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Videography as Design Nexus: Critical Inquires into the Affordances and Efficacies of Live-action Video Instructions
Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalens högskola, Inbyggda system.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5921-0227
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is about live-action instructional videos (LAVs). By addressing design problems with respect to the how-to video genre, the thesis asks fundamental questions about mediated instructional communication efficacies and the factors that either obstruct or augment them. 

The analysis presented in this thesis is based on the notion that videography is a design nexus and key focal point of the connections that make live-action video instructional efforts possible. This Design Nexus is explored by defining and illuminating key ontological dimensions, medium specificities and the video users’ cognitive capacities. This is to acknowledge that the users of instructions in this thesis are center stage, both as biological and cultural beings.

The methods used in this thesis and its associated papers are eye-tracking, video observations, questionnaires, self-reports, focus group interviews and YouTube analytics. Hence, both numerical data and non-numerical data are analyzed in this study.

The results of the analyses indicate that pre-production planning is key in live-action video instructional endeavors, but not at the expense of the videographer’s status as designer. Moreover, the analyses show that users’ cognitive processing and visual decoding depend on the power of the live-action format to show actual human behavior and action. Other presented evidence seems to infer that LAV-instructions are a little less demanding if users apply a focused decoding style when interacting with them. Nevertheless, physiological engagement of this kind is likely not to fully compensate for users’ psychological engagement.

This thesis contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of humans’ abilities to interpret the actions of others via medial means. By relating this to video medium-specific affordances, this thesis also furthers important efficacy distinctions and boundary conditions. This understanding is considered important for live-action video makers and designers of visual instructions as well as scholars who need to develop better methods to assess users’ behavioral engagement when they interact with digital instructional media.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2018.
Keywords [en]
Information Design;Instructions, Video, Engagement, Perception, Human-Centered Design
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Intercultural Studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-28916ISBN: 978-91-7485-391-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-28916DiVA, id: diva2:1265439
Public defence
2018-09-14, Raspen, Mälardalens högskola, Eskilstuna, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-23 Created: 2018-11-23 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Convergence cameras and the new documentary image
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Convergence cameras and the new documentary image
2012 (English)In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 291-306Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New digital recording technologies pose new creative dilemmas for documentary videographers. The new type high-resolution video camera with 35 mm sized sensors and mounts for real film lenses generate a type of imagery that does not look typically ’observational’. By testing this imagery’s capacity as the guarantor of documentary authenticity and interrelating this with visualisation theories, this paper aims to explain the ontology of the new digital documentary image, its lure for the documentary filmmaker and its ramifications on reception in order to leverage technological production awareness of the documentary videographer and production members. The empirical data presented in this article is based on an explorative reception study in which five different types of moving image sequences were tested on an audience in order to be able to define the level of indexical appeal in shallow depth of field, high resolution, High Production Value, documentary moving images. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Keywords
Digital recording; documentary; Empirical data; High resolution; Production value; reception; verisimilitude; videographer, Cameras; Image processing; Motion pictures, Video cameras
National Category
Design Media Engineering
Research subject
Kultur, identitet och gestaltning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-12464 (URN)10.1080/14626268.2012.731652 (DOI)000312124600010 ()
Available from: 2013-05-23 Created: 2013-05-23 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
2. Syncretistic images: iPhone fiction filmmaking and its cognitive ramifications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syncretistic images: iPhone fiction filmmaking and its cognitive ramifications
2015 (English)In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 138-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article will address the question of how fiction films are individuated in terms of image quality on the grounds of the recording technology used. As new cost-effective digital recording technologies are introduced to the marketplace, this becomes a salient issue to understand for producers and production teams. In order to define cameras' image quality capacities, three almost identical short fiction film sequences were tested on a young audience in a comparative blind test. Surprisingly, the result unambiguously showed that most viewers preferred the film recorded on an iPhone. Based on Barbara Maria Stafford's theoretical framework on the cognitive work of images and theories that concern ecological moving image theory, the analysis of this article aims to explain the reception study's result by illuminating the sublime and ambiguous figure-ground constellation of the iPhone video and its cognitive ramifications.

Keywords
image quality, cognition, production, iPhone, fiction film
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Kultur, identitet och gestaltning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-18926 (URN)10.1080/14626268.2014.993653 (DOI)000357158000005 ()
Available from: 2015-07-24 Created: 2015-07-24 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
3. The influence of different media instructions on solving a procedural task
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of different media instructions on solving a procedural task
2015 (English)In: ICED 15, Vol. 11: Human Behaviour in Design, Design Education, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the influence of different forms of media instructions on the process and outcomes of completing a specific procedural task. The experiment was conducted with four student groups having an education in the area of Information Design. In the experiment four media instructions - text only, text plus drawings, a series of pictures and video with narration - were considered. The findings show that the type of media has an influence on the ability to solve a procedural task and on group interaction and the way groups solve a task. Compared with the other instructions, video instruction triggered a different interaction and behavioural pattern during assembly. Participants considered both video and picture instructions as more usable in terms of facilitating the ability to understand, select and apply possible solutions to a given task. However, the video medium showed little influence on dialogue in the group during assembly. The instructions, such as text plus drawings, pictures and video had a similar influence on task performance times, whereas text instructions took three times longer to implement than other instructions.

