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Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH. (SERC)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6722-3220
Falu Energi och Vatten.
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9943-9878
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. (SERC)
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Renovation of existing buildings plays an important part in the work towards European climate and energy goals. The present paper treats energy efficiency renovation measures for a district heated Swedish multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Five HVAC systems were studied in combination with three renovation levels, starting from basic renovation to maintain functionality and then adding 1) better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, and 2) additional insulation on roof and façade. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump. Life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO₂ emissions and non-renewable energy use were assessed for all combinations.

The system with the lowest cost and environmental impact was, in most cases, the one where district heating and heat pump were combined for both heating and DHW. Low-temperature heating improved the performance factor of the heat pump, but reduced the heat output and increased the need for backup heating. Changing windows and water taps was found to be profitable, while additional insulation reduced the environmental impact but increased the life cycle cost.

Keyword [en]
District heating, air heat recovery, low-temperature heating, heat pump, LCC, environmental analysis
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-20269OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-20269DiVA: diva2:872436
Available from: 2015-11-18 Created: 2015-11-18 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy efficient and economic renovation of residential buildings with low-temperature heating and air heat recovery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficient and economic renovation of residential buildings with low-temperature heating and air heat recovery
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the building sector accounting for around 40% of the total energy consumption in the EU, energy efficiency in buildings is and continues to be an important issue. Great progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption in new buildings, but the large stock of existing buildings with poor energy performance is probably an even more crucial area of focus. This thesis deals with energy efficiency measures that can be suitable for renovation of existing houses, particularly low-temperature heating systems and ventilation systems with heat recovery. The energy performance, environmental impact and costs are evaluated for a range of system combinations, for small and large houses with various heating demands and for different climates in Europe. The results were derived through simulation with energy calculation tools.

Low-temperature heating and air heat recovery were both found to be promising with regard to increasing energy efficiency in European houses. These solutions proved particularly effective in Northern Europe as low-temperature heating and air heat recovery have a greater impact in cold climates and on houses with high heating demands. The performance of heat pumps, both with outdoor air and exhaust air, was seen to improve with low-temperature heating. The choice between an exhaust air heat pump and a ventilation system with heat recovery is likely to depend on case specific conditions, but both choices are more cost-effective and have a lower environmental impact than systems without heat recovery. The advantage of the heat pump is that it can be used all year round, given that it produces DHW.

Economic and environmental aspects of energy efficiency measures do not always harmonize. On the one hand, lower costs can sometimes mean larger environmental impact; on the other hand there can be divergence between different environmental aspects. This makes it difficult to define financial subsidies to promote energy efficiency measures.

Abstract [sv]

Byggnader står för omkring 40 % av den totala energianvändningen i EU. Energieffektivisering av byggnader är och fortsätter därför att vara en viktig fråga. Även om stora framsteg har gjorts när det gäller att minska energianvändningen i nya byggnader så är det stora beståndet av befintliga byggnader med dålig energiprestanda förmodligen ett ännu viktigare område att fokusera på. Denna avhandling behandlar energieffektiviseringsåtgärder som kan lämpa sig för renovering av befintliga hus, i synnerhet lågtemperaturvärmesystem och ventilationssystem med värmeåtervinning. Energiprestanda, miljöpåverkan och kostnader utvärderas för en rad systemkombinationer, för små och stora hus med olika värmebehov och för olika klimat i Europa. Resultaten togs fram genom simuleringar med energiberäkningsprogram.

Lågtemperatursystem och värmeåtervinning framstod båda som lovande lösningar för energieffektivisering av europeiska hus, särskilt i norra Europa, eftersom dessa åtgärder har större effekt i kalla klimat och på hus med stort värmebehov. Prestandan för värmepumpar, såväl av utelufts- som frånluftstyp, förbättrades med lågtemperaturvärmesystem. Valet mellan frånluftsvärmepump och värmeåtervinning till ventilationsluft kan antas bero på specifika förhållanden för varje fall, men de är båda mer kostnadseffektiva och har lägre miljöpåverkan än system utan värmeåtervinning. Värmepumpen har fördelen att den kan återvinna värme året runt, förutsatt att den producerar varmvatten.

Ekonomiska och miljömässiga aspekter av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder stämmer inte alltid överens. Dels lägre kostnad ibland betyda större miljöpåverkan, dels kan det finnas divergens mellan olika miljöaspekter. Detta gör det svårt att fastställa subventioner för att främja energieffektiviseringsåtgärder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Universitetsservice AB, 2015. 27 p.
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments, iNSPiRE
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-20270 (URN)978-91-7595-664-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-09-18, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-11-19 Created: 2015-11-18 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved

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