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Effect of surface grinding on chloride induced SCC of 304L
Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialteknik. KTH.
KTH; Jernkontoret.
Linköping universitet.
Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta.
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 658, s. 50-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Resurstyp
Text
Abstract [en]

The effect of surface grinding on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 304L austenitic stainless steel in boiling magnesium chloride has been investigated. SCC tests were conducted both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading for as-delivered material and for specimens which had been ground parallel or perpendicular to the loading direction. Residual stresses due to the grinding operation were measured using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, surface stress measurements under applied load were performed before exposure to evaluate the deviation between actual applied loading and calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks initiated by a high level of tensile residual stress in the surface layer were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as-delivered condition. Grinding along the loading direction increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC; while grinding perpendicular to the loading direction improved SCC resistance. Surface tensile residual stresses were largely relieved after the initiation of cracks. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2016. Vol. 658, s. 50-59
Nyckelord [en]
Stress corrosion cracking, Residual stress, Austenitic stainless steel 304L, Grinding
Nationell ämneskategori
Materialteknik
Forskningsämne
Stålformning och ytteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-21370DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.01.078ISI: 000372560800007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-21370DiVA, id: diva2:920336
Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-18 Skapad: 2016-04-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-14Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Influence of grinding operations on surface integrity and chloride induced stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Influence of grinding operations on surface integrity and chloride induced stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels
2016 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Stainless steels were developed in the early 20th century and are used where both the mechanical properties of steels and corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to allow stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A necessary component in this effort is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

The central theme of this thesis is the mechanical grinding process.  This is commonly used for producing stainless steel components, and results in varied surface properties that will strongly affect their service life. The influence of grinding parameters including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant were studied for 304L austenitic stainless steel (Paper II) and 2304 duplex stainless steel (Paper I). Surface integrity was proved to vary significantly with different grinding parameters. Abrasive grit size was found to have the largest influence. Surface defects (deep grooves, smearing, adhesive/cold welding chips and indentations), a highly deformed surface layer up to a few microns in thickness and the generation of high level tensile residual stresses in the surface layer along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage when grinding stainless steels. A large degree of residual stress anisotropy is interpreted as being due to mechanical effects dominating over thermal effects.

The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behaviour of 304L austenitic stainless steel in a chloride environment was also investigated (Paper III). Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bend was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks initiation on the ground surfaces. Grinding along the loading direction was proved to increase the susceptibility to chloride-induced SCC, while grinding perpendicular to the loading direction improved SCC resistance.

The knowledge obtained from this work can provide a reference for choosing appropriate grinding parameters when fabricating stainless steel components; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. s. 72
Nationell ämneskategori
Korrosionsteknik
Forskningsämne
Stålformning och ytteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:du-23198 (URN)978-91-7595-838-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-02-25, Sal Q34, Osqualdas väg 6, KTH, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-28 Skapad: 2016-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-09-28Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Stainless steels are widely used in applications where both the mechanical properties of steels and high corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to enable stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A way to achieve this is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

The central theme of this thesis is surface integrity and corrosion, especially the stress corrosion cracking behavior, after grinding processes. Controlled grinding parameters, including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant, were used and the resulting surface properties studied for austenitic 304L and duplex 2304 stainless steels. The abrasive grit size effect was found to have a larger influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of a high level surface tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage. 

The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behavior of austenitic 304L, ferritic 4509 and duplex 2304 stainless steels in chloride-containing environments was also investigated.  The abrasive grit size effect on corrosion behavior for the three grades was compared. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks on the ground surface for 304L and 2304; for 4509, grinding-induced grain fragmentation was considered as the main factor for the initiation of extensive micro-pits. For duplex 2304, the microstructure and micro-notches in the as-ground surface also had significant influence. Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bending was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. The knowledge obtained from this work can provide guidance for choosing appropriate stainless steel grades and grinding parameters; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. s. 82
Nyckelord
stainless steel, stress corrosion cracking, surface integrity, grinding, residual stress
Nationell ämneskategori
Materialteknik
Forskningsämne
Stålformning och ytteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:du-28894 (URN)978-91-7729-938-7 (ISBN)
Disputation
2018-11-23, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-14 Skapad: 2018-11-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-14Bibliografiskt granskad

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