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Evaluation of a thermally driven heat pump for solar heating and cooling applications
Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalens högskola.
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Exploiting solar energy technology for both heating and cooling purposes has the potential of meeting an appreciable portion of the energy demand in buildings throughout the year. By developing an integrated, multi-purpose solar energy system, that can operate all twelve months of the year, a high utilisation factor can be achieved which translates to more economical systems. However, there are still some techno-economic barriers to the general commercialisation and market penetration of such technologies. These are associated with high system and installation costs, significant system complexity, and lack of knowledge of system implementation and expected performance. A sorption heat pump module that can be integrated directly into a solar thermal collector has thus been developed in order to tackle the aforementioned market barriers. This has been designed for the development of cost-effective pre-engineered solar energy system kits that can provide both heating and cooling.

This thesis summarises the characterisation studies of the operation of individual sorption modules, sorption module integrated solar collectors and a full solar heating and cooling system employing sorption module integrated collectors. Key performance indicators for the individual sorption modules showed cooling delivery for 6 hours at an average power of 40 W and a temperature lift of 21°C. Upon integration of the sorption modules into a solar collector, measured solar radiation energy to cooling energy conversion efficiencies (solar cooling COP) were between 0.10 and 0.25 with average cooling powers between 90 and 200 W/m2 collector aperture area. Further investigations of the sorption module integrated collectors implementation in a full solar heating and cooling system yielded electrical cooling COP ranging from 1.7 to 12.6 with an average of 10.6 for the test period.

Additionally, simulations were performed to determine system energy and cost saving potential for various system sizes over a full year of operation for a 140 m2 single-family dwelling located in Madrid, Spain. Simulations yielded an annual solar fraction of 42% and potential cost savings of €386 per annum for a solar heating and cooling installation employing 20m2 of sorption integrated collectors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalens Högskola , 2015.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 222
Keyword [en]
solar energy; solar heating and cooling; sorption integrated
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments, Reesbe företagsforskarskola
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-20321ISBN: 9789174852400 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-20321DiVA: diva2:875033
Presentation
2015-11-26, Paros, Mälardalens Högskola, Västerås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2016-03-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experimental evaluation of a novel absorption heat pump module for solar cooling applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evaluation of a novel absorption heat pump module for solar cooling applications
2015 (English)In: Science and Technology for the Built Environment, ISSN 2374-4731, Vol. 21, no 3, 323-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Given the environmental benefits of utilizing free thermal energy sources, such as waste heat and solar energy for cooling purposes, many developments have come about in thermally driven cooling. However, there are still some barriers to the general commercialization and market penetration of such technologies that are associated with system and installation costs, complexity, and maintenance. In efforts to overcome these limitations, a novel absorption heat pump module has been developed and tested. The module comprises a fully encapsulated sorption tube containing hygroscopic salt sorbent and water as a refrigerant, sealed under vacuum, and within which there are no moving parts. The absorption module consists of two main components, one that alternately functions as an absorber or generator and other that alternates between the roles of evaporator and condenser. The module therefore operates cyclically between a cooling delivery phase and a regeneration phase. Each module has a significant energy storage capacity with cooling delivery phases ranging from 6-10 h in length with temperature lifts between 16 degrees C and 25 degrees C. The modules are optimized for integration directly into a solar thermal collector, for roof or facade installation, for daytime regeneration and night-time cooling delivery. Collector integrated modules would be completely modular maintenance-free absorption heat pumps with similar installation requirements to standard solar thermal collectors. This article describes the test method and performance characteristics of the individual absorption modules.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-19811 (URN)10.1080/10789669.2014.990336 (DOI)000362067900010 ()
Available from: 2015-10-23 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2016-04-01Bibliographically approved
2. Demonstration of Solar Heating and Cooling System using Sorption Integrated Solar Thermal Collectors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demonstration of Solar Heating and Cooling System using Sorption Integrated Solar Thermal Collectors
2014 (English)In: EuroSun 2014 / ISES Conference Proceedings (2014), ISES , 2014Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Producing cost-competitive small and medium-sized solar cooling systems is currently a significant challenge. Due to system complexity, extensive engineering, design and equipment costs; the installation costs of solar thermal cooling systems are prohibitively high. In efforts to overcome these limitations, a novel sorption heat pump module has been developed and directly integrated into a solar thermal collector. The module comprises a fully encapsulated sorption tube containing hygroscopic salt sorbent and water as a refrigerant, sealed under vacuum with no moving parts. A 5.6m2 aperture area outdoor laboratory-scale system of sorption module integrated solar collectors was installed in Stockholm, Sweden and evaluated under constant re-cooling and chilled fluid return temperatures in order to assess collector performance. Measured average solar cooling COP was 0.19 with average cooling powers between 120 and 200 Wm-2 collector aperture area. It was observed that average collector cooling power is constant at daily insolation levels above 3.6 kWhm-2 with the cooling energy produced being proportional to solar insolation. For full evaluation of an integrated sorption collector solar heating and cooling system, under the umbrella of a European Union project for technological innovation, a 180 m2 large-scale demonstration system has been installed in Karlstad, Sweden. Results from the installation commissioned in summer 2014 with non-optimised control strategies showed average electrical COP of 10.6 and average cooling powers between 140 and 250 Wm-2 collector aperture area. Optimisation of control strategies, heat transfer fluid flows through the collectors and electrical COP will be carried out in autumn 2014.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ISES, 2014
Keyword
solar cooling, air conditioning, sorption, heat pump. thermo-chemical storage
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energi, skog och byggd miljö, Reesbe företagsforskarskola
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-15619 (URN)
Conference
EuroSun 2014, Aix-les-Bains (France), 16 – 19 September 2014
Available from: 2014-09-13 Created: 2014-09-13 Last updated: 2015-12-01Bibliographically approved
3. Techno-economic evaluation of solar-assisted heating and cooling systems with sorption module integrated solar collectors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic evaluation of solar-assisted heating and cooling systems with sorption module integrated solar collectors
2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 70, 409-417 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Currently the use of solar energy for heating and cooling isn't widespread. In order to reduce primary energy consumption in the built environment along with improving the thermal performance of the current building stock, retrofit solutions are required to utilise renewable energy. Using solar energy to reduce primary energy consumption is seen as a possible solution. With the precipitous fall in the prices of crystalline solar photovoltaic modules, utilising this technology to reduce electrical energy consumption for cooling is an attractive solution. Recently, a sorption module integrated collector has been developed in order to improve cost-effectiveness and simplify solar thermal heating and cooling systems. A techno-economic analysis has been performed to evaluate solar photovoltaic cooling and solar thermal cooling systems for residential renewable energy retrofit. The analysis is based on potential energy and cost savings according to simulated heating and cooling loads under climatic conditions of Madrid, Spain. Simplified models were used to determine heating and cooling demands and the solar energy contribution to heating and cooling loads. Additionally, given the sorption collector's unique capacity to store solar energy thermally and provide cooling at night an analysis has been carried out to identify the combined benefit of solar-assisted heating and cooling via photovoltaics during the day and solar sorption at night. For system sizes between 5m(2) and 20m(2) solar fractions between 16% and 64% could be achieved which translated to annual energy cost savings between (sic)153 to (sic)615. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keyword
solar cooling, sorption, photvoltaic, solar heating
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-19011 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.02.142 (DOI)000358196500051 ()
Conference
3rd International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry (SHC), OCT 13-15, 2014, Beijing, China
Available from: 2015-08-14 Created: 2015-08-14 Last updated: 2016-11-25Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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