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Gál, C. V. & Nice A., K. (2020). Mean radiant temperature modeling outdoors: A comparison of three approaches. In: : . Paper presented at 100th Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) jointly with the 15th Symposium on the Urban Environment, Boston, MA, USA, 12–16 January 2020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mean radiant temperature modeling outdoors: A comparison of three approaches
2020 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As a result of both urbanization and climate change, the thermal environment of cities is deteriorating steadily. Thus, urban planner and city officials are increasingly under the pressure maintain livable environments in cities. The quickest and most economic means to assessing the performance of various urban heat mitigation strategies is via numerical modeling. Owing to these advantages, the approach gained popularity over the past decade, as well as resulted in the proliferation of microclimate models. The driving parameter of outdoor human thermal comfort is radiation, which is accounted for via mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). While this parameter is at the center of most outdoor thermal comfort indices, it is also rather challenging to measure and calculate. Along with the recent emergence of microclimate models, the ways of calculating outdoor Tmrt also multiplied. However, beyond individual model validations, very few studies have attempted to compare the performance of different models. Thus, the aim of this paper is to assess the performance of three microclimate models in estimating Tmrt in the urban environment. The reviewed models are VTUF-3D, the Grasshopper add-ons of Rhinoceros 3D and the latest ENVI-met version utilizing the Indexed View Sphere (IVS) algorithm. The adopted spatial resolution in each model were not identical. In the case of ENVI-met and VTUF-3D, 3 and 5 meter resolutions were used, respectively. The Grasshopper add-on was set to calculate surface temperatures at 6 m resolution and view factors (along with Tmrt) for a denser, 3-meter spatial grid. The model assessment utilized data from a 26-hours-long integral radiation measurement, conducted in Szeged (Hungary). The observations were undertaken along the four bounding facades of Bartók Square during a clear summer day in 2016. According to the preliminary results, ENVI-met performs the best when the observation sites are exposed to direct solar radiation. However, it underestimates Tmrt values by up to 10 ºC when the sites are in shade and during night. In general, both VTUF-3D and the Grasshopper add-on underestimate Tmrt values considerably during sunlit conditions (exceeding 20 ºC at times), but reproduce radiative conditions well at night (with errors remaining below 4 ºC). One reason for the above errors is the way Tmrt is calculate by these models. While Tmrt calculations differ in each model, at the core of their adopted approaches is a Tmrt estimation developed for indoor environments---which was later adopted to outdoors. One of the lingering simplification is the assumption of a seated posture and/or the conceptualization of the human body as a sphere. The other transferred simplification is the assumption of small temperature differences between the surrounding surfaces. These assumptions not only diminish the impact of horizontal fluxes, but also depict a less diverse radiative environment.

National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-31994 (URN)
Conference
100th Annual Meeting of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) jointly with the 15th Symposium on the Urban Environment, Boston, MA, USA, 12–16 January 2020
Available from: 2020-02-19 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-02-21Bibliographically approved
Gál, C. V. & Kántor, N. (2020). Modeling mean radiant temperature in outdoor spaces: A comparative numerical simulation and validation study. Urban Climate, 32, Article ID 100571.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling mean radiant temperature in outdoor spaces: A comparative numerical simulation and validation study
2020 (English)In: Urban Climate, ISSN 2212-0955, E-ISSN 2212-0955, Vol. 32, article id 100571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The parameter governing outdoor human thermal comfort (HTC) on warm, clear-sky days is radiation. Its effect on HTC is accounted for by mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). While Tmrt differences owing to different measurement methods are well established, the impact of different computational approaches have not been systematically evaluated. This study assesses the performance of three microclimate models in their ability to estimate Tmrt values in complex urban environments. The evaluated models are RayMan Pro, SOLWEIG and ENVI-met. The model evaluation encompasses both the comparison of modeled Tmrt values with those derived from observations and model intercomparisons with analyses extending to several radiation terms and parameters that comprise or explain the resultant Tmrt. Results indicate that the models systematically underestimate nighttime Tmrt. SOLWEIG and ENVI-met tend to overestimate Tmrt during prolonged periods of shade and underestimate when the sites are sunlit. RayMan underestimates Tmrt values during most part of the day. The largest Tmrt errors occur at low sun elevations in all three models, mainly as a result of underestimated longwave emitted and shortwave reflected radiation fluxes by the adjacent facades. These errors indicate room for improvement with regards to surface temperature estimation and shortwave reflected radiation calculations in the models.

