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The role of the United States of America and the United Kingdom in the overthrowing of Mohammad Mossadeghs Government in Iran, 1953: A study of an intervention
Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
2015 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to verify which factors contributed to the democratically elected Government losing political power in Iran in 1953 under the leadership of Mohammad Mossadegh. The study answers why Mohammad Mossadegh was not able to mobilize the people of Iran against the coup and how the coup could be carried out despite his support from the people. The last part of the study examines what kind of relationship the Iranian army had to the US and the UK and why they opposed Mohammad Mossadegh, isolated his Government and took part in the coup. The study uses two theories. Its theories are flowing: The first theory is The Rational Actor Model and the second theory is The Organizational Behaviour Model which has been written by Graham Allison and Philip Zelikow. Analysis units for this case study are UK and the USA and their motives and opinions.

In 1953 Harry Truman left the President post and was replaced by Dwight David Eisenhower. British agents convinced the new Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles and his brother Allen Dulles, that Mossadegh led Iran to Communism. Dwight Eisenhower and Winston Churchill became the coup's main sponsors. There were some random events that made the coup possible. On 16 August 1953 orders came from the US and UK that the coup should be cancelled and local actors also agreed with this. Three days later, on August 19 of 1953 the coup became possible when the National Police Commissioner General Mohammad Daftary allied with the coup supporters. Local actors in Iran under the leadership of General Mohammad Daftary who became police chief after the first coup attempt at 16 of August 1953 played an important role in the overthrowing of Mohammad Mossadeghs Government. That kind of event was a desired support for the US and UK’s Foreign Policy at that time. Both countries used this in the best way by giving money to the coup supporters in Iran. The coup in Iran becomes the beginning of a chain of similar covert operations conducted by the US and its allies around the world during the Cold War period up to the breakdown of the Soviet Union, 1991.

The coup was planned by the CIA as well as the SIS, and the final green signal was provided by both Governments of the USA and UK. Thus the coup was not a hasty decision taken by the lower levels of the bureaucracy. This was covered by high ranking administrative officials, including President Dwight David Eisenhower and Prime Minister Winston Churchill and their local agents. This study shows how post war USA and UK could not tolerate to see free leaders grow who wanted to work for their own national interests. Mohammad Mossadegh who had a character for loyalty and service to the Iranian people could definitely not be tolerated under such a state of affairs. The new world order required independent states which needed to make their position clear if they were to join the Soviet pact or whether wishing to join themselves with the western world. Mohammad Mossadegh and Iran was one of the Middle Eastern states that became a part of the Cold War politics and economic interests between the USA, UK and the Soviet Union. This type of problem is about the US and the UK financial interests in the oil industry and that there was also an international cold war conflict between the USA and the Soviet Union.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015.
Keyword [en]
UK, US, Iran overthrowing of Mohammad Mossadeghs Government, Rational Actor Model, Organizational Behaviour Model, Motive analysis.
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-19566OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-19566DiVA: diva2:859090
Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-10-06

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Citation style
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