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Residual stress in stainless steels after surface grinding and its effect on chloride induced SCC
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. KTH.
Linköping University.
Jernkontoret, KTH.
Avesta Research Center - Outokumpu Stainless AB.
2016 (English)In: Materials Research Proceedings: Residual Stresses 2016: ICRS-10, 2016, p. 289-294Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The induced residual stresses in stainless steels as a consequence of surface grinding as well as their influence on the chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility have been investigated. Three types of materials were studied: 304L austenitic stainless steel, 4509 ferritic stainless steel and 2304 duplex stainless steel. Surface grinding using 60# and 180# grit size abrasives was performed for each material. Residual stress depth profiles were measured using X-ray diffraction. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking was evaluated in boiling MgCl2 according to ASTM G36. Specimens were exposed without applying any external loading to evaluate the risk for SCC caused solely by residual stresses. Induced residual stresses and corrosion behavior were compared between the austenitic, ferritic and duplex stainless steels to elucidate the role of the duplex structure. For all materials, the grinding operation generated tensile residual stresses in the surface along the grinding direction but compressive residual stresses perpendicular to the grinding direction. In the subsurface region, compressive stresses in both directions were present. Micro-cracks initiated due to high grinding-induced tensile residual stresses in the surface layer were observed in austenitic 304L and duplex 2304, but not in the ferritic 4509. The surface residual stresses decreased significantly after exposure for all specimens.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. p. 289-294
Series
Materials Research Proceedings, ISSN 2474-395X
Keywords [en]
Grinding, Stainless Steel, Residual Stress, Stress Corrosion Cracking
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-24509DOI: 10.21741/9781945291173-49ISI: 000401041500049OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-24509DiVA, id: diva2:1078936
Conference
International Conference on Residual Stresses, 3-7 July 2016, Sydney, Australia
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Stainless steels are widely used in applications where both the mechanical properties of steels and high corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to enable stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A way to achieve this is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

The central theme of this thesis is surface integrity and corrosion, especially the stress corrosion cracking behavior, after grinding processes. Controlled grinding parameters, including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant, were used and the resulting surface properties studied for austenitic 304L and duplex 2304 stainless steels. The abrasive grit size effect was found to have a larger influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of a high level surface tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage. 

The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behavior of austenitic 304L, ferritic 4509 and duplex 2304 stainless steels in chloride-containing environments was also investigated.  The abrasive grit size effect on corrosion behavior for the three grades was compared. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks on the ground surface for 304L and 2304; for 4509, grinding-induced grain fragmentation was considered as the main factor for the initiation of extensive micro-pits. For duplex 2304, the microstructure and micro-notches in the as-ground surface also had significant influence. Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bending was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. The knowledge obtained from this work can provide guidance for choosing appropriate stainless steel grades and grinding parameters; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 82
Keywords
stainless steel, stress corrosion cracking, surface integrity, grinding, residual stress
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Steel Forming and Surface Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-28894 (URN)978-91-7729-938-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-23, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-11-14 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved

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