National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-31995 (URN)10.1016/j.uclim.2019.100571 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-02-19 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Zhang, X., Lovati, M., Vigna, I., Widén, J., Han, M., Gál, C. V. & Feng, T. (2018). A review of urban energy systems at building cluster level incorporating renewable-energy-source (RES) envelope solutions. Applied Energy, 230, 1034-1056
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of urban energy systems at building cluster level incorporating renewable-energy-source (RES) envelope solutions
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 1034-1056Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The emergence of renewable-energy-source (RES) envelope solutions, building retrofit requirements and advanced energy technologies brought about challenges to the existing paradigm of urban energy systems. It is envisioned that the building cluster approach—that can maximize the synergies of RES harvesting, building performance, and distributed energy management—will deliver the breakthrough to these challenges. Thus, this paper aims to critically review urban energy systems at the cluster level that incorporate building integrated RES solutions. We begin with defining cluster approach and the associated boundaries. Several factors influencing energy planning at cluster scale are identified, while the most important ones are discussed in detail. The closely reviewed factors include RES envelope solutions, solar energy potential, density of buildings, energy demand, integrated cluster-scale energy systems and energy hub. The examined categories of RES envelope solutions are (i) the solar power, (ii) the solar thermal and (iii) the energy-efficient ones, out of which solar energy is the most prevalent RES. As a result, methods assessing the solar energy potentials of building envelopes are reviewed in detail. Building density and the associated energy use are also identified as key factors since they affect the type and the energy harvesting potentials of RES envelopes. Modelling techniques for building energy demand at cluster level and their coupling with complex integrated energy systems or an energy hub are reviewed in a comprehensive way. In addition, the paper discusses control and operational methods as well as related optimization algorithms for the energy hub concept. Based on the findings of the review, we put forward a matrix of recommendations for cluster-level energy system simulations aiming to maximize the direct and indirect benefits of RES envelope solutions. By reviewing key factors and modelling approaches for characterizing RES-envelope-solutions-based urban energy systems at cluster level, this paper hopes to foster the transition towards more sustainable urban energy systems.

Keywords
Building cluster, Energy hub, Energy system, Modelling, Optimization, RES
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28479 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.041 (DOI)000448226600077 ()2-s2.0-85053078388 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-08-26Bibliographically approved
Kántor, N., Chen, L. & Gál, C. V. (2018). Human-biometeorological significance of shading in urban public spaces: Summertime measurements in Pécs, Hungary. Landscape and Urban Planning, 170, 241-255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human-biometeorological significance of shading in urban public spaces: Summertime measurements in Pécs, Hungary
2018 (English)In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 170, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Shading is shown to be one of the most effective strategies to mitigate urban heat stress, especially on a small scale. This paper presents an empirical study investigating the effectiveness of different means of shading—by sun sails and trees—to improve the local thermal environment during the summer. Three different urban settings were investigated through detailed human-biometeorological measurements in the Hungarian city of Pécs. Our study employed the accurate six-directional radiation measurement technique, and calculated Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) from the obtained data to assess outdoor thermal conditions. Our results indicate that in open urban squares trees can mitigate heat stress more effectively than low-hanging sun sails, installed right above the head of pedestrians. In the period of 9:00–16:00, the average PET reduction by trees and low sun sails was 9.0 °C and 5.8 °C, respectively. Sun sails, installed at higher elevation to shade an entire street canyon, and mature trees with dense canopy had more pronounced heat stress reduction ability, and were able to reduce the local PET by over 10 °C. Our study demonstrates the importance of detailed small-scale field measurements, the outcomes of which can be incorporated into climate-responsive urban design strategies with ease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Shade trees, Sun sails, Physiological equivalent temperature, Heat stress reduction, Hungary
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26610 (URN)10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.09.030 (DOI)000419412400022 ()2-s2.0-85034419012 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-01-18Bibliographically approved
Gál, C. V. (2018). Mean radiant temperature modeling, A comparative model evaluation. In: : . Paper presented at EMS Annual Meeting: European Conference for Applied Meteorology and Climatology 2018, 3–7 September 2018, Budapest, Hungary.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mean radiant temperature modeling, A comparative model evaluation
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As a result of the changing climate with trends of rising temperatures and increasing extreme heat events, urban planners and city officials have recently taken a great interest in improving the climate of cities and maintaining comfortable outdoor conditions in spite of these trends.In order to meet the demand for this special knowledge and to deliver scientific assistance, several numerical models have emerged with an aim to assess the microclimate of cities and their influence on human thermal comfort over the course of the past decade. While these tools differ both in the human thermal comfort indices they deliver and in their numerical modeling approach, they all rely on the calculation of mean radiant temperature—the driving parameter of outdoor human thermal comfort. While the assessment of models lags behind the perpetual software updates and releases, the documentation of many such models is also lacking or insufficient. In addition, a great deal of existing validation studies assess clear cut situations where the site is either sunlit or in shade, whereas conditions in the urban environment are generally more complex. Given both the growing importance the outdoor thermal environment of cities and the role played by these tools, reporting on their performance is of high importance.The aim of this study is to assess the ability of several recently emerged or updated microclimate models to reproduce mean radiant temperature (Tmrt) in a complex urban setting. The evaluation is made against field data obtained by integral radiation measurements. Results indicate that most microclimate models underestimate Tmrt both at sunlit locations and at night, whereas in shade Tmrt is generally overestimated. These errors are related to the surface temperature parametrization, the isotropic sky assumption, simplifications in the reflected shortwave radiation calculation and the incorrect representation of a standing person.

