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Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. KTH, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Stainless steels are widely used in applications where both the mechanical properties of steels and high corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to enable stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A way to achieve this is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

The central theme of this thesis is surface integrity and corrosion, especially the stress corrosion cracking behavior, after grinding processes. Controlled grinding parameters, including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant, were used and the resulting surface properties studied for austenitic 304L and duplex 2304 stainless steels. The abrasive grit size effect was found to have a larger influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of a high level surface tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage. 

The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behavior of austenitic 304L, ferritic 4509 and duplex 2304 stainless steels in chloride-containing environments was also investigated.  The abrasive grit size effect on corrosion behavior for the three grades was compared. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks on the ground surface for 304L and 2304; for 4509, grinding-induced grain fragmentation was considered as the main factor for the initiation of extensive micro-pits. For duplex 2304, the microstructure and micro-notches in the as-ground surface also had significant influence. Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bending was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. The knowledge obtained from this work can provide guidance for choosing appropriate stainless steel grades and grinding parameters; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2018. , p. 82
Keywords [en]
stainless steel, stress corrosion cracking, surface integrity, grinding, residual stress
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-28894ISBN: 978-91-7729-938-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-28894DiVA, id: diva2:1263170
Public defence
2018-11-23, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-11-14 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Surface integrity of 2304 duplex stainless steel after different grinding operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface integrity of 2304 duplex stainless steel after different grinding operations
2016 (English)In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 229, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface integrity has significant effect on service performance of a component. In this study, the evolution of the surface and sub-surface changes induced by grinding duplex stainless steel (DSS) 2304 was studied with regard to the residual stress, the microstructure, surface roughness and surface defects. The results provide insights into the effect of abrasive grit size, grinding force and lubrication on the surface integrity. The abrasive grit size was found to have the largest influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction have been found to be the main types of damage induced by the grinding operation. Residual stresses induced by mechanical effects dominate over thermal effects in this study. The results obtained can be used to understand the contribution of surface condition and residual stress on failure of duplex stainless steels in service by fatigue or stress corrosion cracking.

Keywords
duplex stainless steel 2304, grinding, residual stress, surface integrity
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-20324 (URN)10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.09.031 (DOI)000367106000029 ()2-s2.0-84942475434 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
2. Surface characterization of austenitic stainless steel 304L after different grinding operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface characterization of austenitic stainless steel 304L after different grinding operations
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, ISSN 2198-2791, Vol. 12, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The austenitic stainless steel 304L is widely used as a structural material for which the finished surface has significant effect on the service performance. A study of the grinding process with regard to the quality of the ground surfaces is therefore interesting from the point of view of both industrial application and scientific research.

Method: This work investigates the influence of grinding parameters including abrasive grit size, machine power, and grinding lubrication on the surface integrity of the austenitic stainless steel 304L. The induced normal grinding force, grinding surface temperature, metal removal rate, and surface property changes have been investigated and compared.

Results and Conclusion: Using grinding, lubrication significantly enhanced the metal removal rate. Surface defects (deep grooves, smearing, adhesive chips, and indentations), a highly deformed thin surface layer up to a few microns in thickness, and high surface tensile residual stresses parallel to the grinding direction have been observed as the main damage induced by the grinding operations. Surface finish and deformation were found to be improved by using smaller abrasive grits or by using lubrication during grinding. Increasing the machine power increased surface deformation while reducing surface defects. The results obtained can provide a reference for choosing appropriate grinding parameters when machining 304L; and can also help to understand the failure mechanism of ground austenitic stainless steel components during service.

