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Laryea, R., Farsari, I. & Nyberg, R. G. (2018). A Decision Tool Approach to Sensitivity Analysis in a Risk Classification Model.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Decision Tool Approach to Sensitivity Analysis in a Risk Classification Model
2018 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

A Decision Analytical tool capable of handling numerically imprecise data for decision making is used in this paper to analyze the risk of the effect of data alteration in the ranking positions of country alternatives for food price volatility. Unguided decision making processes would lead to non-optimal decisions with it’s dire consequences on the resources of organizations. The paper is thus guided by the use of an accurate risk classification model to implement uncertainty and imprecision which are essential part of real life decision making processes with computer based tools to overcome the problem of possibilities uncertain and imprecise input data of criteria and alternatives. A ranking of the alternatives is conducted after imprecision is considered in the input data and a further analysis is carried out to determine which criteria is sensitive enough to alter the position of a country in the rankings.

National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28648 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Farsari, I. (2018). A structural approach to social representations of destination collaboration in Idre, Sweden. Annals of Tourism Research, 71, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A structural approach to social representations of destination collaboration in Idre, Sweden
2018 (English)In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 71, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Collaboration is a social activity shaped by interactions. Taking a structural approach in social representations theory, the present research used a cognitive mapping method to analyse and compare the mental models of actors regarding collaborations in Idre, Sweden. Tourism actors share a core system in their representations which develops around packaging and selling of the tourism product to an international market, indicative of a hegemonic representation. Issues of quality, shared responsibility, trust, inclusivity and power were also revealed and should be taken into account in planning tourism and collaborations in the area. Findings indicate that actors hold multiple representations of collaboration, which reflects the social complexity apparent in the tourism destination, and the evolutionary character of social representations. 

Keywords
Cognitive mapping, Collaboration, Social representations, Structural approach, Sweden
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-27620 (URN)10.1016/j.annals.2018.02.006 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046026764 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Farsari, I. (2014). Tourism actors’ social representations of collaborations in Idre, Sweden: a cognitive mapping method. In: : . Paper presented at 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, 2-4 October 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourism actors’ social representations of collaborations in Idre, Sweden: a cognitive mapping method
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The aim of the research is to examine tourism actors’ perceptions of collaborations in Idre, Sweden, and reveal differences and similarities in the way that individual actors value the outcomes of collaborations, in what they consider as important in collaborations and how collaborations in the area take place.  This is examined with cognitive mapping taking a social representations theory approach.

Theoretical perspective

Social representations developed by Moscovichi are about a cognitive system at the social level allowing the members of a community to share a common understanding of things communicate and act cohesively (Nicolini 1999). Social representations in tourism have been used so far mainly in examining attitudes of host communities towards tourism. Social representations in the study of tourism place emphasis on the social construction of tourism allowing more power to the members of the community and thus enabling sustainable development (Moscardo, 2011).

Cognitive mapping offers a method to elicit and analyse perceptions an individual holds about a particular domain. Comparisons between cognitive maps can reveal similarities and differences in the way the domain under investigation is constructed and understood while the analysis of the cognitive maps can reveal values and central constructs in individual cognition. These characteristics make cognitive maps particularly attractive in examining social representations. Surprisingly however, hardly any study has attempted to do so.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a key informants sampling technique together with snowballing, the study identified eight tourism actors in the area covering several types of tourism stakeholders. A cognitive mapping method based on SODA (Eden and Ackermann, 2001; Farsari, Butler and Szivas, 2010) approach using semi-structured interviews was used to study perceptions of tourism actors in Idre, Sweden, about collaborations. Data were analysed using Decision Explorer’s analytical tools. Value, hieset, potency, domain, centrality and cluster analysis were used to analyse cognitive maps and reveal goals, key issues and clusters in the perceptions of tourism stakeholders about collaborations in Idre. Consequently, the individual maps were compared against these findings to reveal similarities and differences in the perceptions of tourism actors.

Expected Findings/Discussion

This is still a work in progress. Results are expected to reveal key issues in collaborations between tourism actors in Idre, as well as similarities and differences in the way actors construct their perceptions of collaborations. This comparison will allow revealing well established notions in collaborations in the area as well as differences and gaps that might hinder them. Results are discussed in light of representations theory to highlight whether there is some consensus in the understanding of collaborations in the area.

Conclusion/Contribution/Originality

Practical implications include the identification of important aspects in actors’ collaborations. In this way collaborations might be strengthened enhancing sustainable tourism development in the area. Theoretical contribution of the research emanates from the studying of social representations in collaborations and moreover using a cognitive mapping method. Hardly any study has used cognitive mapping to examine social representations. This research aims at exploring the use of a specific cognitive mapping method to this direction and thus potentially  offer the ground for more research in the area. Very importantly, with this method, findings are not only based on the content but also on the way actors structure their perceptions allowing a more thorough understanding and studying of them.

Keywords
social representation, cognitive mapping, tourism actors collaboration, Sweden
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23777 (URN)
Conference
23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, 2-4 October 2014
Available from: 2016-12-28 Created: 2016-12-28 Last updated: 2016-12-29Bibliographically approved
Farsari, I. (2012). The Development of a Conceptual Model to Support Sustainable Tourism Policy in North Mediterranean Destinations. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 21(7), 710-738
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Development of a Conceptual Model to Support Sustainable Tourism Policy in North Mediterranean Destinations
2012 (English)In: Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, ISSN 1936-8623, E-ISSN 1936-8631, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 710-738Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainable tourism is a malleable concept that needs to be operationalized for successful implementation. Policies based on firm conceptualizations are needed in order to put sustainable tourism into practice. The present research develops a conceptual model to support sustainable tourism policy making. It brings together, into a single model, knowledge from diverse literature sources and structures it as a system of interrelated components using a holistic, adaptive, and complex systems' approach. In building the model it is the interrelationships of the elements that shape it and underline its contribution as something more than a listing of policy considerations. This comprehensive representation of interrelationships should help policy makers to navigate through the complexities of sustainable tourism and to make more knowledgeable decisions.

Keywords
sustainable tourism, policy, complex systems, conceptual model, Mediterranean
National Category
Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-12065 (URN)10.1080/19368623.2012.624298 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-03-27 Created: 2013-03-27 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Farsari, I. & Mavrothalassiti, A. (2011). Climbing Tourists’ Environmental Attitudes: Evidence from Kalymnos Island, Greece. In: : . Paper presented at Proceedings of the International Conference on Tourism: Tourism in an Era of Uncertainty, Cyprus University of Technology, Rhodes Island, 27-30 April.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climbing Tourists’ Environmental Attitudes: Evidence from Kalymnos Island, Greece
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Kalymnos Island lagged in tourism development noticed in other Aegean islands. It was not before the 1997 that the first climbing routes were engraved. During the last decade, Kalymnos has become a popular worldwide climbing destination with more than 1200 routes in 77 climbing fields. Several commentators argue on the potential of climbing tourism for the sustainable development of the island. Climbing tourism is a niche market of adventurous tourism. Adventure tourists tend to value the environment of the destinations visited. However, little empirical research on the topic exists while no one has examined climbing tourism in Kalymnos. The present research aims to understand environmental attitudes of climbing tourists in Kalymnos and examine whether climbers are indeed aligned to alternative tourism. The New Ecological Paradigm Scale has been a widely used instrument to measure environmental attitudes and the endorsement of an ecological worldview.

National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23778 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of the International Conference on Tourism: Tourism in an Era of Uncertainty, Cyprus University of Technology, Rhodes Island, 27-30 April
Available from: 2016-12-28 Created: 2016-12-28 Last updated: 2016-12-29Bibliographically approved
Farsari, I., Butler, R. & Szivas, E. (2011). Complexity in Policies: A Cognitive Mapping Approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 1110-1134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complexity in Policies: A Cognitive Mapping Approach
2011 (English)In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1110-1134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper discusses a study of policies for sustainable tourism developed at all four policy making levels in Greece using a complex systems approach. Complexity was examined between policy issues i.e. the elements constituting policy considerations. The mental models of policy makers were elicited, built and analyzed by applying appropriately developed cognitive mapping methods to reveal key policy considerations, valued outcomes and perceptions of complexity. Individual map analysis and comparisons of policy making at each level revealed greater structural differences than similarities. These findings indicate a complex domain with various ramifications perceived in different ways by individual policy makers. Despite structural differences, policies at all levels in Greece contained a clear focus on the economic sustainability of tourism, reflecting a rather parochial perspective on sustainable tourism.

Keywords
sustainable; policy; cognitive mapping; complexity; Greece
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23746 (URN)10.1016/j.annals.2011.03.007 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-12-26 Created: 2016-12-26 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Farsari, I., Butler, R. & Szivas, E. (2010). The Use of Cognitive Mapping in Analysing Sustainable Tourism Policy: Methodological Implications. Tourism Recreation Resarch, 35(2), 145-160
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Use of Cognitive Mapping in Analysing Sustainable Tourism Policy: Methodological Implications
2010 (English)In: Tourism Recreation Resarch, ISSN 0250-8281, E-ISSN 2320-0308, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 145-160Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a growing body of literature arguing for the need to examine sustainable tourism and policies for sustainable tourism within complexity theory. Methods which are particularly developed to study complex problems are needed in order to move from conceptualization and theory to understanding and operationalization of the complexity underpinning policies for sustainable tourism. This paper discusses the development of a cognitive mapping method to study sustainable tourism policy as a complex problem which has to be viewed holistically, with ethical implications, and with means and goals being intermingled in adaptive routes. A variation of SODA (Strategic Options Development and Analysis) approach to cognitive mapping is proposed and the decisions the researcher has to make regarding the method of elicitation, the coding and the analysis of the cognitive maps are discussed. This method is particularly useful to study complexity between policy issues as perceived by policy-makers and to build models in the form of cognitive maps. The method discussed here provides rich qualitative information capable of revealing goals, key policy considerations, and their interrelatedness in a holistic context. Complexity may be examined and structured, and policies can be studied as a set of interrelated policy issues. In this way, policies for sustainable tourism can be improved on the basis of knowledge and complexity management.

Keywords
cognitive mapping, complexity, sustainable tourism, policy
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23747 (URN)10.1080/02508281.2010.11081630 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-12-26 Created: 2016-12-26 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Farsari, I., Tomai, E. & Christos, A. (2009). Developing a new method for decision support in tourism: the bridging of cognitive maps and ontologies. In: : . Paper presented at CD ROM of the 4th International Scientific Conference of the University of the Aegean, Rhodes Island, 3-5 April 2009.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a new method for decision support in tourism: the bridging of cognitive maps and ontologies
2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cognitive mapping has been a well known method for the elicitation, representation and analysis of implicit knowledge. Ontologies on the other hand have come into focus during the last decade to formalise, make explicit and machine-readable implicit knowledge. Nevertheless very few studies have examined the joint use of these two methods to improve knowledge sharing. The present research explores the development of a new method which uses cognitive mapping for the development of an ontology to support sustainable tourism policy making based on spontaneous argumentations and the natural language of policy makers. Results are encouraging and open a vast field of research in operationalising implicit knowledge, like the one that policy makers hold. Potential applications in the tourism field could involve e-tourism applications, destination management systems and travel planning tools for tourists.

National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23781 (URN)
Conference
CD ROM of the 4th International Scientific Conference of the University of the Aegean, Rhodes Island, 3-5 April 2009
Available from: 2016-12-28 Created: 2016-12-28 Last updated: 2016-12-29Bibliographically approved
Farsari, I. (2009). Mental Models in Decision Support and Knowledge Sharing for Sustainable Tourism Policy Making. In: : . Paper presented at 1st International Tourism Conference Beyond the Boundary: Creating New Epistemologies, University of West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados, December 8-11..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mental Models in Decision Support and Knowledge Sharing for Sustainable Tourism Policy Making
2009 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of information and communication technologies in tourism has been a rapidly expanding field. However, most of the relevant applications relate to the transaction processing systems than decision support systems, which are designed to handle procedural tasks, such as airline and hotel reservation systems or destination management systems. These computer tools are of little support in decision situations involving uncertain, unknown or conflicting information while computerised systems to support sustainable tourism policy making are rather absent. Different decision support approaches are explored to identify the one that better matches sustainable tourism policy making needs. Research findings indicate that sustainable tourism policy making is a complex domain involving various issues which have to be managed simultaneously with often competing goals. It is argued here that soft decision support systems, based on knowledge capturing and representation in the form of mental models could have an important contribution to the improvement of sustainable tourism policies. Mental models have long being used in psychology, artificial intelligence and computer science to represent complex domains. Cognitive  mapping to elicit, analyse and represent policy makers’ mental models is discussed and findings from a previous research are discussed to reveal the complexity of sustainable tourism policies and highlight the role of cognitive maps to aid tourism policy making.

National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23780 (URN)
Conference
1st International Tourism Conference Beyond the Boundary: Creating New Epistemologies, University of West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados, December 8-11.
Available from: 2016-12-28 Created: 2016-12-28 Last updated: 2016-12-29Bibliographically approved
Farsari, I. (2009). Διεθνείς και ελληνικές εμπειρίες σχεδιασμού (1sted.). In: Μ. Σωτηριάδης και Ι. Φαρσάρη (Ed.), Εναλλακτικές και Ειδικές Μορφές Τουρισμού: Σχεδιασμός, Μάνατζμεντ & Μάρκετινγκ: (pp. 106-126). Athens: Interbooks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Διεθνείς και ελληνικές εμπειρίες σχεδιασμού
2009 (Greek, Modern (1453-))In: Εναλλακτικές και Ειδικές Μορφές Τουρισμού: Σχεδιασμός, Μάνατζμεντ & Μάρκετινγκ / [ed] Μ. Σωτηριάδης και Ι. Φαρσάρη, Athens: Interbooks , 2009, 1st, p. 106-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Athens: Interbooks, 2009 Edition: 1st
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23753 (URN)978-960-390-205-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-12-27 Created: 2016-12-27 Last updated: 2016-12-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4278-3117

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