Series
International Conference on Engineering Design, ISSN 2220-4334
Keywords
Human behaviour in design, visual communication, information design, procedural instructions
National Category
Arts
Research subject
Intercultural Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-20649 (URN)000366321300018 ()978-1-904670-74-2 (ISBN)
Conference
20th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), JUL 27-31, 2015, Milan, ITALY
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
4. Media instructions and visual behavior: An eye-tracking study investigating visual literacy capacities and assembly efficiency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media instructions and visual behavior: An eye-tracking study investigating visual literacy capacities and assembly efficiency
2014 (English)In: Analyzing Cognitive Processes during Design: Proceedings of the HBiD 2014 / [ed] Mirko Meboldt, Sven Matthiesen, Petra Badke-Schaub, Quentin Lohmeyer, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This pilot study aims at illuminating human visual behavior in the interaction with pictorial instructions. The study is a multi disciplinary effort and is informed by the connection between gaze and attention as well as certain aspects of the Visual Literacy field and reveals a few basic visual behavior tendencies related to certain specific pictorial instruction types. By doing so, it is also an evaluation of the usefulness of a methodological framework consisting of six measures.The analysis of this paper is primarily based on eye-tracking data. In addition, an observed assembly that generated video and sound recordings is also part of the method. In the study 12 Film/TV- production students (out of which there is complete data from 9 informants) interacted with three types of types of visual instructions of the same assembled object, a solar powered toy.

Keywords
Reading style, visual literacy, visual memory, visual instructions
National Category
Design Human Aspects of ICT Applied Psychology
Research subject
Intercultural Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-16599 (URN)978-3-906327-02-0 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Human Behavior in Design, Ascona, Switzerland, 14-17 October 2014
Available from: 2015-01-02 Created: 2015-01-02 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
5. How gaze time on screen impacts the efficacy of visual instructions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How gaze time on screen impacts the efficacy of visual instructions
2018 (English)In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 6, article id e00660Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores whether GTS (gaze time on screen) can be useful as an engagement measure in the screen mediated learning context. Research that exemplifies ways of measuring engagement in the on-line education context usually does not address engagement metrics and engagement evaluation methods that are unique to the diverse contemporary instructional media landscape. Nevertheless, unambiguous construct definitions of engagement and standardized engagement evaluation methods are needed to leverage instructional media's efficacy. By analyzing the results from a mixed methods eye-tracking study of fifty-seven participants evaluating their visual and assembly performance levels in relation to three visual, procedural instructions that are versions of the same procedural instruction, we found that the mean GTS-values in each group were rather similar. However, the original GTS-values outputted from the ET-computer were not entirely correct and needed to be manually checked and cross validated. Thus, GTS appears not to be a reliable, universally applicable automatic engagement measure in screen-based instructional efforts. Still, we could establish that the overall performance of learners was somewhat negatively impacted by lower than mean GTS-scores, when checking the performance levels of the entire group (N = 57). When checking the stimuli groups individually (N = 17, 20, 20), the structural diagram group's assembly time durations were positively influenced by higher than mean GTS-scores.

Keywords
psychology, education, information science
National Category
Design Learning Arts Educational Sciences
Research subject
Intercultural Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28050 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00660 (DOI)30003156 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048981564 (Scopus ID)
Note

Open Access APC beslut 5/2018

Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
6. Effects of continuity or discontinuity in actual film editing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of continuity or discontinuity in actual film editing
2018 (English)In: Empirical Studies of the Arts, ISSN 0276-2374, E-ISSN 1541-4493, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 222-246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A film editor’s refining of film edits at a frame-by-frame matching is an effort of perceptual precision. This paper investigates whether a failure of a few frames would jeopardize the perceived continuity of the film. 33 Swedish students, 17 female, average age 26, were eye tracked while watching two versions of the same documentary film sequence, where one version was completed to satisfaction by a film editor, and the other version had its edits altered 4-6 frames against the film editor’s intentions.

The analysis scrutinized gaze hits in Areas-of-Interest (AoI:s) appointed by the film editor, as well as saccade frequency and pupil dilation after edit points. No significant difference was found for gaze hits in AoI:s, whereas saccade frequency increased 120-400 ms after edit points by  29.4%, and pupil sizes increased by 28% relative size, 200-500 ms after edits, both in the altered version of the film sequence.

These results indicates that the altered film sequence constrained viewers, with possible cognitive effects, which implies that the frame-by-frame matching of film edits achieved by film editors is crucial to film continuity.

Keywords
film editing, perceptual precision, film continuity, film viewing, eye tracking, edit points, frame matching
National Category
Design Studies on Film
Research subject
Intercultural Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26443 (URN)10.1177/0276237417744590 (DOI)000433911400005 ()2-s2.0-85047930057 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-19 Created: 2017-10-19 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved

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