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Creative Space in Contemporary Swedish Moving Image Production
Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2006-4522
Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
2012 (English)In: Journal of Integrated Design & Process Science, ISSN 1092-0617, E-ISSN 1875-8959, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Production of moving images is turning completely digital. This leads to new possibilities and new constraints for creativity within film and TV production chains.

This paper describes professionals’ current comprehension of the consequences of the shift from celluloid to digital technologies, within the Swedish Moving Image Industry. New technologies bring new workflows, new design processes and new constraints.

We aim to illuminate factors that affect design creativity in digital moving image production, by addressing questions about production related responses to the digital turn as well as the affects of such responses on creativity.

Inspired by Ingar Brinck’s creativity theories (1999, 2007) we view aesthetic problem solving as a cognitive process and suggest creative spaces to be the critical phenomenon to manage. We also use organization theories, particularly the work of Katherine Miller (2011) to explain why creativity ought to be a primary management concern.

The empirical material used is semi-structured interviews with management personnel in Swedish moving image production companies. Outcomes include that the variety of digital formats available today is hard for crafts people to overview. This has brought costly workflow constraints that largely limit creativity.

We suggest a pre-production file format check-list as a tool to support design management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2012. Vol. 16, no 4, p. 55-72
Keyword [en]
technological Shift, file formats, workflow, creativity, design management
National Category
Design Media Engineering
Research subject
Kultur, identitet och gestaltning, Nya designprocesser inom den audiovisuella industrin
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-10838DOI: 10.3233/jid-2012-0003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84871213299OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-10838DiVA, id: diva2:557681
Projects
New Design Processes in the Audiovisual Industry
Available from: 2012-09-28 Created: 2012-09-28 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Postproduction agents: audiovisual design and contemporary constraints for creativity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postproduction agents: audiovisual design and contemporary constraints for creativity
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Mälardalens Högskola, 2012. p. 102
National Category
Design
Research subject
Intercultural Studies, Kreativa beslut i produktionssituation inom filmproduktion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-10794 (URN)
Presentation
2012-02-24, Högskolan Dalarnas Mediehus, TV-studion, Kaserngården 15, Falun, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-09-28 Created: 2012-09-21 Last updated: 2016-11-25Bibliographically approved
2. Videography as production nexus: digital film cameras, media mangement and the distribution of creativity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Videography as production nexus: digital film cameras, media mangement and the distribution of creativity
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is about new digital moving image recording technologies and how they augment the distribution of creativity and the flexibility in moving image production systems, but also impose constraints on how images flow through the production system. The central concept developed in this thesis is ‘creative space’ which links quality and efficiency in moving image production to time for creative work, capacity of digital tools, user skills and the constitution of digital moving image material. The empirical evidence of this thesis is primarily based on semi-structured interviews conducted with Swedish film and TV production representatives.This thesis highlights the importance of pre-production technical planning and proposes a design management support tool (MI-FLOW) as a way to leverage functional workflows that is a prerequisite for efficient and cost effective moving image production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University Press, 2013. p. 142
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 162
Keyword
videography, media management, creativity
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
Kultur, identitet och gestaltning, Kreativa beslut i produktionssituation inom filmproduktion
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-13349 (URN)978-91-7485-099-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-11-21, Tv-studion, Mediehuset, Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-11-27 Last updated: 2013-12-02Bibliographically approved
3. Framing the Gaze: (Audio-) Visual Design Intentions and Perceptual Considerations in Film Editing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framing the Gaze: (Audio-) Visual Design Intentions and Perceptual Considerations in Film Editing
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The theme for this doctoral thesis focuses on how a film editor strives actively to perceptually frame and direct the film viewer’s gaze across film edits. The editor’s (audio-)visual intentions concerning the film viewing correspond to perceptual considerations that the editor makes during film editing.

Film editing in this thesis is considered as a kind of design work, foremost motivated by the possibilities of many new approaches, questions, and answers that a design perspective brings, stretching well beyond what previously adopted perspectives have done.

The research questions asked, as well as the presented results, are discussed with regard to design theory, established film production field knowledge, and perception research. Apart from considering audiovisual perception in a film editing context, film editing is also discussed as audiovisual design, and tentative implications for the role of perception in other kinds of design work are pointed out.

The results of my analyses are that there is reason to consider parts of film production as design work; that properties of an audiovisual material affect the creative space; that perceptual considerations are a significant part of the film editor’s treatment of the audiovisual material; that film viewers’ response to film edits varies with the shape of the edits; and that this variation is possible to link with the film editor’s intention regarding the edits, as well as to the degree of fulfillment of the intention.

