du.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
The impact on the energy system of heating demands in buildings: A case study on district heating and electricity for heating in Falun, Sweden
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalen University.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3630-663X
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency measures in buildings are considered to have great potential in order to reduce total energy consumption, and thus contribute to a reduced environmental impact and a better climate. In Sweden, however, the energy performance requirements for buildings are formulated in terms of bought energy, i.e. as bought electricity and district heating (DH), which does not always reflect the environmental and climate impact from a broader perspective. Focusing on bought energy means that many choose an electricity-based heat pump solution in their building instead of DH, since heat pumps result in a smaller amount of bought energy compared to DH.

The surrounding energy system of the buildings is affected by the choice of energy carriers used for heating. How the energy system is affected is studied in this thesis using two different methods. In the first part, primary energy consumption has been calculated for a simulated building with different heating solutions, representing different electricity and DH demands. In the second part, the impact on total consumption in the surrounding power and DH networks due to different market shares of electricity-based heating and DH has been studied. The second part also includes an analysis of the potential to produce electricity using combined heat and power (CHP) in different scenarios depending on the market share of DH. This part has been carried out as a case study for the Swedish municipality of Falun.

The results show that the choice of energy carrier has a great influence on primary energy consumption. The resulting primary energy consumption does, however, to an even greater extent depend on the calculation method used. Which heating solution, and thus also which energy carrier, gets the lowest primary energy consumption varies in the different methods.

The surrounding power and DH networks are also affected to a great extent by the choice of energy carrier. There is a huge potential to lower peak demand in the power grid by avoiding electricity-based heating. The potential to produce electricity using CHP is also increased with a larger market share for DH. In Falun, reduced electricity demand and increased electricity production using CHP make it possible to cover the peak power demand using only electricity production from CHP. In comparison, 10 % of the peak power demand was covered by electricity from CHP in 2015.

The choice of energy carrier for heating in buildings affects the surrounding energy system to a high degree, and is therefore an important aspect to take into account in both local, national and global energy efficiency projects. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen university press , 2017.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 250
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-23593ISBN: 978-91-7485-305-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-23593DiVA: diva2:1056801
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2016-12-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Primary energy use in buildings in a Swedish perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Primary energy use in buildings in a Swedish perspective
2016 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 130, 202-209 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The building sector accounts for a large part of the energy use in Europe and is a sector where the energy efficiency needs to improve in order to reach the EU energy and climate goals. The energy efficiency goal is set in terms of primary energy even though there are different opinions on how to calculate primary energy. When determining the primary energy use in a building several assumptions are made regarding allocation and the value of different energy sources. In order to analyze the difference in primary energy when different methods are used, this study use 16 combinations of different assumptions to calculate the primary energy use for three simulated heating and ventilations systems in a building. The system with the lowest primary energy use differs depending on the method used. Comparing a system with district heating and mechanical exhaust ventilation with a system with district heating, mechanical exhaust ventilation and exhaust air heat pump, the former has a 40% higher primary energy use in one scenario while the other has a 320% higher in another scenario. This illustrates the difficulty in determining which system makes the largest contribution to fulfilling the EU energy and climate goals.

Keyword
Primary energy; Primary energy factors; Energy efficiency; District heating; Heat pump; Air heat recovery
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments, Reesbe företagsforskarskola
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23047 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.08.026 (DOI)000385323900019 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2017-08-09Bibliographically approved
2. Mapping of heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping of heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, 1434-1439 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Nordic electricity system faces many challenges with an increased share of intermittent power from renewable sources. One such challenge is to have enough capacity installed to cover the peak demands. In Sweden these peaks appear during the winter since a lot of electricity is used for heating. In this paper a mapping of the heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden is presented. The paper analyze the potential for a larger market share of district heating (DH) and how it can affect the electrical power balance in the case study. The current heat market (HM) and electricity consumption is presented and divided into different user categories. Heating in detached houses not connected to DH covers 25 % of the HM, and 30 % of the electricity consumption during the peak hours. Converting the detached houses not connected to DH in densely populated areas to DH could reduce the annual electricity consumption by 10 %, and the electricity consumption during the peak hours by 20 %.

Keyword
District heating ;heat market ;electrical power balance ;combined heat and power ;detached houses ;electricity consumption
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23586 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.534 (DOI)
Conference
8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2016, 8-11 October 2016, Beijing, China
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2017-06-05Bibliographically approved
3. Assessment of the potential for district heating to lower the peak electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the potential for district heating to lower the peak electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sweden faces several challenges when more intermittent renewable power is integrated into the energy system. One of the challenges is to have enough electrical power available in periods with low production from intermittent sources. A solution to the problem could be to reduce the electricity peak demand and at the same time produce more electricity during peak hours. One way of doing this is to convert electricity based heating in buildings to district heating (DH) based on combined heat and power (CHP).

The study analyzes how much a medium sized Swedish municipality can contribute to lower the electricity peak demand. This is done by quantifying the potential to reduce the peak demand for six different scenarios of the future heat market volume and heat market shares regarding electricity based heating and DH in 2050.

The main finding is that electricity consumption will be reduced by 35-70 % during the peak hour (and 20-40 % on a yearly basis) for all the six scenarios studied compared with the current situation. If the aim is to lower the electricity peak demand in the future, the choice of heating system is more important than reducing the heat demand itself. For the scenario with a large share of DH, it is possible to cover the electricity peak demand in the municipality by using CHP.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23585 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2016-12-16Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Post Mälardalen University

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Swing Gustafsson, Moa
By organisation
Energy Technology
Energy Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Total: 236 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf