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Design of Distributed Rooftop PV System to Minimize Power Cuts for an Indian Village
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

India is a developing country. The national energy production is not enough to fulfill the energy demands of the country. Moreover, there are many villages still needs to be electrified. Among the electrified villages, most of them receive only a few hours of electricity each day making it difficult for people residing there. India has excellent potential for the solar power receiving (4 to 7) kWh/m

2. Therefore, Government of India sets an ambitious target to install 100 GW of solar capacity by 2022, 40 GW is from rooftop solar. The government is encouraging installation of rooftop PV systems by providing several financial incentives to set up rooftop PV system and policies to purchase the energy. However, the people living in rural areas are not capable of utilizing such financial incentives and understand the procedures due to lack of knowledge and financial ability. Thus, a suitable techno-economical model for grid-connected solar rooftop installations for an Indian village by a third-party investor and project developer is investigated in this thesis.

The design of a grid-connected rooftop PV system with a battery is considered in this thesis. The sizing of PV system and battery are done based on the village annual day and night load demands. A 72 kW PV system consisting of 3 kW each on 24 roofs is considered to meet the village load demand. Two design methods are discussed for power evacuation from the 72 kW PV system, (1) Centralized design and (2) Decentralized design. In centralized design, all the 3 kW PV strings are connected in parallel to a central inverter, which is integrated with the three-phase grid. A central battery bank is installed and charged by an inverter fed by the utility supply. In decentralized design, the 3 kW PV sting on each roof is integrated to the nearby single phase line through a single phase inverter. The battery bank is equally distributed among the 24 houses, and each battery is charged by a single phase inverter fed by the utility supply.

The techno-economic study of the two methods are performed, and the key technical and economic performance indices are compared. The assumptions are made wherever needed, and the uncertainties in the inputs data and methods and their impact on the results are discussed. A 10 % of uncertainties in the inputs data for simulations and other parameters are considered for evaluating the impact of PV system performance. The annual produced energy, specific production, and performance ratio for centralized design are 102 MWh, 1411 kWh/kW, and 0.73 respectively. The corresponding performance indices for decentralized design are 108 MWh, 1498 kWh/kW, and 0.77 respectively. The levelized cost of energy and payback period for the centralized design is 3.23 INR and 8 years whereas for decentralized design are 3.13 INR and 7 years for decentralized design by considering 50 % subsidy on the capital cost of the PV system. The payback period increases to 15 years for centralized design and 13 years for decentralized design without any capital subsidy. Therefore, capital subsidy makes the project more attractive to the project investor. The technical and economic performance of the 72 kW PV system with the decentralized design is better than the centralized design, without considering the impact of uncertainty. However, after considering both the positive and negative variation of uncertainty (± 10 %), it is difficult to comment on which design has the better results because both designs have nearly equal range of results.

The underlying limitations of the study are highlighted, and their impact on the results are discussed. The main limitations are the accurate estimation of load profile and boundary conditions of the village (such as actual dimensions of the house, orientation, and tilt angle of the roofs) to perform the simulations.

The relevant previous work is cited at appropriate places in the report.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-28252OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-28252DiVA, id: diva2:1233914
Available from: 2018-07-20 Created: 2018-07-20

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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