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Life cycle cost of building energy renovation measures, considering future energy production scenarios
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalens högskola.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3630-663X
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9943-9878
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 14, article id 2719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A common way of calculating the life cycle cost (LCC) of building renovation measures is to approach it from the building side, where the energy system is considered by calculating the savings in the form of less bought energy. In this study a wider perspective is introduced. The LCC for three different energy renovation measures, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and two different heat pump systems, are compared to a reference case, a building connected to the district heating system. The energy system supplying the building is assumed to be 100% renewable, where eight different future scenarios are considered. The LCC is calculated as the total cost for the renovation measures and the energy systems. All renovation measures result in a lower district heating demand, at the expense of an increased electricity demand. All renovation measures also result in an increased LCC, compared to the reference building. When aiming for a transformation towards a 100% renewable system in the future, this study shows the importance of having a system perspective, and also taking possible future production scenarios into consideration when evaluating building renovation measures that are carried out today, but will last for several years, in which the energy production system, hopefully, will change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI , 2019. Vol. 12, no 14, article id 2719
Keywords [en]
life cycle cost, energy system, district heating, energy renovation measures, heat pump, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery, combined heat and power, wind power
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-30645DOI: 10.3390/en12142719ISI: 000478999400079OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-30645DiVA, id: diva2:1346773
Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-29 Last updated: 2019-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Heating of buildings from a system perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heating of buildings from a system perspective
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency measures in buildings are considered to have great potential for reducing total energy use, and contribute to a reduced climate and environmental impact. In Sweden, however, there is a focus on bought energy, which does not always reflect the environmental and climate impact. Focusing on bought energy means that a house owner may choose an electricity based heat pump instead of district heating (DH), since heat pumps result in less bought energy compared to DH.

The energy system surrounding the buildings is affected by the choice of energy carriers used for heating. This thesis uses three different methods to study how the energy system is affected. In the first part, primary energy use has been calculated for a simulated building with different heating systems, resulting in different electricity and DH demands. The second part studies the impact on peak demand and annual consumption in the power grid and DH system due to different market shares of electricity based heating and DH. In the third part, the life cycle cost is calculated for different heating solutions from both a building and a socio-economic perspective, for 100 % renewable energy system scenarios.

The results show that the choice of energy carrier has a great influence on primary energy use. However, this depends even more on the calculation method used. Which heating solution, and thus which energy carrier, gives the lowest primary energy use varies with the different methods.

The power grid and DH system are affected by the choice of energy carrier. There is a potential to lower peak demand in the power grid by more efficient heat pumps. But an even greater potential is shown by using DH instead of electricity based heating. A larger share of DH also allows the production of more electricity with the use of combined heat and power.

The life cycle cost for different heating solutions also depends on the method used. From a building owner’s perspective, with current electricity and DH prices, electricity based heating is more economical. However, from a socio-economic perspective, with increasing electricity system costs due to a larger share of variable electricity production in a 100 % renewable system, DH becomes more economically profitable in several scenarios.

The choice of energy carrier for heating in buildings affects the energy system to a high degree. A system perspective is therefore important in local, national and global energy efficiency policies and projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2019
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 297
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-31158 (URN)978-91-7485-439-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-05, Sal 320, Borlänge, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2019-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Swing Gustafsson, MoaMyhren, Jonn Are

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