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From growth cessation to bud burst: conifer seedling development in response to nursery culture and environmental stimuli
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. SLU.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Från tillväxtavslutning till knoppbrytning : barrplantors reaktioner på några behandlingar i plantskolan och olika temperaturregimer (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, 350-400 million seedlings are produced annually for forest regeneration. About one third of these are overwintered in frozen storage, necessitating accurate methods to assess storability. Young transplants of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) intended for short-term frozen storage were considered storable before reaching target levels for safe storage using shoot dry matter content, freezing tolerance and the molecular test ColdNSure™. Results also indicated that using shoot dry matter content for storability assessment can be misleading, not only for Norway spruce but also for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)). Post-storage vitality can easily and rapidly be determined by measuring the electrolyte leakage from shoots (SEL) of pine and spruce seedlings. SEL and regrowth tests showed that the vitality of young transplants decreased when the time in storage was prolonged from 3-4 to 5-7 months. Short-day (SD) treatment of seedlings shortens the time for dormancy induction and makes seedlings storable at an earlier date. The activity level of dormancy related genes, and genes associated with freezing tolerance reflects the effect of different treatments e.g., the importance of combining longer periods of SD treatment (21-28 days) with low temperature exposure to rapidly obtain storable seedlings. Gene expression profiles have the potential to be used for assessment of seedling dormancy status, predict the development of freezing tolerance, bud set, the risk for a second bud flush in autumn and the timing of bud burst in spring. The interest in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) has increased in Sweden. Frost risks in spring make bud burst timing important when selecting suitable provenances of Douglas-fir for planting. A field trial and a greenhouse study showed the same pattern concerning time of bud burst for a number of Douglas-fir provenances, indicating that greenhouse screening tests can be used for provenance selection. Considering bud burst patterns together with previously reported winter hardening characteristics the interior provenance Three Valley would have a good chance of successful field establishment in southern Sweden.

Abstract [sv]

I Sverige produceras årligen 350-400 miljoner skogsplantor och cirka en tredjedel av dessa övervintras i fryslager vilket kräver noggranna metoder för att bedöma lagringsbarheten. Unga omskolningsplantor av gran (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) ämnade för kort fryslagring visade sig vara lagringsbara innan de uppnått de gränsvärden för säker långtidslagring som utvecklats för äldre konventionella plantor med avseende på torrsubstanshalt, frystolerans och det molekylära testet ColdNSure™. Resultaten tyder också på att mätningar av torrsubstanshalt kan vara missvisande, inte bara för gran utan även för tall (Pinus sylvestris L.). Plantvitaliteten efter lagring kan snabbt fastställas genom att mäta det elektrolytiska läckaget från skotten (SEL) hos tall- och granplantor. Vitaliteten hos omskolningsplantorna sjönk mätt som SEL och vid utvärdering av överlevnad och tillväxt om fryslagringen förlängdes från 3-4 till 5-7 månader. Långnatts(LN)-behandling av granplantor under sensommaren gör plantorna tidigt vilande och lagringsbara på hösten. Effekter av behandlingar kan tydliggöras genom att avläsa aktivitetsnivåer hos några utvalda gener som styr plantornas vila och utveckling av frystolerans. För att uppnå djup vila och tidig lagringsbarhet krävs t.ex. långa LNbehandlingar (21-28 dagar) i kombination med växlande ej för varmt utomhusklimat. Analyser av genaktivitet har potential att användas för att fastställa plantornas vilostatus, förutspå utvecklingen av frystolerans, knoppsättning, risk för en andra skottskjutning på hösten samt förutspå tidpunkten för knoppsprickning nästkommande vår. Intresset för Douglasgran (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) har ökat i Sverige. Risken för vårfrostskador gör tidpunkten för knoppbrytning till en viktig parameter vid val av lämpliga provenienser av Douglasgran. Genom att fält- och växthusförsök gav samstämmiga resultat med avseende på knoppbrytning kan växthusförsök vara vägledande och underlätta proveniensval. Mot bakgrund av knoppbrytningsmönster hos testade provenienser samt tidigare studier av invintringsförmåga bedöms inlandsproveniensen Three Valley ha goda etableringsförutsättningar i södra Sverige.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences , 2018.
Series
Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, ISSN 1652-6880 ; 2018:12
Keywords [en]
Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, seedling status, gene activity, photoperiod, storability, vitality, transplants, shoot electrolyte leakage
Keywords [sv]
Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, plantstatus, genaktivitet, fotoperiod, lagringsbarhet, vitalitet, omskolningsplantor, elektrolytiskt läckage
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-27443ISBN: 978-91-7760-165-4 (electronic)ISBN: 978-91-7760-164-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-27443DiVA, id: diva2:1194210
Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2018-03-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Storability measures of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings and assessment of post storage vitality by measuring shoot electrolyte leakage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Storability measures of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings and assessment of post storage vitality by measuring shoot electrolyte leakage
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 717-724Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As indoor frozen storage is increasing in forest tree nurseries it is important to have accurate methods for assessing seedling storability in autumn and methods to determine post-storage vitality. Storability of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings can be based on determination of dry matter content (DMC) of seedling shoots or by freezing shoots at -25 degrees C and thereafter measure electrolyte leakage (SELdiff-25). To compare these two methods we stored 1-year-old spruce and pine seedlings at different occasions during the autumn. To test if leakage of electrolytes from shoots (SEL) could indicate deteriorated vitality, we measured SEL at the end of storage. After storage seedling viability was determined in a three-week growth test, measuring shoot and root growth capacity (RGC). Determination of freezing tolerance (SELdiff-25) before storage had a better ability to predict the outcome of storage compared to the DMC test. Measuring SEL at the end of the frozen storage period accurately indicated seedling vitality. Seedlings with SEL of 0-5% had a high survival rate whereas SEL over 10% indicated low survival and growth capacity after storage. The SEL method has a potential to become a screening test for identifying batches of seedlings that have been damaged during storage in the nursery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2014
Keywords
seedling status; dry matter content; containerized seedlings; freezing test; dehardening; hardening
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Energi, skog och byggd miljö
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-16290 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2014.977340 (DOI)000346586600001 ()
Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2018-03-29Bibliographically approved
2. Short-day photoperiods affect expression of genes related to dormancy and freezing tolerance in Norway spruce seedlings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short-day photoperiods affect expression of genes related to dormancy and freezing tolerance in Norway spruce seedlings
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 74, no 3, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Key message: Gene expression analysis showed that prolonged short day (SD) treatment deepened dormancy and stimulated development of freezing tolerance of Picea abies seedlings. Prolonged SD treatment also caused later appearance of visible buds in autumn, reduced risks for reflushing, and promoted earlier spring bud break.

