du.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Multimodal mathematical context and video as a tool for teachers´assessment
Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Mathematics Education. (Mubema)
2014 (English)In: Conference proceedings - 4th international Designs for Learning conference 6-9th May 2014, 2014Conference paper, Abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Project aims and research questions

This presentation will discuss some experiences from a three year school research study now in its’ final stage. The aim of our research is to examine what kinds of knowledge teachers develop when they are part of collaborative discussions based on video recordings and video edited material from specific lessons in their own practice. Theses specific lessons are designed with multimodal mathematical tasks and students work in a multimodal process. The project has been formulated in close collaboration between teachers, other community representatives and us as researchers. Our study has two focus; one is to investigate methods and tools that teachers can  use to develop their ability in assessment when their students are working with multimodal tasks and the other is to examine how video can be used by teachers wanting to obtain knowledge about assessing “creative and aesthetics learning processes” (Skolverket, 2011).

The research questions are: How can teachers and pupils assess mathematics abilities shown through creative and esthetic learning processes? How can video be used as a method to contribute to teacher professional development regarding formative and summative assessment? What kind of tools do teachers believe they need in order to assess pupils knowledge in multimodal processes?

A part of  the study is (together with the teachers) to construct a matrix for assessment of students´ mathematical abilities. The matrices that are created are meant to be adapted to a completed lesson which was characterized by a multimodal task, a task in which not only the spoken or written word is important but also activities and interactions by way of documents, glances and gestures. The multimodal task might accommodate various forms of work – such as laboratory activities with different materials. The matrices that are created within the project framework are planned to be adapted for use by both teachers and students.

Theoretical framework

Our study is based on several theories about when teachers collaborate to create new knowledge (Carlgren 2012). The first is the design theoretical approach – where visual ethnography and a semiotic approach contribute to problematize the use and mixture of different modes. Other theories that are relevant for the study are Jaworskijs (1991) Teaching Triad as developed into inquiry and development of the teachers´ competence, along with Cobbs Design Theory (2000), where the specific mathematics is identified in the school discourse. The design theories expressed in different texts are used, e.g. by Kress & Van Leeuwen (2001); Kress (2010); Selander & Kress (2010), and concerning the discourse work and by Jewitt (2011; 2012) more explicit for the analyze work

The epistemological view we represent is inspired by Vygotsky´s (1978) theory of ZDP and cultural aspects in communication. The study uses sociocultural theory as described by Säljö (2005; 2012). By using multimodal tasks we presume that multimodal tasks contribute toa more qualifiedlearning in which students candevelop theirown explanations, solve problems withdifferentstrategies dispute and present mathematical arguments, discussand comparesolutionspresentedbyvariousforms of representation (Taflin 2007). Previous studies (e.g. Danielsson 2002; Öhman Gullberg 2006; Leijon 2010) have shown that different modalities of “production forms” and media reception may even influence theexperienceofauthenticityand ownershipin a different waythan traditionalschoolwork. A basic assumption of the framework here is therefor that meanings are made and communicated in mathematics through a wide range of semiotic modes  (Jewitt 2011; Machin 2011).

By using video as an essential tool in our research our framework theories concerning visual ethnography, video documentation and individuals as reflective practitioners are also needed. Appropriate theories are taken from Aull Davies (2008); Pink (2012); Schön (1991); Spencer (2011) and also from Heikkilä & Sahlström (2003).From (audio-)visual cultural theories we are inspired by Wingstedt (2012) who speak ofmultimodalityfor exponential growthofunderstanding.

Methods

The study has been conducted in two steps. First a prestudy over one year, where two primary schools participated (focus on four classes; grade 5 and grade 9). Knowledge gained from the prestudy was used in a more extended study and during the two last years we have had contact with teachers from different schools and levels in four municipalities. With the exception of two researchers we have a group of class teachers from grade 1 to grade 9 participating (about 15 regularly active, while others have been participating at some elected occasions). Two headmasters, two doctorial students and a film maker are also connected to the project.  

