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Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation packages for European office buildings
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6722-3220
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3201-8518
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2017 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 148, 155-165 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A large share of the buildings in Europe are old and in need of renovation, both in terms of functional repairs and energy efficiency. While many studies have addressed energy renovation of buildings, they rarely combine economic and environmental life cycle analyses, particularly for office buildings. The present paper investigates the economic feasibility and environmental impact of energy renovation packages for European office buildings. The renovation packages, including windows, envelope insulation, heating, cooling and ventilation systems and solar photovoltaics (PV), were evaluated in terms of life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) through dynamic simulation for different European climates. Compared to a purely functional renovation, the studied renovation packages resulted in up to 77% lower energy costs, 19% lower total annualized costs, 79% lower climate change impact, 89% lower non-renewable energy use, 66% lower particulate matter formation and 76% lower freshwater eutrophication impact over a period of 30 years. The lowest total costs and environmental impact, in all of the studied climates, were seen for the buildings with the lowest heating demand. Solar PV panels covering part of the electricity demand could further reduce the environmental impact and, at least in southern Europe, even reduce the total costs. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 148, 155-165 p.
Keyword [en]
Energy renovation, LCA, LCC, Office buildings, TRNSYS
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-25094DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.04.079ISI: 000404705000013Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85019454202OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-25094DiVA: diva2:1105607
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy Efficient Renovation Strategies for Swedish and Other European Residential and Office Buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficient Renovation Strategies for Swedish and Other European Residential and Office Buildings
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The high energy use in the European building stock is attributable to the large share of old buildings with poor energy performance. Energy renovation of buildings is therefore vital in the work towards energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact in the EU. Yet, the strategies and energy system implications of this work have not been made clear, and the rate of building renovation is currently very low.

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the economic and environmental aspects of energy renovation strategies, with two main objectives:

  • Renovation of Swedish district heated multi-family houses, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and impact on the local energy system;

  • Renovation of European residential and office buildings, including life-cycle cost and environmental analysis and influence of climatic conditions.

Buildings typical for the respective regions and the period of construction 1945-1970 were simulated, in order to determine the feasibility and energy saving potential of energy renovation measures in European climates. A variety of systems for heating, cooling and ventilation were studied, as well as solar energy systems, with focus on heat pumps, district heating, low-temperature heating systems and air heat recovery.

Compared to normal building renovation, energy renovation can often reduce the life-cycle costs and environmental impact. In renovation of typical European office buildings, as well as Southern European multi-family houses, more ambitious renovation levels can also be more profitable.

Exhaust air heat pumps can be cost-effective complements in district heated multi-family houses, while ventilation with heat recovery is more expensive but also more likely to reduce the primary energy use. From a system perspective, simple exhaust ventilation can reduce the primary energy use in the district-heating plant as much as an exhaust air heat pump, due to the lower electricity use.

Abstract [sv]

Byggnadssektorn står för omkring 40 % av den totala energianvändningen i EU. Den höga energianvändningen i Europeiska byggnader kan till stor del tillskrivas den stora andelen gamla byggnader med dålig energiprestanda. Energirenovering av byggnader, eller energieffektivisering genom renovering, kan därför anses utgöra en central del i arbetet mot EU:s klimat- och energimål för år 2030. Trots detta är det ännu inte helt klarlagt vilka strategier som ska tillämpas för att uppnå detta och hur det påverkar energisystemet, och i nuläget är renoveringstakten fortfarande väldigt låg.

Målet med denna avhandling är att undersöka ekonomiska och miljömässiga aspekter av strategier för energirenovering, såväl byggnadsskalsåtgärder som aktiva system, för typiska bostads- och kontorsbyggnader i Sverige och i andra Europeiska regioner. Mer specifikt har arbetet följande två inriktningar:

  • Renovering av svenska, fjärrvärmevärmda flerfamiljshus, inklusive livscykelkostnadsanalys och livscykelmiljöanalys samt påverkan på det lokala energisystemet;

  • Renovering av Europeiska bostads- och kontorsbyggnader, inklusive livscykelkostnadsanalys och livscykelmiljöanalys samt påverkan av klimatförutsättningar.

Byggnader typiska för respektive region och byggnadsperioden 1945-1970 modellerades och användes i simuleringar för att fastställa den övergripande möjligheten och energibesparingspotentialen för olika renoveringsåtgärder i Europeiska klimat. En rad system för värme, kyla och ventilation studeras, samt solenergisystem, med fokus på värmepumpar, fjärrvärme, lågtemperaturvärmesystem och värmeåtervinning ur frånluft.