National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28468 (URN)
Conference
EMS Annual Meeting: European Conference for Applied Meteorology and Climatology 2018, 3–7 September 2018, Budapest, Hungary
Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Gál, C. V. (2018). Modeling mean radiant temperature in outdoor spaces: A comparative numerical simulation and validation study. In: : . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Urban Climate jointly with 14th Symposium on the Urban Environment, New York, NY, USA, 6-10 August 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling mean radiant temperature in outdoor spaces: A comparative numerical simulation and validation study
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cities are increasingly under pressure to address the challenges of climate change. One of the most pressing and unifying issue in this respect is the maintenance of comfortable outdoor conditions despite rising air temperatures and increasing extreme heat events. As a means to inform urban planner and city officials, the assessment of outdoor thermal comfort conditions—either via numerical modeling or field measurements—have gained popularity over the past decade. While measurements can deliver highly accurate data, they are expensive and time-consuming endeavors that can only inform us about the conditions in an existing environment on a specific day and time of the year. In contrast, numerical modeling allows us to evaluate alternative urban design scenarios as well as to grasp the spatial and temporal variability of outdoor human thermal comfort conditions.

Given the advantages of numerical modeling and the increasing computational power of personal computers, several tools have emerged with an aim to assess the microclimate and human thermal comfort impacts of urban planning and design decisions. While these tools differ both in the human thermal comfort indices they deliver and in their numerical modeling approach, they all rely on the calculation of mean radiant temperature, in one way or another. Mean radiant temperature (Tmrt), the driving parameter of human thermal comfort in outdoor spaces, requires the modeling of both short- and long waver radiation fluxes. While different calculation methods exist to deriving this parameter, most models also introduce some kind of numerical simplification to increase computational speed. The multitude of numerical approaches in deriving Tmrt, coupled with the high spatial and temporal variability of this parameter, can result in a range of values delivered by these tools. Given both the growing importance of improving the outdoor thermal environment of cities and the role these tools play in it, reporting on their performance is of high importance.

The aim of this study is to assess popular microclimate models in their ability to reproduce the complex radiative environment of cities, as indicated by Tmrt, and to inform to the research and design community about their performance, compared to integral radiation measurement derived filed data. While the documentation of some numerical simulation tools is lacking or incomplete, this paper will nevertheless attempt to shed lights on the reasons behind the disparities in the derived Tmrt values. Initial results indicate that most microclimate models have a tendency to underestimate nighttime Tmrt together with daytime values when the location is exposed to the sun. In contrast, when the locations become shaded, Tmrt values are generally overestimated. In general, these errors indicate issues with surface temperature parametrization and point to the greatest challenge of the numerical simulation community.

