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Do adolescents who are night owls have a higher risk of dental caries?: A case-control study
Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Health and Caring Sciences/Oral Health Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7972-1470
Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. The Public Dental Health Service Competence Centre of Northern Norway (TkNN), Tromsø, Norway.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7781-8527
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 14, no 3, 220-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the association between circadian rhythm and the risk of caries in adolescents, as well as their dietary and toothbrushing habits.

METHODS: A group of 196 adolescents (15 and 16 years old) were divided into two equal groups based on caries risk (case = high risk; and control = low risk). Before their dental examinations, they were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on circadian rhythm, dietary and oral self-care habits, and demographic variables. The participants were divided into three circadian types: evening types who are alert in the evening and tired in the morning; morning types who are the opposite; and neutral types who are neither particularly alert in the evening nor extremely tired in the morning.

RESULTS: The most common sleep-cycle group type was neutral (50%). After this came evening types (37%) and finally morning types (13%). Morning and neutral types reported more frequently than evening types that they had breakfast every morning and brushed their teeth twice a day. More evening types were categorized as at high risk of caries. Circadian rhythm, breakfast habits and toothbrushing frequency were associated with a high risk of caries. The predicted probability of being at high risk of caries was almost four times higher for evening types than for morning types (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-10.9).

CONCLUSION: Adolescents who belonged to the evening circadian rhythm group brushed their teeth more seldom, ate breakfast less regularly and had a higher risk of caries than morning types. A patient's circadian rhythm should be considered when planning oral health education for adolescents with a high risk of caries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 14, no 3, 220-225 p.
Keyword [en]
circadian rhythm; diet habits; Morningness–eveningness; oral hygiene
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Research subject
Health and Welfare
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-19834DOI: 10.1111/idh.12165ISI: 000379948100009PubMedID: 26198407OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-19834DiVA: diva2:865401
Available from: 2015-10-28 Created: 2015-10-28 Last updated: 2016-08-11Bibliographically approved

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Öhrn, KerstinJönsson, Birgitta
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