I conclude that perceptual precision at the edit point is decisive for attaining a desired film-viewing decoding of a film sequence, and that when the perceptual precision is low, it is likely that the perceived continuity of the film fails.

The contribution of this doctoral thesis is that it drives the investigation of actual appliance of perception as audiovisual knowledge in film editing. Hence, it also adds to the more general discussion on perception as part of audiovisual thinking, and how audiovisual knowledge is formed.

The thesis contributes to the area of Innovation and Design through its mix of methods, since the main study considers the creation of new artefacts, the thinking going on during that process, as well as human responses to the artefacts. Conclusively, the thesis provides a thorough example of how a design research perspective can add to the understanding of film production, and its trades and activities.

Abstract [sv]

Temat för denna doktorsavhandling är hur det går till när en filmklippare aktivt strävar emot att perceptuellt fånga in och styra sin filmtittares blick över filmklipp. Klipparens (audio-)visuella intentioner med filmtittandet motsvaras av perceptuella överväganden som klipparen gör under klipparbetet.

Klipparbetet motiveras i denna avhandling som ett designarbete, främst för att ett designperspektiv på filmproduktion har möjligheter att bidra med många nya infallsvinklar, frågeställningar och svar, som sträcker sig bortom vad tidigare tillämpade perspektiv gör.

De forskningsfrågor som ställs, och de svar som presenteras, diskuteras sedan gentemot designteori, etablerad filmproduktionskunskap och perceptionsforskning. Utöver att audiovisuell perception beaktas inom filmklippningskontexten, diskuteras även filmklippning som audiovisuell design, och kopplingar görs till annat designarbete och möjliga implikationer för perceptionens roll i dessa sammanhang.

Data om klipparbetet har skapats via videoinspelade deltagande observation där även fortlöpande skärminspelningar skett, medan en filmklippare färdigställde en dokumentärfilmsekvens. Utifrån dessa inspelningar har sedan en elicitering med filmklipparen skett. På så vis har klipparens intentioner och möjliga beaktande av perceptuella faktorer fångats in.

Klipparens intentioner avseende filmtittare har sedan testats via ögonrörelsestudier där tittarnas ögondata samlats in medan de tittat på den skapade filmsekvensen.

Resultaten av mina analyser är att det finns skäl att betrakta delar av filmproduktion som designarbete, att audiovisuella materialegenskaper påverkar det kreativa utrymmet, att perceptuella hänsyn ingår som en väsentlig del av filmklipparens bearbetning av det audiovisuella materialet, att filmtittares respons på filmklipp varierar med hur klippen är utformade, samt att man kan koppla denna variation till filmklipparens intention med klippen, och graden av intentionens uppfyllelse.

Jag drar slutsatserna att perceptuell precision i klippunkten är avgörande för att uppnå en önskad avkodning av en filmsekvens för tittarens del, samt att när den perceptuella precisionen är låg är det troligt att den upplevda kontinuiteten hos filmen fallerar.

Doktorsavhandlingens bidrag är att den hjälper till att reda ut den faktiska tillämpningen av perceptionen som audiovisuell kunskap i filmklippning. Men den bidrar därmed även till en mera generell diskussion om perception som en del av audiovisuellt tänkande och formerandet av audiovisuell kunskap.

Avhandlingen bidrar till området Innovation och Design genom sin blandning av metoder, eftersom huvudstudien rör skapandet av nya artefakter och tänkande som pågår inom denna process, liksom mänsklig respons på dessa artefakter. Slutligen bidrar avhandlingen med ett genomgripande exempel på hur ett designforskningsperspektiv kan bidra till att förstå delar av filmproduktion, och de yrken och aktiviteter som sker där.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2017
Keyword
moving image editing, film production, TV production, audiovisual design, audiovisual perception, filmklippning, videoredigering, filmproduktion, TV-produktion, audiovisuell design, audiovisuell perception
National Category
Design
Research subject
Intercultural Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-26362 (URN)978-91-7485-340-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-15, Raspen, Mälardalens högskola, Eskilstuna, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-09-27 Created: 2017-09-27 Last updated: 2017-09-27Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textScopushttp://iospress.metapress.com/content/m33055481g472w42/?p=d7b0302de08643b0af212a552a8e9cf8&pi=4

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Swenberg, Thorbjörn

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