, and forceful disclosure of sustainability activity (e.g., EU Directive 2014/95/EU) do not significantly influence CS ambition levels, whereas firm size and industry affiliation do. Our findings are useful for top managers and regulators interested in corporate governance issues and influencing the sustainability efforts of their firms. Methodologically, the use of a survey method is an extension to an otherwise high reliance on archival research in the field of CS. Furthermore, the dataset is unique, and the results are robust to various sensitivity analyses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Dalarna University, 2021
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2021:04
Keywords
corporate sustainability; board diversity; sustainability regulations; gender; survey
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-38117 (URN)
Available from: 2021-09-15 Created: 2021-09-15 Last updated: 2023-04-14
Sundberg, K. & Huq, A. M. (2021). Hållbarhetsambitioner i svenska stora företag. Tidningen Balans Fördjupning (4), 24-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbarhetsambitioner i svenska stora företag
2021 (Swedish)In: Tidningen Balans Fördjupning, no 4, p. 24-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-38736 (URN)
Available from: 2021-11-02 Created: 2021-11-02 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
Dar, R., Huq, A. M. & Sundberg, K. (2021). Pricing for 55: Implementing corporate climate strategy in choice architecture through internal pricing. In: : . Paper presented at NEON-dagene 2021, Lillehammer 24-26 november.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pricing for 55: Implementing corporate climate strategy in choice architecture through internal pricing
2021 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The job of management accounting and management control is not only to gather data/information about the company’s or organization’s past, but also to use and develop tools to form the future. While some tools are simple cost calculations to find breakeven points in price-setting, other tools can include far-reaching strategic purposes. Strategy decisions within business that focus on sustainability and mitigate climate change generally tend to focus on specific components or activities (even in the supply change) to make replacements or even cancel altogether. Onus is on the big decisions with major impact. There is another perception of strategy: practices through which strategy is enacted. Less as a grand plan by the top management, and more as a gradual managing that takes key decisions close to the everyday of business life.  With the global emergency of mitigating climate change, an area of near-untapped potential is management accounting. Research has pointed to the importance of middle level management and the role of the controller, where change happens, and problems need solutions. Recently there has been an increased interest in the way internal pricing (which includes transfer pricing) within a corporation can support a corporate strategy on climate change mitigation. Traditionally seen mainly as a manipulative method to avoid tax in multinational companies, there is new interest on the possibility of creating price mechanisms within companies that mimic the supply-demand curves of market economies, for example ways that cap-and-trade mechanisms on GHG emissions can be utilized inside corporations. The concept that underlies market price-setting is scarcity, but rather than using market price as a reflection of scarcity, the interest is in using corporate control and accounting devices to create situations of scarcity. This would create an accounted price on specific goods and services that reflects strategic concerns and a way of implementing corporate policies on climate change into the ‘nitty-gritty’ of everyday business decisions has choices between different burdens on the climate. It is our suggestion that similar mechanisms could broadly support and serve companies’ transition into a circular economy through the design of business choices. The concept of “choice architecture” from  behavorial economics with influence from marketing, most notably with the term ‘nudging’ in order to promote individual choices through design and gradually form norms in a way that would be beneficial to the environment. We want to make the point that the perception of strategizing ties in well with the ideas both of choice architectures and of implementing a circular economy policy in a business. If the concept (or ideal) of the circular economy is a promotion of resource re-use that can reach levels of complete or near-complete containment, then the switch from a linear perspective (of reducing waste, emissions and of not depleting finite resources) to a circular perspective means that ‘only’ megaprojects for re-use and production with lower energy consumption are not sufficient. The realization of the need for re-using spent materials and an avoidance of virgin resources has to permeate the organization. A first step is to review existing survey research of internal pricing that deviate from a cost accounting mandate and instead implement strategic ambitions and outcomes, and among such efforts, focus on those that can support business development towards GHG emission mitigation and circular thinking. 

National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-38990 (URN)
Conference
NEON-dagene 2021, Lillehammer 24-26 november
Projects
Klimatomställning genom strategisk ekonomistyrning. Design i beslutssituationer för att minska växthusgasutsläpp och att utveckla den cirkulära ekonomin.
Available from: 2021-12-11 Created: 2021-12-11 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, C., Huq, A. M. & Carling, K. (2021). Who are the intended users of CSR reports?: Insights from a data-driven approach. Sustainability, 13(3), 1070-1090
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who are the intended users of CSR reports?: Insights from a data-driven approach
2021 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1070-1090Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is extant research on theorization, conceptualization, determinants, and consequences of corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, what firms include in their CSR or sustainability reports are much less covered and are predominantly covered in case studies of individual firms. In this paper, we instead take a holistic view and simultaneously explore what firms around the globe currently disclose in these reports, more specifically we investigate if firms are shareholder or stakeholder focused. In this investigation, we check the alignment of the reports to the materiality framework of Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) which was developed having shareholders as the intended user. To estimate what firms disclose in CSR reports we used the unsupervised Bayesian machine learning approach latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) developed by Blei et al. We conclude that firms target shareholders as the intended users of these reports, even in environments where stakeholder approach of management is argued to be more dominant. Methodologically, we contribute by demonstrating that topic modeling can enhance the objectivity in reviewing CSR-reports.

Keywords
CSR; sustainability; text mining; topic modeling; big data
National Category
Business Administration Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-35829 (URN)10.3390/su13031070 (DOI)000615633500001 ()2-s2.0-85099967041 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-01-21 Created: 2021-01-21 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
Projects
Klimatomställning genom strategisk ekonomistyrning. Design i beslutssituationer för att minska växthusutsläpp och att utveckla den cirkulära ekonomin
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2952-7327

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