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A review of data centers as prosumers in district energy systems: Renewable energy integration and waste heat reuse for district heating
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2369-0169
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0239-9214
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2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

As large energy prosumers in district energy systems, on the one hand, data centers consume a large amount of electricity to ensure the Information Technologies (IT) facilities, ancillary power supply and cooling systems work properly; on the other hand, data centers produce a large quantity of waste heat due to the high heat dissipation rates of the IT facilities. To date, a systematic review of data centers from the perspective of energy prosumers, which considers both integration of the upstream green energy supply and downstream waste heat reuse, is still lacking. As a result, the potentials for improving data centers’ performances are limited due to a lack of global optimization of the upstream renewable energy integration and downstream waste heat utilization. This study is intended to fill in this gap and provides such a review. In this regard, the advancements in different cooling techniques, integration of renewable energy and advanced controls, waste heat utilization and connections for district heating, real projects, performance metrics and economic, energy and environmental analyses are reviewed. Based on the enormous amount of research on data centers in district energy systems, it has been found that: (1) global controls, which can manage the upstream renewable production, data centers’ operation and waste heat generation and downstream waste heat utilization are still lacking; (2) regional climate studies represent an effective way to find the optimal integration of renewable energy and waste heat recovery technologies for improving the data centers’ energy efficiency; (3) the development of global energy metrics will help to appropriately quantify the data center performances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019.
Keywords [en]
Data center, District energy system, Renewable energy, Waste heat recovery, Energy efficiency
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy and Built Environments
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-31116DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114109Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85075714407OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-31116DiVA, id: diva2:1371487
Available from: 2019-11-20 Created: 2019-11-20 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved

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Huang, PeiCopertaro, BenedettaZhang, XingxingShen, JingchunRönnelid, Mats

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