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Techno-economic analysis of a 5th generation district heating system using thermo-hydraulic model: A multi-objective analysis for a case study in heating dominated climate
Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Uppsala University.
Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3025-6333
Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology.
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2023 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 296, article id 113347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A 5th generation district heating (5GDH) system consists of a low-temperature network used as a heat source for de-centralized heat pumps to serve heating demand. Until now, there is a lack of studies looking into the economic aspect of implementing the 5GDH concept. The performance characteristics, system dynamics, and economic feasibility of the 5GDH system are insufficiently investigated in cold climates. This paper aims to bridge the research gap by performing the techno-economic analysis of a 5GDH system using a case study based in Tallinn, Estonia. A detailed thermo-hydraulic simulation model is constructed in TRNSYS and Fluidit Heat. In addition, the uncertainty and sensitivities on the economic performance are analysed using Monte Carlo method implemented in Python. The study further analyses the effectiveness of using solar power technologies in reducing the cost of heating. For designed boundary conditions, the system can deliver heat at levelised cost of heating (LCOH) of 80 €/MWh. Integration of photovoltaic up to a limited capacity results in 1 % reduction when compared to the base case LCOH. The economic benefit of photovoltaic thermal is lower compared to photovoltaic. This study can provide a benchmark for the application of 5GDH systems in heating dominated regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2023. Vol. 296, article id 113347
Keywords [en]
5GDHC; Techno-economic analysis; Monte Carlo analysis; PV; PVT
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-46441DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2023.113347ISI: 001046454200001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85164720487OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-46441DiVA, id: diva2:1782259
Available from: 2023-07-13 Created: 2023-07-13 Last updated: 2023-11-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Solar integrated heating systems: Applications in buildings and industries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar integrated heating systems: Applications in buildings and industries
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

“Heat is half” of the global final energy consumption, and the decarbonization of the heating sector is critical to achieving climate goals. This thesis employs a system modelling approach to evaluate renewable heating systems. The overarching goal is to reduce fossil fuel reliance by integrating renewable energy technologies, such as solar thermal, photovoltaics, photovoltaic thermal, heat pump, and thermal energy storage in different system concepts. Two primary sectors are addressed: buildings, with a focus on utilizing solar collectors and heat pumps for heating systems in multifamily houses by recovery of waste heat; and industries, utilizing solar collectors for steam generation below 200 °C. The work is centred around five primary research questions, addressing the technical and economic feasibility of the mentioned technologies and their roles in decarbonization.

Two system arrangements were simulated to address the heating demands of buildings: a) Centralized heat pump that utilizes ventilation air as a heat source, serving three multifamily buildings, and b) A fifth generation district heating system that utilizes industrial waste heat as its source. The techno-economic performance of these systems was evaluated. The results suggest that the economic viability of such arrangements largely depends on critical factors that include the costs of heat pump sub-stations, prevailing electricity prices, and the cost of waste heat. Incorporating solar air heating collectors and optimizing flow controls enhance both component and system energy efficiency. Moreover, integrating photovoltaic systems, up to a specific capacity, is advantageous as it offers reductions in heating costs.

For industrial steam generation, the importance of the solar fraction in technological comparisons is highlighted. Parabolic trough collector and heat pump for steam generation are compared for 34 locations in the European Union, using solar fraction as an indicator. The results highlight the economic competitiveness of both technologies for a wide range of boundary conditions. However, heating costs from solar thermal collectors increase at higher solar fractions, primarily due to the storage costs. This trend sets an economic limit on the maximum feasible solar fraction. As a result, hybrid systems combining solar thermal collectors with steam heat pumps offer a promising combination to achieve a high renewable fraction for industrial applications.

Concerns about CO2 emissions from the electricity grid, and its reliability in many countries, necessitate the exploration of alternative system concepts to meet a higher fraction of heating demand. One such novel energy system combines a parabolic trough collector, photovoltaic, and thermal energy storage (using water and sand as storage media) to reach a combined solar fraction of 90 %, while remaining cost-competitive with fossil fuels. The techno-economic performance of solar thermal collectors is system dependent, largely influenced by their integration within industrial systems. Two novel indicators are introduced to quantify the integration incompatibilities, offering insights into the dynamics for specific integration point. Using this method for a case study resulted in an optimized configuration, improving the overall system performance.

Collectively, the results are expected to be leveraged by relevant stakeholders to advance the cause of heating decarbonization in buildings and industries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2023. p. 137
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 2316
Keywords
Solar heating systems, Renewable heating systems, Decarbonization, Solar thermal, Techno-economic analysis, Thermal energy storage.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-47224 (URN)978-91-513-1914-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-11-23, 310, Dalarna university, Borlänge, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-11-07 Created: 2023-11-07 Last updated: 2023-11-07Bibliographically approved

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Saini, PuneetHuang, PeiFiedler, FrankZhang, Xingxing

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