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Effekter av icke-farmakologiska metoder vid beteendemässiga och psykiska symtom hos personer som lever med Alzheimers sjukdom: En litteraturöversikt
Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
2016 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
: Effects of non-pharmacological interventions for people affected by Alzheimer`s disease with BPSD (English)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Alzheimers sjukdom (AD) är den vanligaste formen av

demenssjukdomar och antalet människor som insjuknar i AD förväntas öka

kraftigt med tiden. Dessutom kännetecknas personer med AD ofta av

beteendemässiga och psykiska symtom (BPSD) som kan innefatta agitation,

depression, vanföreställningar, oro, ångest, hallucinationer, sömnrubbningar,

rastlöshet och apati. Dessa symtom kan orsaka lidande hos patienten och är svåra

att hantera för både vårdgivaren och anhöriga, samt försvårar omvårdnadsarbetet.

Syftet var att beskriva icke-farmakologiska metoder och effekter av dessa metoder

vid omvårdnad av personer med Alzheimers sjukdom som har beteendemässiga

och psykiska symtom.

Metod: En litteraturöversikt bestående av 16 utvalda kvantitativa

forskningsartiklar har genomförts. Artiklarna publicerades mellan år 2006-2016.

Resultat. De studerade icke-farmakologiska metoderna var musikterapi, vissa

typer av massage, reminiscence-terapi, vårdhundterapi och ljusterapi. Resultaten

visade att icke-farmakologiska metoder kan ha en varierande effekt på BPSD.

Litteraturöversikten visade att musikintervention var mest effektiv för att minska

agitationsbeteende. Individualiserad musik i samband med speciella minnen

minskade stress, fobier hos personer med svår demens. Intervention av

handmassage, aromaterapi, taktil massage och terapeutisk beröring minskade

aggression och agitationsbeteende. Vissa studier visade dock att

fotmassageintervention och vårdhundterapi kunde öka verbal aggressivitet hos

personer med demens, medan en annan studie visade att djurassisterade aktiviteter

kunde minska nedstämdhet medan glädje och generell uppmärksamhet ökade.

Effekten av ljusbehandling var förbättrad sömn, minskad depression, agitation och

ätstörningar.

Slutsats. Icke-farmakologiska metoder kan minska beteendemässiga och psykiska

symtom hos personer med Alzheimers sjukdom, dock med varierande effekt. De

varierande resultaten kan tolkas som att icke-farmakologiska metoder bör

individanpassas och att det behövs vidare forskning inom området.

Abstract [en]

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common of dementia and the

number of people diagnosed with AD is expected to rise significantly over time. In

addition, people diagnosed with AD often exhibit the Behavioural and

Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD), which include agitation,

depression, delusions, agitation, anxiety, hallucinations, sleep disturbances,

anxiety and apathy. These symptoms can cause suffer to the patient and is difficult

to manage for both the caregiver and family members, as well as hampers nursing.

Aim: the aim was to describe non-pharmacological methods and effects of these

methods when caring for people with Alzheimer's disease who have behavioural

and psychological symptoms.

Method: a literature review consisting of 16 selected quantitative research articles

has been performed. The selected articles ware published between years 2006-

2016.

Results: The studied non-pharmacological methods were: music therapy, certain

types of massage, reminiscence therapy, dog therapy and light therapy. The results

showed that non-pharmacological methods can have a varying effect on BPSD.

The literature review showed that music intervention was most effective in

reducing agitated behaviour. Individualized music in conjunction with special

memories reduced stress, phobias for persons with severe dementia. The hand

massage, aroma therapy, tactile massage and therapeutic touch decreased

aggression and agitated behaviour. Some studies showed that foot massage

intervention and dog therapy could increase the verbal aggression for people with

dementia, while another study showed that animal-assisted activities could reduce

depression and increase joy and general attention. The effect of light therapy was

an improved sleep, decreased depression, agitation, and eating disorders.

Conclusions: non-pharmacological nursing interventions can reduce behavioural

and psychological symptoms for people with Alzheimer's disease, however, with

varying effect. The varying results can be interpreted as following: nonpharmacological

nursing interventions should be adapted in each individual case

and that there is a need for further research in this area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016.
Keyword [en]
Alzheimer's disease, BPSD, non-pharmacological interventions, effect
Keyword [sv]
Alzheimers sjukdom, BPSD, icke-farmakologiska metoder, effekt
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:du-21673OAI: oai:DiVA.org:du-21673DiVA: diva2:936048
Available from: 2016-06-13 Created: 2016-06-13 Last updated: 2016-06-13

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