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Optimizing levodopa dosing routines for Parkinson’s disease
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis in the field of microdata analysis aims to introduce dose optimizing algorithms for the pharmacological management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenerative disease that mostly affects the motor functions of the patients and it is characterized as a movement disorder. The core symptoms of PD are: bradykinesia, postural instability, rigidity, and tremor. There is no cure for PD and the use of levodopa to manage the core symptoms is considered the gold standard. However, long term use of levodopa causes reduced medication efficacy, and side effects, such as dyskinesia, which can also be attributed to overmedication. When that happens precise individualized dosing schedules are required. The goal of this thesis is to examine if algorithmic methods can be used to find dosing schedules that treat PD symptoms and minimize manifestation of side effects. Data from three different sources were used for that purpose: data from a clinical study in Uppsala University hospital in 2015, patient admission chart data from Uppsala University hospital during 2011-2015, and data from a clinical study in Gothenburg University during 2016-2017. The data were used to develop the methods and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.The first algorithm that was developed was a sensor-based method that derives objective measurements (ratings) of PD motor states. The construction of the sensor index was based on subjective ratings of patients’ motor functions made by three movement disorder experts. This sensor-based method was used when deriving algorithmic dosing schedules. Afterwards, a method that uses medication information and ratings of the patients’ motor states to fit individual patient models was developed. This method uses mathematical optimization to individualize specific parameters of dose-effects models for levodopa intake, through minimizing the distance between motor state ratings and dose-effect curves. Finally, two different dose optimization algorithms were developed and evaluated, that had as input the individual patient models. The first algorithm was specific to continuous infusion of levodopa treatment, where the patient’s state was set to a specific target value and the algorithm made dosing adjustments to keep that patients motor functions on that state. The second algorithm concerned oral administration of microtables of levodopa. The ambition with this algorithm was that the suggested doses would find the right balance between treating the core symptoms of PD and, at the same time, minimizing the side effects of long term levodopa use, mainly dyskinesia. Motor state ratings for this study were obtained through the sensor index. Both algorithms followed a principle of deriving a morning dose and a maintenance dose for the patients, with maintenance dose being an infusion rate for the first algorithm, and oral administration doses at specific time points for the second algorithm.The results showed that the sensor-based index had good test-retest reliability, sensitivity to levodopa treatment, and ability to make predictions in unseen parts of the dataset. The dosing algorithm for continuous infusion of levodopa had a good ability to suggest an optimal infusion rating for the patients, but consistently suggested lower morning dose than what the treating personnel prescribed. The dosing algorithm for oral administration of levodopa showed great agreement with the treating personnel’s prescriptions, both in terms of morning and maintenance dose. Moreover, when evaluating the oral medication algorithm, it was clear that the sensor index ratings could be used for building patient specific models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Högskolan Dalarna, 2017.
Series
Dalarna Licentiate Theses ; 7
Keywords [en]
Parkinson’s disease; levodopa; symptom assessment; symptom management; dosing algorithms; wearable sensors; microtablets; continuous infusion
National Category
Computer Sciences Computer Systems Information Systems
Research subject
Complex Systems – Microdata Analysis, FLOAT - Flexible Levodopa Optimizing Assistive Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-26423ISBN: 978-91-85941-77-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-26423DiVA, id: diva2:1149950
Presentation
2017-11-10, Clas Ohlson, Borlänge, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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Thomas, Ilias

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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