BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that being physically active (PA) counteracts, but not eliminates the increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in over-weight and obese subjects. To investigate this further, we studied the impact of being normal weight, overweight and obese on multiple markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease in relation to physical activity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: At age 70, 1016 subjects were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Being PA was defined as performing regular heavy exercise (self-reported). According to body mass index (BMI)/PA-groups, the participants were categorized as PA/normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2) , n=104), non-PA/normal weight (n=234), PA/overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2) , n=133), non-PA/overweight (n=295), PA/obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) , n=54), and non-PA/obese (n=169). Several different measurements of endothelial reactivity and arterial compliance (plethysmography and ultrasound), cartotid artery atherosclerosis and echocardiography were performed and seven markers of coagulation/fibrinolysis were measured.
RESULTS: Physically activite subjects with obesity showed impaired vasoreactivity in the forearm resistance vessels, increased left ventricular mass and impaired left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, together with impaired coagulation/fibrinolysis when compared to PA/normal weight subjects (p<0.05- <0.001). The majority of these disturbances were seen also in PA/overweight subjects when compared to PA/normal weight subjects (p<0.05- <0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide additional support for the notion that an increased level of self-reported physical activity does not fully eliminate the deleterious cardiovascular consequences associated with overweight and obesity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
2017. Vol. 47, no 2, 167-175 p.