National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28469 (URN)
Conference
10th International Conference on Urban Climate jointly with 14th Symposium on the Urban Environment, New York, NY, USA, 6-10 August 2018
Available from: 2018-09-07 Created: 2018-09-07 Last updated: 2018-09-10Bibliographically approved
Kántor, N., Gál, C. V., Gulyás, Á. & Unger, J. (2018). The impact of façade orientation and woody vegetation on summertime heat stress patterns in a Central-European square: comparison of radiation measurements and simulations. Advances in Meteorology, Article ID 2650642.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of façade orientation and woody vegetation on summertime heat stress patterns in a Central-European square: comparison of radiation measurements and simulations
2018 (English)In: Advances in Meteorology, ISSN 1687-9309, E-ISSN 1687-9317, article id 2650642Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing summertime air temperature deteriorates human health especially in cities where the warming tendency is exacerbated by urban heat island. Human-biometeorological studies shed light on the primary role of radiation conditions in the development of summertime heat stress. However, only a limited number of field investigations have been conducted up to now. Based on a 26-hour long complex radiation measurement this study presents the evolved differences within a medium-sized rectangular square in Szeged, Hungary. Besides assessing the impact of woody vegetation and façade orientation on the radiation heat load, different modeling software (ENVI-met, SOLWEIG, RayMan) are evaluated in reproducing mean radiant temperature (Tmrt).Although daytime Tmrt can reach extreme level at exposed locations (65–75°C) mature shade trees can reduce it to 30–35°C. Nevertheless, shading from buildings adjacent to sidewalks plays also an important role in mitigating pedestrian heat stress. Sidewalks facing to SE, S and SW do not benefit from the shading effect of buildings therefore shading them by trees or artificial shading devices is of high importance. The measurement–model comparison revealed smaller or larger discrepancies that raise awareness on the careful adaptation of any modeling software and on the relevance of fine-resolution field measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26611 (URN)10.1155/2018/2650642 (DOI)000423605400001 ()2-s2.0-85045954041 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
Liu, G., Xiao, M., Zhang, X., Gál, C. V., Chen, X., Liu, L., . . . Clements-Croome, D. (2017). A review of air filtration technologies for sustainable and healthy building ventilation. Sustainable cities and society, 32, 375-396
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of air filtration technologies for sustainable and healthy building ventilation
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2017 (English)In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 32, p. 375-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urbanization increased population density in cities and consequently leads to severe indoor air pollution. As a result of these trends, the issue of sustainable and healthy indoor environment has received increasing attention. Various air filtration techniques have been adopted to optimize indoor air quality. Air filtration technique can remove air pollutants and effectively alleviate the deterioration of indoor air quality. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the synergistic effect of different air purification technologies, air filtration theory, materials and standards. It evaluated different air filtration technologies by considering factors such as air quality improvement, filtering performance, energy and economic behaviour, thermal comfort and acoustic impact. Current research development of air filtration technologies along with their advantages, limitations and challenges are discussed. This paper aims to drive the future of air filtration technology research and development in achieving sustainable and healthy building ventilation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Air filtration; Standard; Synergistic effect; Building; Environment; Ventilationn
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24774 (URN)10.1016/j.scs.2017.04.011 (DOI)000406308800032 ()
Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2017-09-07Bibliographically approved
Gál, C. V. (2017). A városi tér szerkezete és hatása a mikroklímára [Urban space and structure and its effect on the urban microclimate]. In: István Geresdi, Ferenc Ács, Balázs Szintai, and Tamás Weidinger (Ed.), 43. Meteorológiai Tudományos Napok. 2017. November 23-24. Mikro- és mezoskálájú légköri folyamatok modellezése. Az előadások összefoglalói.: . Paper presented at 43. Meteorológiai Tudományos Napok.. Budapest, Hungary
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A városi tér szerkezete és hatása a mikroklímára [Urban space and structure and its effect on the urban microclimate]
2017 (Hungarian)In: 43. Meteorológiai Tudományos Napok. 2017. November 23-24. Mikro- és mezoskálájú légköri folyamatok modellezése. Az előadások összefoglalói. / [ed] István Geresdi, Ferenc Ács, Balázs Szintai, and Tamás Weidinger, Budapest, Hungary, 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [hu]

