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Government vs Market in Sustainable Residential Development?: Microdata analysis of car travel, CO2 emission and residence location
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics. (Microdata Analysis)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7512-5321
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increasing car usage and travel demands between residential locations and destinations in order to fulfill the various needs of residents is a primary cause of CO2 emissions. To win the battle against climate change, a better understanding of the question relating to which urban residential form may most effectively mitigate the CO2 emissions is the key pathway.

This dissertation is concerned with the above problem and it mainly considers three objectives in providing insights on answering the question. The first objective is to comprehensively and microscopically understand intra-urban car travel behavior. The second objective is to estimate the induced CO2 emissions from daily intra-urban car travel and to ex-ante evaluate residential plans. The third objective is to assess whether the governmental sustainable residential development objective is aligned with the objectives of the estate market actors. To explore the research questions related to the objectives, a microdata analysis process (data collection, data assessment and transformation, data storage, data analysis and decision-making) is applied and is found essential in gaining access to key variables in exploring the answer of a preferable urban form. The dissertation offers many new solutions to various technical aspects through a microdata analysis process.

The primary contribution of this dissertation is that it outlines an operational model that comprehensively integrates the investors’ investment strategy, the residents’ choice behavior, and the governmental sustainability objective in the interest of making an ex-ante assessment of residential plans. This ex-ante assessment provides decision-support in sustainable residential development at foremost local level.

The first finding from the implementation of the model on the case study is that the market actors’ objectives are, in general, aligned with the government’s sustainable residential development objective. The second finding indicates that re-shaping the urban form into a compact city is preferable in mitigating CO2 emissions, in spite of the fact that the case city is of a polycentric urban form. These findings provide support for those advocating the compact city as the ideal for sustainable residential development, and also provide foresight on settling the answer to the preferred re-shaping of urban forms in climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2017. , 140 p.
Series
Dalarna Doctoral Dissertations, 6
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - transports
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-24685ISBN: 978-91-85941-84-1 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-24685DiVA: diva2:1086917
Public defence
2017-04-28, Clas Ohlson, Studenternas Hus Tenoren, Röda vägen, Borlänge, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-05 Created: 2017-04-04 Last updated: 2017-04-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An Evaluation of the Reliability of GPS-Based Transportation Data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Evaluation of the Reliability of GPS-Based Transportation Data
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2014:17
Keyword
Transportation, GPS tracking, Reliability, Road network
National Category
Social Sciences Economic Geography Human Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - transports
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24684 (URN)
Note

New updated version of paper.

Available from: 2017-04-04 Created: 2017-04-04 Last updated: 2017-04-05Bibliographically approved
2. How does the complexity of a road network affect optimal facility locations?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does the complexity of a road network affect optimal facility locations?
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The road network is a necessary component in transportation. It facilitiesspatial movements of people and goods, and it also influences the optimal locations of facilities that usually serve as destinations of the movements. To fulfill the transportation needs and to adapt to the facility development, the road network is often organized hierarchically and asymmetrically with various road levels and spatial structures. The complexity of the road network increases along with the increase of road levels and spatial structures. However, location models locate facilities on a given road network, usually the most complex one, and the influence from the complexity of road network in finding optimal locations is not well-studied. This paper aims to investigate how the complexity of a road network affects the optimal facility locations by applying the widely-applied p-median model. The main result indicates that an increase in road network complexity, up to a certain level, can obviously improve the solution, and the complexity beyond that level does not always lead to better solutions. Furthermore, the result is not sensitive to the choice of algorithms. In a specific case study, a detailed sensitivity analysis of algorithm and facility number further provides insight into computation complexity and location problems from intra-urban to inter-urban.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2015. 19 p.
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2015:10
Keyword
Transportation system; Spatial optimization; Location models; Heuristics
National Category
Social Sciences Computer Science
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - transports
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24682 (URN)
Note

New updated version of paper.

Available from: 2017-04-04 Created: 2017-04-04 Last updated: 2017-04-05Bibliographically approved
3. On processing GPS tracking data of spatio-temporal car movements: a case study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On processing GPS tracking data of spatio-temporal car movements: a case study
2015 (English)In: Journal of Location Based Services, ISSN 1748-9725, Vol. 9, no 4, 235-253 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The advancement of GPS technology has made it possible to use GPS devices as orientation and navigation tools, but also as tools to track spatio-temporal information. GPS tracking data can be broadly applied in location-based services, such as spatial distribution of the economy, transportation routing and planning, traffic management and environmental control. Therefore, knowledge of how to process the data from a standard GPS device is crucial for further use. Previous studies have considered various issues of the data processing at the time. This paper, however, aims to outline a general procedure for processing GPS tracking data. The procedure is illustrated step by step by the processing of real-world GPS data of car movements in Borlänge in the centre of Sweden. 

Keyword
GPS tracking data, map-matching, road network, visualized map
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics Computer and Information Science
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-20329 (URN)10.1080/17489725.2015.1098738 (DOI)2-s2.0-84946606094 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2017-04-05Bibliographically approved
4. Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In a city there are hotspots that attract the citizens and most of the transportation in the city arises when citizens move between their residence and the hotspots. However, the evaluation between energy-efficient mobility and urban residential planning has been found to be rather weak. In this paper, we propose an ex-ante evaluation method to quantify the impacts in terms of CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban car mobility due to different residential plans implemented at various urban areas. The method is illustrated by a Swedish midsize city which is presently preoccupied with urban planning of new residential areas in response to substantial population growth due to immigration. On average, the CO2 emissions increase from the continued urban core area (CUCA) to the suburban polycentric area (SPA) to the edge urbanization area (EUA), EUA is almost 3 times more than CUCA. The average travel distances also increase in the same sequence, the overall increase is more than 4 times. Apartment buildings could be more effective in meeting residential needs and mitigating CO2 emissions than dispersed single-family houses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2016. 29 p.
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2016:05
Keyword
Ex-ante evaluation; Spatial distribution; Urban form; Counterfactual; GPS-tracking data
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, General Microdata Analysis - transports
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-23954 (URN)
Available from: 2017-01-23 Created: 2017-01-23 Last updated: 2017-04-04Bibliographically approved
5. On assessing governmental sustainable residential planning and its alignment with residents’ and estate investors’ objectives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On assessing governmental sustainable residential planning and its alignment with residents’ and estate investors’ objectives
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are three key actors in forming the sustainable spatial distribution of residency in an area, (local) government, the estate investor and the resident, each with its own objective. Most urban planning studies have mainly focused on the ex-post evaluation of residential development by considering the objective of each actor separately. This paper outlines a conceptual model where the three key actors and their unique objectives are integrated with the aim of providing an ex-ante evaluation of residential development for government to make policies operational on a micro level. The methodology is implemented on a Swedish city, where sustainable residential development is in high need due to the influx of immigrants. The case study demonstrates that the model can integrate the macro and micro actors well. The model can provide noteworthy insights for the government on where the objectives of sustainability, livability and profit can be met. A sensitivity check of the parameter settings shows that the implementation of the model is robust for replication in other cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2017. 20 p.
Series
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis, ISSN 1650-5581 ; 2017:01
Keyword
Sustainable urban development; CO2 emissions; Multi-agent system model; Urban mobility
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-24514 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-04-04Bibliographically approved

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The full text will be freely available from 2017-09-17 09:17
Available from 2017-09-17 09:17

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