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Mapping of heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden
Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Mälardalen University.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-3630-663X
Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-9943-9878
Mälardalen University.
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, s. 1434-1439Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The Nordic electricity system faces many challenges with an increased share of intermittent power from renewable sources. One such challenge is to have enough capacity installed to cover the peak demands. In Sweden these peaks appear during the winter since a lot of electricity is used for heating. In this paper a mapping of the heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden is presented. The paper analyze the potential for a larger market share of district heating (DH) and how it can affect the electrical power balance in the case study. The current heat market (HM) and electricity consumption is presented and divided into different user categories. Heating in detached houses not connected to DH covers 25 % of the HM, and 30 % of the electricity consumption during the peak hours. Converting the detached houses not connected to DH in densely populated areas to DH could reduce the annual electricity consumption by 10 %, and the electricity consumption during the peak hours by 20 %.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2017. Vol. 105, s. 1434-1439
Emneord [en]
District heating ;heat market ;electrical power balance ;combined heat and power ;detached houses ;electricity consumption
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Energi, skog och byggd miljö
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-23586DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.534OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-23586DiVA, id: diva2:1056745
Konferanse
8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2016, 8-11 October 2016, Beijing, China
Forskningsfinansiär
Knowledge FoundationTilgjengelig fra: 2016-12-15 Laget: 2016-12-15 Sist oppdatert: 2019-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. The impact on the energy system of heating demands in buildings: A case study on district heating and electricity for heating in Falun, Sweden
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The impact on the energy system of heating demands in buildings: A case study on district heating and electricity for heating in Falun, Sweden
2017 (engelsk)Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency measures in buildings are considered to have great potential in order to reduce total energy consumption, and thus contribute to a reduced environmental impact and a better climate. In Sweden, however, the energy performance requirements for buildings are formulated in terms of bought energy, i.e. as bought electricity and district heating (DH), which does not always reflect the environmental and climate impact from a broader perspective. Focusing on bought energy means that many choose an electricity-based heat pump solution in their building instead of DH, since heat pumps result in a smaller amount of bought energy compared to DH.

The surrounding energy system of the buildings is affected by the choice of energy carriers used for heating. How the energy system is affected is studied in this thesis using two different methods. In the first part, primary energy consumption has been calculated for a simulated building with different heating solutions, representing different electricity and DH demands. In the second part, the impact on total consumption in the surrounding power and DH networks due to different market shares of electricity-based heating and DH has been studied. The second part also includes an analysis of the potential to produce electricity using combined heat and power (CHP) in different scenarios depending on the market share of DH. This part has been carried out as a case study for the Swedish municipality of Falun.

The results show that the choice of energy carrier has a great influence on primary energy consumption. The resulting primary energy consumption does, however, to an even greater extent depend on the calculation method used. Which heating solution, and thus also which energy carrier, gets the lowest primary energy consumption varies in the different methods.

The surrounding power and DH networks are also affected to a great extent by the choice of energy carrier. There is a huge potential to lower peak demand in the power grid by avoiding electricity-based heating. The potential to produce electricity using CHP is also increased with a larger market share for DH. In Falun, reduced electricity demand and increased electricity production using CHP make it possible to cover the peak power demand using only electricity production from CHP. In comparison, 10 % of the peak power demand was covered by electricity from CHP in 2015.

The choice of energy carrier for heating in buildings affects the surrounding energy system to a high degree, and is therefore an important aspect to take into account in both local, national and global energy efficiency projects. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Västerås: Mälardalen university press, 2017
Serie
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 250
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Energi, skog och byggd miljö
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:du-23593 (URN)978-91-7485-305-6 (ISBN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Knowledge Foundation
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-12-16 Laget: 2016-12-15 Sist oppdatert: 2016-12-16bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Heating of buildings from a system perspective
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Heating of buildings from a system perspective
2019 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency measures in buildings are considered to have great potential for reducing total energy use, and contribute to a reduced climate and environmental impact. In Sweden, however, there is a focus on bought energy, which does not always reflect the environmental and climate impact. Focusing on bought energy means that a house owner may choose an electricity based heat pump instead of district heating (DH), since heat pumps result in less bought energy compared to DH.

The energy system surrounding the buildings is affected by the choice of energy carriers used for heating. This thesis uses three different methods to study how the energy system is affected. In the first part, primary energy use has been calculated for a simulated building with different heating systems, resulting in different electricity and DH demands. The second part studies the impact on peak demand and annual consumption in the power grid and DH system due to different market shares of electricity based heating and DH. In the third part, the life cycle cost is calculated for different heating solutions from both a building and a socio-economic perspective, for 100 % renewable energy system scenarios.

The results show that the choice of energy carrier has a great influence on primary energy use. However, this depends even more on the calculation method used. Which heating solution, and thus which energy carrier, gives the lowest primary energy use varies with the different methods.

The power grid and DH system are affected by the choice of energy carrier. There is a potential to lower peak demand in the power grid by more efficient heat pumps. But an even greater potential is shown by using DH instead of electricity based heating. A larger share of DH also allows the production of more electricity with the use of combined heat and power.

The life cycle cost for different heating solutions also depends on the method used. From a building owner’s perspective, with current electricity and DH prices, electricity based heating is more economical. However, from a socio-economic perspective, with increasing electricity system costs due to a larger share of variable electricity production in a 100 % renewable system, DH becomes more economically profitable in several scenarios.

The choice of energy carrier for heating in buildings affects the energy system to a high degree. A system perspective is therefore important in local, national and global energy efficiency policies and projects.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2019
Serie
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 297
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Energi och samhällsbyggnad
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:du-31158 (URN)978-91-7485-439-8 (ISBN)
Disputas
2019-11-05, Sal 320, Borlänge, 13:00
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-12-05 Laget: 2019-12-05 Sist oppdatert: 2019-12-05bibliografisk kontrollert

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