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Techno-Economic Evaluation of Distributed Generation within a Community Smart Grid with Demand Side Response Using HOMER
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

In this study the distributed generation of renewable energy, primarily photovoltaic power, and consumption of energy within a geographically dispersed smart grid or ‘virtual micro grid’ is simulated using a model based around the HOMER Pro software with the aim of gaining insight into the economic and environmental performance of the system under different assumptions about the configurations of the generators and the presence of low carbon technologies such as heat pumps and electric vehicles. Demand side response for the purpose of reducing carbon emissions was also investigated as part of this.

As well as simulating the system within HOMER, the study involved constructing a representative load profile for 200 domestic consumers and other loads using existing data, implementing a model for demand side response, using a range of detailed technical and environmental data to configure the HOMER model, and creating custom plotting tools. These features were connected in a data analysis pipeline written in Python included as part of the submission.

The study found that to improve the environmental and economic performance of the system increasing the amount of renewable generation should be prioritized over other measures, such as demand side response. PV was the easiest to add due to lower upfront costs (compared to battery storage systems and mid-scale wind turbines) and lower financial and regulatory overheads. Carbon emissions were found to be minimized for around 3.5kW of PV per household in this scenario. Including a single mid-scale wind turbine was found to have the potential to greatly increase renewable penetration, and reduce carbon emissions and the cost of energy due to the complementary nature of PV and Wind power production. Battery storage at low penetrations was found to have little impact, but can make a large impact at high penetration but at significant financial expense.

A range of battery products was also investigated for their suitability for use within the project and future schemes and were evaluated by locating them in the Renewable Fraction/LCOE plane.

The inclusion of low carbon technologies such as heat pumps and electric vehicles was found to have some negative impact on the performance where only PV is present in the smart grid with little evidence that it can make better use of the renewable power due to poor matching with the available PV generation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-23311OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-23311DiVA: diva2:1043802
Available from: 2016-11-01 Created: 2016-11-01

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

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Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf