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A methodology to systematically investigate the diffusion degradation of cemented carbide during machining
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. Uppsala universitet.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5536-3077
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 14, article id 2271Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using Ti6Al4V as a work material, a methodology to systematically investigate the diffusion degradation of cemented carbide during machining is proposed. The methodology includes surface characterization of as-tested worn inserts, wet etched worn inserts, metallographic cross-sectioned worn inserts as well as the back-side of the produced chips. Characterization techniques used include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS).

The results show that the characterization of wet etched worn inserts give quick and useful information regarding the diffusion degradation of cemented carbide, in the present work the formation of a fine crystalline W layer (carbon depleted WC layer) at the tool / work material interface. The present study also illuminates the potential of AES analysis when it comes to analyzing the degradation of cemented carbide in contact with the work material during machining. The high surface sensitivity in combination with high lateral resolution makes it possible to analyze the worn cemented carbide surface on a sub-µm level. Especially AES sputter depth profiling, resulting in detailed information of variations in chemical composition across interfaces, is a powerful tool when it comes to understanding diffusion wear. Finally, the present work illustrates the importance of analyzing not only the worn tool but also the produced chips. An accurate characterization of the back-side of the chips will give important information regarding the wear mechanisms taking place at the tool rake face / chip interface. Surface analysis techniques such as AES and ToF-SIMS are well suited for this type of surface characterization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 12, no 14, article id 2271
Keywords [en]
Turning, Ti6Al4V, Wear, Tool, Chip, SEM, AES, ToF-SIMS
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-29661DOI: 10.3390/ma12142271ISI: 000480454300059PubMedID: 31311114Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85070464240OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-29661DiVA, id: diva2:1296445
Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-15 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Investigation of topography, adhesion and diffusion in sliding contacts during steel and titanium alloy machining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of topography, adhesion and diffusion in sliding contacts during steel and titanium alloy machining
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present thesis work is to increase the fundamental knowledge of the tribological contact between the cutting tool and the work material in three different cutting operations, i.e. hard milling of cold work tool steels, turning in 316L stainless steel and turning in Ti6Al4V alloy, respectively. The influence of cutting parameters and tool surface topography on the initial material transfer tendency and resulting wear and wear mechanisms were investigated under well controlled cutting conditions. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface analysis, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), were used in order to characterize the worn cutting tools on a sub-µm scale and deepen the understanding of the wear mechanisms prevailing at the tool / work material interface. The characterization work includes the analysis of worn tool surfaces as well as cross-sections of these. Also, the back side of collected chips were analysed to further understand the contact mechanisms between the tool rake face and chip.

The results show that the transfer tendency of work material is strongly affected by the surface topography of the rake face and that an appropriate pre- and post-coating treatment can be used in order to reduce the transfer tendency and the mechanical interaction between the mating surfaces. The continuous wear mechanisms of the cutting tools were found to be dependent on the work materials and the cutting parameters used. In hard milling of cold work tool steels, polycrystalline cubic boron nitride shows a combination of tribochemical wear, adhesive wear and mild abrasive wear. In the turning of 316L stainless steel and Ti6Al4V alloy, using medium to high cutting speeds/feeds, the wear of cemented carbide is mainly controlled by diffusion wear of the WC phase. Interestingly, the diffusion wear processes differ between the two work materials. In contact with 316L stainless steel crater wear is controlled by atomic diffusion of W and C into the passing chip. In contact with Ti6Al4V crater wear is controlled by the diffusion of C into a transfer work material layer generating a W-rich and TiC interfacial layer which repeatedly is removed by the passing chip. The experimental work and results obtained illustrates the importance of in-depth characterization of the worn surfaces in order to increase the understanding of the degradation and wear of tool materials and coatings in metal cutting operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala University, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-29700 (URN)
Public defence
(English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-27 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved
2.
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Saketi, SaraBexell, UlfOlsson, Mikael

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