Context: Short day (SD) treatment of seedlings is a common practice in boreal forest tree nurseries to regulate shoot growth and prepare the seedlings for autumn planting or frozen storage. Aims The aim of this study was to examine responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to a range of SD treatments of different length and evaluate gene expression related to dormancy induction and development of freezing tolerance.

Methods: The seedlings were SD treated for 11 h a day during 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. Molecular tests were performed, and the expression profiles of dormancy and freezing tolerance- related genes were analyzed as well as determination of shoot growth, bud set, bud size, reflushing, dry matter content, and timing of spring bud break.

Results: The 7-day SD treatment was as effective as longer SD treatments in terminating apical shoot growth. However, short (7 days) SD treatment resulted in later activation of dormancy-related genes and of genes related to freezing tolerance compared to the longer treatments which had an impact on seedling phenology.

Conclusion: Gene expression analysis indicated an effective stimulus of dormancy-related genes when the SD treatment is prolonged for at least 1-2 weeks after shoot elongation has terminated and that seedlings thereafter are exposed to ambient outdoor climate conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer France, 2017
Keywords
Picea abies, Molecular tests, Photoperiod, Shoot growth termination, Bud formation. Storability
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25920 (URN)10.1007/s13595-017-0655-9 (DOI)000407478600012 ()
Available from: 2017-08-31 Created: 2017-08-31 Last updated: 2018-07-16Bibliographically approved
3. Differences in bud burst timing and bud freezing tolerance among interior and coastal seed sources of Douglas fir
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in bud burst timing and bud freezing tolerance among interior and coastal seed sources of Douglas fir
2017 (English)In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1987-1998Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The need for species that will grow well through ongoing climate change has increased the interest in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] in Sweden. One of the most common problems seen in plantations of Douglas fir seedlings is damage caused by late spring frost, known to be highly correlated with the timing of bud burst. The objective of this study was to investigate spring-related bud development under Nordic conditions of seven Douglas fir provenances and to compare data with a local provenance of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). Results from a field trial and a greenhouse-based study were compared. The interior Douglas fir provenances exhibited an earlier bud burst than coastal provenances, both in the greenhouse and in the field trial. When comparing differences within the groups of interior and coastal Douglas fir provenances, no differences could be found. The local Norway spruce, only grown in the greenhouse, showed an intermediate bud development profile similar to the interior Douglas fir provenance Three Valley. We therefore suggest that Three Valley could be planted at the same locations as the investigated local provenance of Norway spruce in mid-Sweden. To avoid spring frost damage the Douglas fir seedlings need to be frozen stored and planted late in spring. Planting under shelterwood can also help protect the seedlings from spring frost damages. As similar results for bud development patterns of Douglas fir and Norway spruce provenances were obtained from the greenhouse and field trials, greenhouse tests could facilitate selection of provenances.

Keywords
Temperature sum, Greenhouse, Field study, Norway spruce, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea abies, Sweden
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-25987 (URN)10.1007/s00468-017-1603-x (DOI)000414503900019 ()2-s2.0-85028295943 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-11 Created: 2017-09-11 Last updated: 2018-03-29Bibliographically approved

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Wallin, Elisabeth

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