A városok sajátos éghajlata, a városklíma, a természetes környezethez képest módosult éghajlattal jellemezhető. A klímaparaméterek városi módosulásának hátterében a beépített felszínek megváltozott energiaháztartása áll. Míg a városok éghajlata markánsan elkülönül a környező természetes területek éghajlatától, a városokon belül is jelentős klimatikus különbségek alakulnak ki. Ezen különbségek kialakulására alapvető hatással van a beépítettség foka, valamint a zöld területek részaránya. A városokon belüli éghajlati különbségek tanulmányozása mérések és numerikus szimulációk révén lehetséges. Utóbbiak segítségével széleskörűen tanulmányozható a beépítettség, a városokra jellemző mesterséges anyagok, valamint a városon belül alkalmazott zöld- és kék infrastruktúra elemeinek hatása a kialakuló mikro- és lokális éghajlatra, illetve mindezek hatása a lakosok komfortérzetére. Eme ismeretanyagra alapozva megfogalmazhatók olyan várostervezési irányelvek, melyekkel az éghajlatváltozással kombinálódó városklíma negatív hatásai mérsékelhetőek, s a városlakók számára klimatikus szempontból élhetőbb környezet teremthető.Tanulmányomban Budapest jellemző városi beépítési formáit, s a köztük lévő mikroklimatikus különbségeket vizsgálom numerikus szimulációk útján, különös tekintettel a nyári hőterhelés mérséklésére irányuló várostervezési beavatkozások eredményességére az egyes beépítési formák esetén. Az egyik ilyen beavatkozás az épülethomlokzatok albedójának növelése nagyobb sugárzás-visszaverő képességű anyagok, illetve festékek alkalmazása révén. Egy másik jellemző beavatkozás a zöldterületek részarányának növelése, melyet tanulmányomban a lombkorona borítás értékének változtatásával vizsgálok. A különféle beépítési formák, homlokzat albedók és korona borítottság értékek komplex hatásának feltárására az ENVI-met szimulációs software-t alkalmaztam. Az eredmények alapján elmondható, hogy a megnövekedett albedó következtében a napsugárzásnak kitett homlokzatok hőmérséklete – s ez által az épületek hőterhelése is – csökken. A visszavert sugárzási hányad megnövekedése azonban az épületek között sugárzás többletként jelenik meg, mely többlet a nem módosított albedójú felületek (utak, terek) nagyobb sugárzási terheléséhez és ezáltal a városi határréteg felmelegedéséhez vezet. Ezzel ellentétben, a korona borítottság növelése a városi határrétegben a rövidhullámú sugárzás és a léghőmérséklet csökkenését eredményezi. Mivel ezen tényezők hatása a lakosok komfortérzetét és az épületeket érő hőterhelést is előnyösen befolyásolja, a közterületek fásítása a nyári hőterhelés mérséklésére irányuló várostervezési beavatkozás egyik hatásos eszköze lehet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Budapest, Hungary: , 2017
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26924 (URN)10.21404/43.MTN.2017 (DOI)978-963-9931-14-5 (ISBN)
Conference
43. Meteorológiai Tudományos Napok.
Available from: 2018-01-09 Created: 2018-01-09 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Pan, S., Wang, X., Wei, Y., Zhang, X., Gál, C. V., Rend, G., . . . Liu, J. (2017). Cluster analysis for occupant-behavior based electricity load patterns in buildings: a case study in Shanghai residences. Building Simulation, 10(6), 889-898
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cluster analysis for occupant-behavior based electricity load patterns in buildings: a case study in Shanghai residences
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2017 (English)In: Building Simulation, ISSN 1996-3599, E-ISSN 1996-8744, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 889-898Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In building performance simulation, occupant behavior contributes to large uncertainties, which often lead to considerable discrepancies between actual energy consumption and simulation results. This paper aims to extract occupant-behavior related electricity load patterns using classical K-means clustering approach at the initial investigation stage. Smart-metering data from a case study in Shanghai, China, was used for the load pattern analysis. The electricity load patterns of occupants were examined on a daily/weekly/seasonal basis. According to their load patterns, occupants were categorized as (a) white-collar workers, (b) poor or older families and (c) rich or young families. The daily patterns indicated that electricity use was much more random and fluctuated over a wide range. Most households of the monitored communities consumed relatively-low electricity; the characteristic double peak with higher level of consumption in the morning and evening were only apparent in a relatively small subset of residents (mostly white-collar workers). The weekly analysis found that significant load shifting towards weekend days occurred in the poor or old family group. The electricity saving potential was greatest in the white-collar workers and the rich or young family groups. This study concludes with recommendations to stakeholders utilizing our load profiling results. The research provides a rare insight into the electricity-use-related occupant behaviors of Shanghai residents through the case study of two communities. The findings of the study are also presented in a meaningful way so that they can directly aid the decision-making of governments and other stakeholders interested in energy efficiency. The research results are also relevant to the building energy simulation community as they are derived from observations, and thus can have the potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy of numerical simulation results.

Keywords
occupancy behavior, K-means cluster, electricity, load profile, residential building
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25006 (URN)10.1007/s12273-017-0377-9 (DOI)000412512800009 ()2-s2.0-85030838207 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-17 Created: 2017-05-17 Last updated: 2017-10-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4573-0026

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