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Characterization of oxide scales formed on FeCrAl alloys at high temperatures
2009 (Undetermined)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [un]

This thesis focuses on the characterization of oxide scales formed on FeCrAl alloys at high temperatures. The effect of water vapour on commercial FeCrAl alloys oxidized in both dry and humid O2 has been investigated. Also, the effect of varying Al concentrations in model FeCrAl alloys was studied as well as the effect of using surface coatings in order to increase the oxidation resistance of FeCrAl alloys. The formed oxide scales were characterized using analysis techniques such as SEM, EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, AES and SIMS. The main part of the work concerns the SEM, EDX, AES and SIMS techniques. The commercial FeCrAl alloys investigated follow the same trend in oxide formation independent of whether the alloy was conventionally cast or manufactured by powder metallurgy. In the as-received cold rolled condition the surface of the FeCrAl material shows a few nm thin native oxide. This native oxide is a mixture of oxides from Fe, Cr and Al, with a relatively high concentration of Cr. The oxide formation at elevated temperatures can be separated in a low temperature and a high temperature mode. At relatively low temperatures (500-600°C) a mixed oxide similar to the pre-existing native oxide forms, while at higher temperatures a thicker two-layered alumina scale forms. The outer and inner alumina layers are separated by a Cr-rich zone which is believed to be a remnant of the pre-existing native oxide and hence represents the original alloy surface. Accordingly the inner alumina layer is formed by oxygen inward diffusion while the outer alumina layer grows by cation outward diffusion. The inner alumina is composed of a-Al2O3, while the outer layer, during early stages, is composed of rapidly growing metastable polymorphs of alumina which with time transform to a-Al2O3. This phase transformation starts at the Cr-rich zone and progress outward. In presence of water vapour this transformation is inhibited due to hydroxylation of the surface of the metastable phases. Hence, a higher oxidation rate was observed in presence of water vapour. Model FeCrAl alloys having Al concentrations in the range 1.2-5 wt.% were investigated. At 900°C a minimum of 3.2% Al is needed in order to form a continuous alumina scale. Higher Al concentrations (= 4.4%) result in a relatively pure alumina scale and a slower oxidation rate. In order to evaluate the possibility to improve the oxidation resistance of FeCrAl a PVD SiO2 coating was applied on a commercial FeCrAl foil prior to oxidation. Parallel exposures of coated and uncoated samples were made at 1000°C and revealed that the SiO2 coating significantly reduced the initial oxidation rate of the FeCrAl foil. Further, metal organic CVD of a ZrO2 film in situ on an RE free FeCrAl alloy at 400 and 800°C showed that at the lower temperature mainly ZrO2 was formed while at 800°C an oxide scale composed of both ZrO2 and Al2O3 was formed. The results obtained illuminate the importance of advanced electron microscopy and surface analysis techniques in order to increase the understanding of high temperature oxidation of FeCrAl alloys and the oxidation mechanisms of this group of materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Chalmers University of technology , 2009.
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola, ISSN 0346-718X ; 2991
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-5214OAI: oai:dalea.du.se:5214DiVA: diva2:523413
Available from: 2011-01-17 Created: 2011-01-17 Last updated: 2014-10-06Bibliographically approved

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Engkvist, Josefin
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