Keywords
Austenitic stainless steel 304L, Grinding, Surface characterization, Microstructure, Residual stress
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24507 (URN)10.1186/s40712-017-0074-6 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
3. Effect of surface grinding on chloride induced SCC of 304L
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of surface grinding on chloride induced SCC of 304L
2016 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 658, p. 50-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of surface grinding on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 304L austenitic stainless steel in boiling magnesium chloride has been investigated. SCC tests were conducted both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading for as-delivered material and for specimens which had been ground parallel or perpendicular to the loading direction. Residual stresses due to the grinding operation were measured using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, surface stress measurements under applied load were performed before exposure to evaluate the deviation between actual applied loading and calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks initiated by a high level of tensile residual stress in the surface layer were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as-delivered condition. Grinding along the loading direction increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC; while grinding perpendicular to the loading direction improved SCC resistance. Surface tensile residual stresses were largely relieved after the initiation of cracks. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Stress corrosion cracking, Residual stress, Austenitic stainless steel 304L, Grinding
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-21370 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2016.01.078 (DOI)000372560800007 ()
Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
4. Residual stress in stainless steels after surface grinding and its effect on chloride induced SCC
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residual stress in stainless steels after surface grinding and its effect on chloride induced SCC
2016 (English)In: Materials Research Proceedings: Residual Stresses 2016: ICRS-10, 2016, p. 289-294Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The induced residual stresses in stainless steels as a consequence of surface grinding as well as their influence on the chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility have been investigated. Three types of materials were studied: 304L austenitic stainless steel, 4509 ferritic stainless steel and 2304 duplex stainless steel. Surface grinding using 60# and 180# grit size abrasives was performed for each material. Residual stress depth profiles were measured using X-ray diffraction. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking was evaluated in boiling MgCl2 according to ASTM G36. Specimens were exposed without applying any external loading to evaluate the risk for SCC caused solely by residual stresses. Induced residual stresses and corrosion behavior were compared between the austenitic, ferritic and duplex stainless steels to elucidate the role of the duplex structure. For all materials, the grinding operation generated tensile residual stresses in the surface along the grinding direction but compressive residual stresses perpendicular to the grinding direction. In the subsurface region, compressive stresses in both directions were present. Micro-cracks initiated due to high grinding-induced tensile residual stresses in the surface layer were observed in austenitic 304L and duplex 2304, but not in the ferritic 4509. The surface residual stresses decreased significantly after exposure for all specimens.

Series
Materials Research Proceedings, ISSN 2474-395X
Keywords
Grinding, Stainless Steel, Residual Stress, Stress Corrosion Cracking
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24509 (URN)10.21741/9781945291173-49 (DOI)000401041500049 ()
Conference
International Conference on Residual Stresses, 3-7 July 2016, Sydney, Australia
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
5. SCC of 2304 duplex stainless steel - microstructure, residual stress and surface grinding effects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SCC of 2304 duplex stainless steel - microstructure, residual stress and surface grinding effects
2017 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.

Keywords
stress corrosion cracking; duplex stainless steel 2304; microstructure; residual stress; grinding
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24508 (URN)10.3390/ma10030221 (DOI)000400863500004 ()28772582 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85015077550 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
6. Influence of surface grinding on corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride solution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of surface grinding on corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride solution
2018 (English)In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 1560-1571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of grinding operations on surface properties and corrosion behavior of a ferritic stainless steel (FSS), EN 1.4509, has been investigated and limited comparisons also made to the grade EN 1.4622. Surface grinding was performed along the rolling direction of the material. Corrosion tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride solution according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and under four‐point bend loading. The surface topography and cross‐section microstructure before and after exposure were investigated, and residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after corrosion tests using X‐ray diffraction. In addition, in situ surface stress measurements were performed to evaluate the actual surface stresses of specimens subject to four‐point bend loading according to ASTM G39. Micro‐pits showing branched morphology initiated from the highly deformed ground surface layer which contained fragmented grains, were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as‐delivered condition. Grain boundaries under the surface layer appeared to hinder the corrosion process. No macro‐cracking was found on any specimen after exposure even at high calculated applied loads.

Keywords
ferritic stainless steel, grinding, microstructure, pitting, residual stress, stress corrosion cracking
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28886 (URN)10.1002/maco.201810206 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055888824 (Scopus ID)
Note

Export Date: 12 November 2018; Article

Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved

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