Jämfört med renovering av byggnader utan energieffektiviseringsåtgärder kan energirenovering i många fall minska såväl livscykelkostnaden som miljöpåverkan. Vid renovering av typiska Europeiska kontorsbyggnader lönar det sig mer att renovera ner till ett uppvärmningsbehov på 25 kWh/(m²∙år) än 45 kWh/(m²∙år), då den minskade kostnaden för köpt energi väger upp den ökade kostnaden för isolering. För flerfamiljshus i södra Europa kan mer ambitiösa mål gällande värmebehov också vara lönsamma, medan en mer måttlig nivå är lämplig för småhus.

Solvärme- eller solelsystem kan användas för att minska byggnaders miljöpåverkan. Utan subventioner eller inmatningstariff för överskottsel kan det bli svårt att få lönsamhet i dessa system för kontorsbyggnader i Nord- och Centraleuropa samt för småhus. För flerfamiljshus kan solenergisystem dock sänka den totala livscykelkostnaden, såväl i södra som i norra Europa.

Värmeåtervinning och lågtemperaturvärmesystem visade sig båda ha större inverkan i kallare klimat. Lågtemperaturvärmesystem förbättrar värmefaktorn för värmepumpar, i synnerhet när uppvärmningsbehovet är stort i förhållande till varmvattenbehovet. Vid renovering av byggnader med vattenburna radiatorer kan konvertering till tilluftsradiatorer sänka framledningstemperaturen i värmesystemet.

I svenska flerfamiljshus kan frånluftsvärmepump vara ett kostnadseffektivt komplement till fjärrvärme, medan från- och tilluftsventilation med värmeåtervinning är dyrare men mer sannolikt att ge en minskad primärenergianvändning. I ett systemperspektiv kan frånluftsventilation utan värmeåtervinning minska primärenergianvändningen i fjärrvärmeverket lika mycket som en frånluftsvärmepump, tack vare den lägre elanvändningen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 73 p.
Keyword
Energy efficiency, renovation, low-temperature heating, air heat recovery, district heating, heat pump, Energieffektivitet, renovering, lågtemperaturuppvärmning, värmeåtervinning, fjärrvärme, värmepump
National Category
Energy Engineering Building Technologies Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25726 (URN)978-91-7729-401-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-15, B1, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
iNSPiRe
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 314461]
Available from: 2017-08-09 Created: 2017-08-09 Last updated: 2017-08-09Bibliographically approved
2. Solar heat pump systems for heating applications: Analysis of system performance and possible solutions for improving system performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar heat pump systems for heating applications: Analysis of system performance and possible solutions for improving system performance
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Solar heat pump systems (SHPs) are systems that combine solar energy and heat pumps. SHPs have been investigated for several decades and have been proven to increase the share of renewable energy and reduce electric energy demand in residential heating applications. Many solar thermal heat pump systems have become market-available in recent years; however these systems are still not widely employed in the residential sector. This is due mainly to the high initial costs (investment and installation costs) of solar thermal heat pump systems, which limits their cost-effectiveness. Enhancing cost-effectiveness of solar thermal heat pump systems is necessary for a more effective and broader market penetration.

In this thesis, solar thermal and photovoltaic systems combined with heat pumps for heating applications are treated. The overall aims of the thesis are to: 1) investigate techno-economics of SHPs and 2) investigate possible solutions for improving system performance of a reference solar thermal and heat pump system for residential heating applications.

In the first part of the thesis, the influence of climatic boundary conditions on economic performance of SHPs has been investigated by means of: a) an economic comparison of SHPs found in the relevant literature and b) system simulations of the reference solar thermal heat pump system.

In the second part of the thesis, potential solutions for improving system performance of the reference solar thermal heat pump system with limited change in system’ costs are investigated. A systematic approach was used for investigating cost-effectiveness of the system improvements in the reference system.

Based on results of the cost-effectiveness analysis, some of the investigated system improvements were chosen for being included in the design of a novel solar thermal and air source heat pump system concept. The novel system was designed for a house standard with relatively high operating temperatures (55°C/45°C) in the space heating distribution system and for high space heating demand (123 kWh/m2·year). Finally, the thesis ends with a cost-effectiveness analysis of the novel system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments, MacSheep
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26498 (URN)978-91-7729-526-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-10-09, 14:26
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved

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