Data collection has been made by both us as researchers, by the teacher themselves and by a professional film maker. In order to learn more about video as a tool we wanted to experiment with different kinds of video equipment in order to examine their functionality for use in a school context. The participating teachers were allowed to use different models but could also choose to use other techniques such as audio recording, photographs, scanning or material copying. Furthermore, they were offered to let students try these it, as part of developing self-assessment and peer assessment. All multimodal tasks in the math lessons were prepared and organized by the teachers themselves. In their second lesson they decided to sometimes try similar ones – in order to develop comparable material, perhaps useful for the matrix discussion. The teachers´ ambition was to design tasks to see if and how they could work to support teachers' assessment of pupils' skills. The researchers empiric data collection, however, both in the prestudy and the second phase of the main study, followed by the same order; Information and presentation sessions in all places and classes. Filming of lessons. After that the film maker edited the material into shorter parts. The edited excerpts were used in a situation of stimulated recall. At this occasion both teachers, colleagues and researchers took part in a video recorded collaborative talk for analysis session (using  two cameras). This process was repeated in altogether seven seminars. The video recordings from the seven meetings along with photographs and audio recordings were presented later on at a summing up meeting, where all the main participants took part.

We are currently in the process of preparing survey questions, addressed to the teachers, for the final data collection.

 Some findings

As the final results not yet complete, we have chosen to highlight some findings that we consider of interest to discuss and reflections upon. They concern the following themes: The framework for assessment, Editing concerns, The equipment,  ethical dilemmas.

Framework for assessment:  Quite early in the project the teachers at one of the schools made a framework (matrix) in order to test it for assessment in maths – and made it available for use by other teachers in the project (that meant that four different municipalities were able to test it). These frameworks were made from the point of view that the multimodal tasks were designed as a  “creative and esthetical learning process”. Interesting here was that the teachers also active in the first grades in school also tried parts of this advanced models. In the project matrices constructed for art education also played a role in maths.

Editing concerns: The edited video material was critical in the analyse process. Through the edited film teachers were reminded about moments in the lesson – they saw or heard details that could give a more complete picture of the lesson.

The equipment: The qualities of video cameras of different sizes were discussed a lot. One finding was that sound was sometimes more important than the pictures. In some classes the teachers preferred to use only sound recording in order to be more discrete. In other classes mainly stills were used and copies made of pupils work.

Ethical dilemmas: The use of video recording, stills or sound material raised unexpected ethical issues. In some schools there were immigrant children with protected identities. Other classes contained students with neurological diagnoses. The parents of these children were hesitant to letting their children be filmed. How could we as researchers handle this? The ethic council at our university expressed doubts about the use of video at all while observing children in a school context. Is this attitude similar in other countries, other university councils? We live in a society where the use and presence of digital resources is increasing, but authorities views here might raise limitations to the use of video as a visual research method. The task, in our opinion, must be to learn how to handle this, not to avoid it. Our studies give an insight into information that can be used to increase this ability.

In summary all the teachers formulated their personal designed tasks in order to test different modes.  Most common was one choice of esthetical mode at a time (combined with written and verbal text), but there were also lessons with mixtures such as stations with different activities. Teachers commented that the reflection time at the end of lessons became of great importance to sum up questions around the pupils individual learning processes - something they partly developed and stressed more after watching the film excerpts.

Working with the assessment framework was of great interest to the teachers but it took a lot of time from their ordinary work, and in some cases the teachers received no support from their headmaster. In this way the project highlighted more general aspects of school development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014.
Keyword [en]
assessment, collaborative talks, elementary school, ethics, mathematical tasks, media reception, multimodal, teachers´ collaboration, video.
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Education and Learning, MUBEMA; Intercultural Studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-14425OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-14425DiVA: diva2:727067
Conference
The 4th International Designs for Learning Conference: Expanding the field. Category Research Study in Progress. Stockholm Univ. May 6-9, 2014
Note

Finansiär Skolforskningsfonden, PUD/Högskolan Dalarna

Available from: 2014-06-19 Created: 2014-06-19 Last updated: 2016-04-01Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Abstract

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Danielsson, HelenaTaflin, Eva
By organisation
Art EducationMathematics Education
Educational Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Total: 962 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf