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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Enander, Mats
    Olsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Fallstudierapport: Iggesunds bruk. Efterbehandlingen. Arbetsrapport1993Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Enander, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Olsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Förstudie av massabalshanteringen vid Iggesunds kartongbruk: arbetsrapport1996Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Ökad förståelse bland företagsledare för nyttan av utvecklingsinsatser inom arbetsmiljöområdet2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Föreliggande rapport avser en delstudie inom projektet Attraktiv Konkurrenskraft (AKK) Syftet med detta arbete är att utvärdera fem metoder som kan ”väcka insikt” om nyttan av att starta utvecklingsaktiviteter för att bättre ta tillvara de mänskliga resurserna i arbetet. Baserat på detta ska en metod väljas för fördjupade studier. Drivkrafterna för att skapa bra arbetsmiljöer är många. Den primära kan sägas vara den humanitära drivkraften. Förutom de överväganden som ligger till grund för arbetsmiljölagstiftning och avtal mellan arbetsmarknadens parter finns alltså goda skäl för företagare att prioritera arbetsmiljöarbete. Den fråga som berörs i detta arbete är i vad mån det är möjligt att genom enkla insatser påverka en arbetsmiljöansvarig chefs benägenhet att gå till beslut om att genomföra insatser för att utveckla förutsättningarna för att bättre nyttja de mänskliga resurserna i organisationen. Målet är att chefen bestämmer sig för att påbörja en beslutsprocess om utvecklingsaktiviteter för att ta tillvara de mänskliga resurserna i arbetet vilket ökar förutsättningarna att rekrytera, behålla och engagera kompetent personal. Som resultat av förstudien har fem olika insiktsmetoder utvecklats och anpassats. Dessa metoder har kallats GAP-analys, Fokusgrupper Attraktivt Arbete, Visit, Riskanalys och Scenario. De tio företagen som deltog hade mellan 11 och 39 anställda, och deras verksamheter var inom områdena tillverkning, reparation och underhåll. Resultat från användning av metoderna visar att alla metoderna uppfyller kriterierna att vara enkla att förstå och snabba att genomföra. Fokusgrupper, Visit och Riskanalys ger konkret vägledning för fortsatt utvecklingsarbete. Fokusgrupper ger ett brett underlag för en fortsättning som bygger på dialog, en djupare analys på individnivå samt har psykiska och sociala dimensioner. Därmed sågs Fokusgrupper som den mest intressanta metoden att gå vidare med. Denna studie indikerar att det finns möjlighet att påverka ledare att ta beslut om aktiviteter för att utveckla den mänskliga resursen. Det finns därmed anledning att ytterligare studera ett antal företag där en och samma metod används. Valet har fallit på Fokusgrupper, även om andra metoder skulle vara tänkbara. Abstract This report concerns a sub-study of the project attractive competitiveness (AKK). The aim of the work is to evaluate five methods that are supposed to” raise awereness” about the advantages of initiating activities to better utilize human resources at work. Based on that shall one method be elected for depend studies. The driving forces for creation of good work environments are many. The primary can be said to be the humanitarian driving force. Except for the considerations that are behind the work environment legislations and agreements between social partners is therefore good reasons for entrepreneurs to give priority to work environment work. The focus of this study is to which extent it is possible by a limited input influence the liability of a manager with responsibilities for the work environment to take decisions to start a process aimed at improving the use of the human resources in the company. The goal is that the manager decides to start such a process which also is supposed to recruit, retain and engage competent staff. In the sub-study have five insight methods been developed or adapted. Those methods have been named gap-analysis, focus groups attractive work, visit, risk analysis, and scenario. The ten participating companies employed between eleven and thirty-nine persons. The companies represented different branches as production, repair work and maintenance. The results from the test of the methods shows that they all meet the criteria’s to be simple to understand and quick to carry through. Focus groups attractive work, visit, and risk analysis gives substantial guidance for further development work. Focus groups attractive work gives a broad base for a continuation built on a dialogue, a deeper analyses of individual level as well as mental and social dimensions. Of that reason chosen for deepened studies. This study indicates that there are possibilities to influence managers to decide about activities aimed at better use of human resources. There are therefore reasons to make further studies in a number of companies where the elected method is used.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    PIMEX 2008 for the aluminium industry. Visualised training material and manual.2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PIMEX in the aluminiumindustry. It is not always self-evident what should be done to minimize the elements that create problems in the work environment. Which initiatives are most effective in improving the air quality? How can we decrease noise and vibration? How should we work in order to decrease the risk of strain injuries? Often is it possible to significantly reduce these risks without bigger investments, simply by making these hazards visible. The PIMEX-method does this clearly by simultaneously filming and monitoring the workplace so that such hazards – air pollutants, for example – can be traced. PIMEX has shown itself to be an effective tool for implementing work environment improvements.

  • 5.
    Bergman Bruhn, Åsa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Attraktivt arbete i stallet2020Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 6.
    Bergman Bruhn, Åsa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rydell, Alexis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE.
    Med stallet som arbetsplats: en studie om upplevelsen av attraktivt arbete på ridskolor.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 7.
    Byron Carlsson, T
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Eskilander, Stephan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Johansson, Roger
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Peterson, P
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    A Flowchart Method for Design For Automatic Assembly1998In: International Forum on DFMA, 1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Byron Carlsson, T
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Eskilander, Stephan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    Johansson, Roger
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Peterson, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Production Engineering.
    A structured set of concrete rules for design for automatic assembly1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Daniels, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Inspirationsbenchmarking för förbättrad verksamhet för ABB Components i Ludvika2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 10.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalens högskola, Inbyggda system.
    Videography as Design Nexus: Critical Inquires into the Affordances and Efficacies of Live-action Video Instructions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about live-action instructional videos (LAVs). By addressing design problems with respect to the how-to video genre, the thesis asks fundamental questions about mediated instructional communication efficacies and the factors that either obstruct or augment them. 

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on the notion that videography is a design nexus and key focal point of the connections that make live-action video instructional efforts possible. This Design Nexus is explored by defining and illuminating key ontological dimensions, medium specificities and the video users’ cognitive capacities. This is to acknowledge that the users of instructions in this thesis are center stage, both as biological and cultural beings.

    The methods used in this thesis and its associated papers are eye-tracking, video observations, questionnaires, self-reports, focus group interviews and YouTube analytics. Hence, both numerical data and non-numerical data are analyzed in this study.

    The results of the analyses indicate that pre-production planning is key in live-action video instructional endeavors, but not at the expense of the videographer’s status as designer. Moreover, the analyses show that users’ cognitive processing and visual decoding depend on the power of the live-action format to show actual human behavior and action. Other presented evidence seems to infer that LAV-instructions are a little less demanding if users apply a focused decoding style when interacting with them. Nevertheless, physiological engagement of this kind is likely not to fully compensate for users’ psychological engagement.

    This thesis contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of humans’ abilities to interpret the actions of others via medial means. By relating this to video medium-specific affordances, this thesis also furthers important efficacy distinctions and boundary conditions. This understanding is considered important for live-action video makers and designers of visual instructions as well as scholars who need to develop better methods to assess users’ behavioral engagement when they interact with digital instructional media.

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  • 11.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Activities for improved attractiveness in the woodworking industry2007In: 5:th Seminar on Worklife Development, Vesilahti, Finland, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Attractive work in progress2008In: 6:th Seminar on Worklife Development, Garpenberg, Sweden, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 13.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Attraktivitetens dynamik - studier av förändringar av arbetets attraktivitet2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This thesis takes a point of departure in the problems to recruit and retain personnel in woodworking companies. Companies, actors of society and researchers started with the ambition to create work which people, especially young ones, would like to have and where employees want to stay. The research has been carried out within the att…-project in collaboration between Dalarna University and National Institute for Working Life. The primary purpose was to create deeper understanding of characteristics of attractive work. A distinction has been made between on the one hand what makes work attractive, and on the other hand changes of the attractiveness. The empirical problem with recruitment was a starting point, followed by an interaction between theory and empiricism. The relation to practioners can be described as interactive with usefulness in focus. Questionnaires, group discussions and interviews, as well as informal conversations, have been used in five separate studies. The attractiveness of work depends on the individual’s estimation of the totality of work based upon her/his life situation. Characteristic for attractive work is that it is dynamic and comparative. Positive factors of work are related to other employments or to the idea of attractive work. A model of attractive work which represents an overall picture regarding what makes work attractive contains about 80 qualities in 22 dimensions. One finding is that changes in one dimension influences other dimensions. Another finding is that changed estimations of work depends both on changed valuation of the importance of different aspects of work, and on changed conception of the aspects. It is not enough to do a single effort aimed at retaining and recruiting personnel since the attractiveness of work is dynamic and comparisons are made with other employments. Companies must continuously do efforts for more attractive work. Existing attractive qualities that are hidden from applicants can be displayed. Other qualities can be realized and added to. Knowledge about what makes work attractive and about the dynamic of the attractiveness is valuable to create more attractive work.

  • 14.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Från elev till verksam timmerman - en utvecklingsprocess: Utbildning, yrkeserfarenhet och arbetets attraktivitet2006Book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Fysisk arbetsmiljö vid nätbaserad undervisning: En kartläggning vid Högskolan Dalarna2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en redovisning av ett arbete kring fysisk arbetsmiljö för lärare vid nätbaserad undervisning. Brister avseende den fysiska arbetsmiljön är identifierade fördelat på de tre områdena kontor, föreläsningssal och inspelningsmiljö. Även andra arbetsmiljöfaktorer som identifierats under arbetets gång är noterade. Önskemålet är att läraren i största möjliga mån ska slippa behöva tänka på tekniska förutsättningar. Förslag på lösningar ges för såväl föreläsningssal, inspelningsmiljö och kontorsrum. Utvecklingsmöjligheterna är många och genom att åtgärda bristerna i enlighet med föreslagna åtgärder samt att sprida framgångsfaktorer kan en förbättrad arbetsmiljö för lärare vid nätbaserad undervisning erhållas. Ett behov av en övergripande strategi för hur Högskolan Dalarna ska arbeta för att förbättra arbetsmiljön för lärare som arbetar med nätbaserad undervisning har identifierats, liksom att en samordnande person med ansvar för såväl fysisk, som psykisk och social arbetsmiljö vid nätbaserad undervisning utses.

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  • 16.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Moving loghouse production indoors influence the experience of the work attractiveness2005In: Fourth Seminar on Worklife Development, Bjurfors, Sverige, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Practical experiences from use of the Attractive Work model2004In: Third Seminar on WorkLife Development, Imatra, Finland, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Vi och vår arbetsplats: - beskrivning och utvärdering av en utbildning, samt dess påverkan på arbetsmiljöarbetet ur ett regionalt samverkans perspektiv2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbildningen Vi och vår arbetsplats utgör ett exempel på regional samverkan kring arbetsmiljöarbete. Den ansågs intressant att beskriva och utvärdera med tanke på att förutsättningar för samverkan fanns mellan arbetsplatser, mellan regionala arbetsmiljöaktörer (utbildningsanordnare) samt mellan arbetsplatser och regionala arbetsmiljöaktörer. Syftet är att beskriva och utvärdera arbetsmiljöutbildningen Vi och vår arbetsplats. Frågor som avses att besvara är hur deltagare och kursledning ser på utbildningen, samt hur den kan förbättras, likväl som vilket arbetsmiljöarbete samt vilka kontakter inom arbetsmiljöområdet som kommit till stånd till följd av utbildningen. Vi och vår arbetsplats är en tvådagarsutbildning uppdelad på två kurstillfällen à en dag med en mellanliggande arbetsuppgift. Utbildningen vänder sig till olika arbetsplatser inom en region och förutsätter att en arbetsmiljöansvarig och en personalrepresentant deltar från varje arbetsplats. Ambitionen är att deltagarnas önskemål ska styra innehållet varför kursledningen förutsätts ha en bred kompetens inom arbetsmiljöområdet. Arbetsmiljöansvariga och skyddsombud från åtta arbetsplatser inom Borlänge kommun representerande vård, skola och administration deltog i den studerade utbildningen. Utvärderingen gjordes genom deltagande, enkäter, intervjuer och fokusgrupp. Sammantaget var kursdeltagarna mycket positiva till utbildningen. Framförallt uppskattades att både chef och skyddsombud deltog, att lära sig att arbetsmiljöarbetet är en process, utbytet av erfarenheter samt det psykosociala innehållet. De områden som kunde förbättras var främst lokalerna, samt bättre presentationer och dokumentation till varandra av deltagarnas projektarbeten. Även kursledningen såg utifrån sitt perspektiv områden som kunde utvecklas, t ex samordningen inom kursledningen. Samtliga arbetsplatser hade fortsatt med sina projektarbeten efter utbildningen och därtill bedrivit annat arbetsmiljöarbete. Utbildningen bidrog till att väcka och/eller bibehålla ett engagemang för arbetsmiljöarbete bland kursdeltagarna. Kursdeltagarna började snabbt kommunicera med varandra och utbyta erfarenheter. Även medarbetare till kursdeltagarna blev involverade i arbetsmiljöarbetet och exempel fanns på att effekterna spred sig till närliggande avdelningar. Den övergripande slutsatsen är att utbildningskonceptet Vi och vår arbetsplats är framgångsrikt. Starkt bidragande är att både chefer och skyddsombud från samma arbetsplats deltar. Andra slutsatser är att utbildningen bidrar till att väcka och/eller bibehålla ett engagemang för arbetsmiljöarbete bland kursdeltagarna samt att kommunikation och erfarenhetsutbyte mellan personer på olika arbetsplatser inom arbetsmiljöområdet gynnas av utbildningen. Några förbättringsförslag kan ges för utbildningen Vi och vår arbetsplats sett ur ett regionalt samverkansperspektiv för att stödja arbetsmiljöarbetet. Ett är att i än högre grad applicera innehållet till deltagarnas verksamheter. Ett annat är att inrikta utbildningens innehåll på praktiskt tillämpbar kunskap och den grundläggande arbetsmiljökunskap som då erfodras. Ett tredje är att öka samstämmigheten inom kursledningen avseende mål, pedagogik och roller. Därtill kan kommunikation och erfarenhetsutbyte mellan kursdeltagarna underlättas genom tidig spridning av kontaktuppgifter (e-post), samt dokumentation av arbetsuppgifterna. Slutligen bör den ursprungliga utbildningsplanen kompletteras med en uppföljning efter 3-6 månader och fortsatta möten stödjas.

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  • 19.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Work environment improvements in small woodworking industries2004In: Third Seminar on WorkLife Development, Imatra, Finland, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Bullerförekomst vid sönderdelning av skogsbränsle2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att öka kunskapen om bullerexponering för omgivning och förare vid sönderdelning av skogsbränsle till flis. Sammanlagt har sex fallstudier genomförts, tre skotare, två lastbilar och en mobil anläggning. Fallen har valts med syftet att representera olika typer av sönderdelningsekipage och teknik. Studierna har genomförts i Dalarnas, Stockholms och Gävleborgs län. Bullerexponering för omgivning och förare i samband med sönderdelning till flis har undersökts med föreskrivna metoder.

    Det är stora skillnader på bullerexponering för förarna av de olika ekipagen. En skotarförare har daglig bullerexponering under såväl insats- som gränsvärde. Två förare (en skotarförare och en lastbilsförare) överskred insatsvärde, men var under gränsvärdet. Övriga förares bullerexponering överskred gränsvärdet.

    Alla maskiner har bullernivåer över 40/45 dB(A) på 200 meters avstånd, vilket överstiger acceptabla nivåer dagtid för områden med fritidsbebyggelse och fritidsområden. Endast ett av ekipagen (en skotare) hade bullernivåer på 200 meters avstånd i nivå med riktlinjer för områden med bostäder för permanent boende.  Övriga ekipage hade högre värden.

    De slutsatser som kan göras från denna studie är:

    • Merparten av förare vid sönderdelning av skogsbränsle till flis exponeras för dagliga bullernivåer som kräver åtgärder.
    • Bullernivåerna varierar mellan olika typer av ekipage för sönderdelning av skogsbränsle till flis.

    Studerade ekipage har högre värden för buller på 200 meters avstånd till bostäder, arbetslokaler och friluftsområden än vad som rekommenderas.

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    Bullerförekomst vid sönderdelning av skogsbränsle WP 2013:4
  • 21.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Damm- och mögelförekomst vid hantering av skogsbränsle2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har indikerat att exponering för trädamm och mögeldamm vid hantering av GROT (grenar och toppar) kan vara en hälsorisk. Syftet med denna studie är att ytterligare öka kunskapen om dammförhållanden inom skogsenergibranschen. Mer specifikt är målet att genom fallstudier studera dammförekomst vid hantering av GROT samt stubbar. Enstaka fallstudier av mögelförekomst i förarmiljön inkluderas.

    Sammanlagt har 19 fallstudier genomförts hos tio olika företag i Dalarna, Västmanland, ödermanland, Uppland, och Närke. Totaldamm har mätts med filterprovtagning inne i hytten och utanför hytten. Mögel har mätts med filterprovtagning inne i hytten.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan konstateras att vid samtliga fall av skotning uppmättes förhöjda dammnivåer utomhus. Högst dammnivåer uppmättes vid sönderdelning av GROT vid olika årstider. Förare som utförde arbete utanför hytten exponerades för högre dammnivåer än de som enbart arbetade inifrån hytten. De enstaka fallstudierna av mögel visade på relativt låga värden av mögelsporer. Arbetsmomentet såsom byte av knivar indikerade ökade mögelhalter.

    Slutsatser från denna studie är:

    • Inga höga damm och mögelhalter har uppmätts i dessa fallstudier. Då väderförhållandena innebar mer nederbörd än i genomsnitt är resultaten inte generaliserbara.
    • Förhöjda dammhalter uppmättes då förare utfört service och underhållsarbete utanför hytten.
    • I studerade fall där dammängden utanför hytten var förhöjd har inga dammhalter mätts upp inne i hytterna, vilket tyder på bra luftfilter.

    Rekommendationer till förare är att:

    • Regelbundet byta hyttens luftfilter och att hålla fönster och dörrar stängda för att förhindra dammexponering inne i hytten.
    • Vid service- och underhållsarbete ska föraren i möjligaste mån undvika att använda tryckluft. Andningsskydd bör användas under de korta moment som tryckluft används.
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  • 22.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Förarens arbetsmiljö2015In: Skogens energi – en källa till hållbar framtid: Sammanfattande rapport från Effektivare Skogsbränslesystem 2011-2015 / [ed] C. H. Palmér & M. Iwarsson Wide, Uppsala: Skogforsk , 2015, p. 82-83Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 2009 har Tema Arbetsliv vid Högskolan Dalarna arbetat med arbetsmiljöfrågor vid hantering av skogsbränsle. I det tidigare ESS-programmet studerades bland annat kunskapsutbyte mellan entreprenörer, skogsenergibranschens attraktivitet, beställaransvar, mögeldamm och systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete. Under programperioden 2011–2014 har fördjupade studier genomförts kring buller, damm och mögel, helkroppsvibrationer samt service- och reparationsarbete. Dessutom har förarnas uppfattning om arbetsförhållanden och arbetsmiljörisker följts upp i en enkät.  Resultaten från dessa studier redovisas här.

  • 23.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Bjurström, Rasmus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Arbetsmiljöfaktorer i skogsenergibranschen: Fallstudier med fokus på buller, vibrationer och damm2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en komplettering till den tidigare rapporten Arbetsmiljö vid hantering av skogsenergi (Hedlund m fl, 2010). Syftet med denna studie är att ytterligare öka kunskapen om förhållanden inom skogsenergibranschen avseende arbetsmiljö och ergonomiska möjligheter. Mer specifikt var målet att genom fallstudier studera skördning och skotning av stubbar samt mäta exponering av damm, buller och vibrationer vid olika delprocesser. I denna studie har arbetsmiljöanalyser i form av fallstudier genomförts för processerna skotning av stubbar med skotare, skördning av stubbar med grävmaskin försedd med stubbrytningsaggregat, samt sönderdelning av GROT med skotare och lastbil försedda med sönderdelningsaggregat. Arbetsmiljöanalyserna har fokuserat på buller, vibrationer och damm, därtill har ergonomisk checklista använts för att undersöka de ergonomiska förhållandena. Fallstudierna har genomförts i Dalarna, Närke och Gästrikland, samt i Finland. Den ekvivalenta ljudnivån i maskinerna varierade mellan 68 och 82 dB(A). I två av åtta fall översteg ljudnivån insatsvärdet. De fall ljudnivån kom upp till eller översteg insatsvärdet var vid skördning av stubbar, 80 dB(A) och i kranhytt på lastbil vid sönderdelning av GROT, 82 dB(A). Uppmätta maximala ljudnivåer visar att inget ekipage översteg insatsvärdet för maximal A-vägd ljudtrycksnivå, 115 dB(A). Mätningarna och uppgifter från förare indikerar att ljudnivån vid sönderdelning ökar vid sönderdelning av större dimensioner. I två av fyra fall överskreds insatsvärdet för helkroppsvibrationer. Vid sönderdelning av GROT (ett av två ekipage) och vid stubbskördning (ett av två ekipage) överskreds insatsvärdena i x-led. Vid sönderdelning av GROT har genom mätningar med PIMEX identifierats att det främst var kranrörelser som påverkade vibrationsnivåerna. Därtill kan markförhållanden i form av ytstruktur och bärighet, samt hur hårt stubbarna sitter i marken (integrering) påverka vibrationsnivåerna. Vid skördning av stubbar visade mätningar med PIMEX att exponeringstoppar förekom vid skakning av stubbar, vridning av hytt, när skördningsaggregatet används till att skjuta iväg stubbar utmed marken eller till att jämna till marken och vid förflyttning. Resultaten från denna, såväl som tidigare studier, visar att helkroppsvibrationsnivåerna varierar mellan olika maskiner och olika arbetssituationer. Dammnivåerna i hytterna var låga, men höga och korta exponeringstoppar förekom vid servicearbete på sönderdelningsaggregaten. Trots torr väderlek och sönderdelning av brun GROT med mycket synligt damm utomhus var nivåerna inne i hytterna låga. PIMEX visar att de högsta exponeringstopparna förekom i samband med att föraren gick i och ur maskinen, samt vid byte av knivar i sönderdelningsaggregat. Regelbundna byten av luftfilter, noggrann montering av filter samt hur föraren positionerar maskinen i förhållande till vindriktningen är här av betydelse. Förarergonomin är relativt god i ordinära skogsmaskiner, medan den är bristfällig i kranhytt på lastbil. Dock förekom hos skotarna en till tre röda markeringar som innebär uppenbar risk för hälsoproblem, sjukdom eller skada. Kranhytten som ingått i studien har sämre ergonomi och klimatförhållanden (totalt sex röda makeringar). Genom att använda PIMEX har exponeringsnivåer för buller, vibrationer och damm kopplats till aktuella arbetsmoment vilket kan användas som underlag för att minska exponeringen.

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  • 24.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Björheden, Rolf
    Skogforsk.
    Skogsbränslehantering: En arbetsmiljöhandledning2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna handledning behandlar arbetsmiljön vid skördning, transport, och sönderdelning av sortimenten GROT, stubbar och klenskog. Den vänder sig till nuvarande och blivande maskinförare och arbetsledare.

  • 25.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    A (partly) new PIMEX strategy: To use the method for characterisation of exposure as a part of an epidemiological study2009In: 7:th Seminar on Worklife Development, Lappeenranta and Ruokolahti, Finland, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study is the overall aim to learn more about health effects of exposure. At the fertilizer production factory in Herøya Industripark, Porsgrunn, Norway is the occurrence of chronic occupational pulmonary disease (COPD) 9%. Questions have been raised if there is a correlation between decline in lung function and working conditions in fertilizer production. Occupational aerosols are known risk factors for COPD and gas exposure and dust affects the lung function. The study has been performed at seven different work places at Herøya Industripark. Average measurements for a sample of workers show low exposure. Those low exposures are not seen as an explanation to the occurrence of COPD. Instead questions were raised about health effects of exposure peaks. The aim is to develop a method using PIMEX in epidemiological studies. More precisely is the aim to identify peaks of work place exposure and use the data to refine questionnaires in follow up studies on lung function. In focus are work tasks when workers accomplish rounds during 30-90 minutes in the plant to control and maintain the production. Measurements were conducted at 20 rounds during a week in May 2009. Two PIMEX equipments with telemetry equipment for wireless transmission of the monitoring signal were used. One person was recording working operations while another was carrying the laptop and handling the PIMEX program during the monitoring. In this study was for example peak exposure of ammonia identified in connection with filter cleaning. That information can be used as basis to better understand the correlation between exposure and health effects. One way is to combine the information about peak exposure with information about how often the worker perform work tasks causing the peak. That information can then be related to the occurrence of COPD and decline in lung function. The identification of peaks also gives the possibility to identify when health measurements shall be done. For example, doing spirometry measurements directly before and after the peak exposure. Another experience from this study was to walk around during the measurements. The camera person and the laptop person had to walk close together because of short cables between the camera and the laptop. The plant had several floors and the pair went up and down many stairs during the rounds. Some experiences are: - The pair, recording person and laptop person, must synchronies their movements. - The telemetry for the monitoring signal went well. - High battery capacity is needed. - It is difficult to record the worker all the time if he/she walks fast and the work place has many stairs and small passages. - It is good to have some kind of equipment to carry the laptop with when using it walking around.

  • 26.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Attractive Work Process2009In: USE2009: Understanding Small Enterprises – a healthy working life in a healthy business, Elsinor, Danmark, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies both in Sweden and other parts of the world are since the beginning of the 21st century faceing a lack of work force (1,2,3). The ability to recruit and retain skilled employees is seen as one of the most important questions for the survival and development of the companies (4,5). Labour shortage is seen as the biggest obstacle for expansion for small enterprises in Sweden (5). There is a need for workplaces to be attractive, but how can the attractiveness be increased? Researchers at Högskolan Dalarna have during almost a decennium conducted research concerning attractive work. Based on a modell of qualities that contributes to make a work attractive (6) has a method aiming for raised attractiveness been developed for SME:s. All employees participate by answering a questionnaire about the importance of different qualities and to what degree they are fulfilled. Further discussions at the workplace on what to preserve and what to develop make the base for an action plan. Important experiences: • Discuss and establish the aim of the method with management and employees. • The company must be prepared to follow up and realize the action plan. • Agree about expectations – they must be realistic and practicable. • Reserve time to start the process and to end up in an action plan. • Avoid negative thinking and put problems away. • Take all the time small steps in the right direction. • Keep employees engaged and avoid the manager or process leader to take the command. • Use the strategy with small work groups; it gives better possibilities for participation and outspokenness. • Follow up studies are necessary to keep up the motivation. The most positive aspects of the method is its promoting perspective and that it engages all the employees. 1.Rauhut, D. (2002). Arbetskraftsbrist och arbetskraftsinvandring: hot eller möjlighet för ekonomisk tillväxt? Östersund, ITPS, Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier. 2.Funch, M. and C. Ehrnooth. (2008, 08-10-2008). Labour shortage despite financial crisis? Retrieved 2008-12-16, 2008, from www.norden.org/webb/news/news.asp?id=8113&lang=6. 3.Manpower (2008). Talent Shortage Survey 2008 Global Results: 10. 4.Bakker, A. B. and W. B. Schaufeli (2008). Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior 29: 147-154. 5.Kennemar, J. and L. Jagrén (2008). Småföretagsbarometern. Stockholm, Swedbank Företagarna: 23. 6.Åteg, M., A. Hedlund, et al. (2004). Attraktivt arbete. Från anställdas uttalanden till skapandet av en modell. Stockholm, Arbetslivsinstitutet.

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  • 27.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Är dagens arbeten attraktiva?2009In: Arbetet i människors liv, Göteborg, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 28.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Moström Åberg, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Pontén, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Attractive work2009In: 7:th Seminar on Worklife Development, Lappeenranta and Ruokolahti, Finland, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The model of Attractive Work was published 2004 (Åteg, Hedlund m fl. 2004). A questionnaire Questionnaire concerning Attractive Work was developed from the model (Högskolan Dalarna 2008). The questionnaire has been used during some years and at most occasions as a part in the Attractive Work Process. It is mostly researchers at Theme Working Life that have been using it, but also some supporting service companies. Data has been collected by the questionnaire during development work at companies or organizations. The results that will be presented are gathered from 16 different studies. Totally 1440 persons have filled in the questionnaire. They were employed at workplaces in different branches, for example estate management, parish work, museum, and elderly care. The results represent only these groups and are not representative for Swedish work force. The results shows that work is a relatively important aspect in the respondents life (3,8 on a scale 1-5). The main reason for working is to more than half of them “Earning a living and survival” (55,1%), two fifth says “Self-realization and good quality of life” (39,9%), and only a minor part says “material gain and a high standard of living” ( 5,0%). Most of them consider their current job as attractive to a big extent. The most important qualities to make a job attractive concern working conditions related to relations and leadership, as well as work satisfaction related to be sought after, stimulated and have inner acknowledgement. The two most important qualities are “I consider what I do to be important” and “I feel that I do a good job”. These important qualities correspond to a relatively high degree in the respondents’ current job, but there are still opportunities for development. The Attractive Work Process has been developed within interactive research and development projects. The process contains six steps – 1) Inform, plan and motivate, 2) Complete the questionnaire, 3) Analyze results, 4) Report results and prioritize, 5) Action plan, 6) Measure/evaluate. Central and important aspects of the process have been identified based on the experiences of participating researchers and companies. General important aspects are that the process is built on a promoting approach and engagement from all the employees. It is thereby important that the behavior of the process leader supports that approach. To make changes takes time and taking small steps in the right direction keeps the process moving forward. The process must be “living” all the time in order to be continuous. Högskolan Dalarna (2008). Questionnaire concerning Attractive Work. Borlänge: 5. Åteg, M., A. Hedlund, m fl. (2004). Attraktivt arbete. Från anställdas uttalanden till skapandet av en modell. Stockholm, Arbetslivsinstitutet.

  • 29.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Åteg, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Picking Apples2009In: 7:th Seminar on Worklife Development, Lappeenranta and Ruokolahti, Finland, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Attractive Work model was developed by Theme Working Life (Åteg, Hedlund m fl. 2004). To be able to measure attractiveness a questionnaire was developed from the model (Högskolan Dalarna 2004). The overall aim with the questionnaire is to provide a basis for the development of attractive work and workplaces. A change process with the questionnaire as a base has been developed in research and development projects together with SMEs. When following up the process at one company the thoughts about using the model itself, in the form as a tree, as a basis for development of attractive work and workplaces were born. The argument for using the model directly instead of results from the questionnaire was that in small groups, the employees can easily participate in immediate discussions based on the contents of the model. This results in a higher degree of involvement, quicker feedback and a visual representation that is easy to grasp and communicate. Development of a new method, called Picking Apples, has begun. So far a pilot study has been conducted at one company. The specific aim with the method is to raise the insight about the importance to better take care of the human resources for the organizations sustainability. This creates motivation to develop work for increased attractiveness and increased competitiveness. The Picking Apples method implies discussions around Attractive Work. One or more groups of employees discuss attractivity in different steps supported by a process leader. A whiteboard where the tree Attractive Work is drawn up is used as support to the discussion. The employees talk about what they perceive as attractive in their work, why that makes their work attractive and what can be done to increase the attractiveness. The most important qualities in the work are identified. The results of the discussions are documented with a camera. Afterwards the results of the discussions are presented to the manager. The results from the pilot study showed that the employees were engaged, and the manager appreciated the method and said that it had resulted in a better dialogue between the manager and the employees. Högskolan Dalarna (2004). Frågor om Attraktivt Arbete. Borlänge: 5. Åteg, M., A. Hedlund, m fl. (2004). Attraktivt arbete. Från anställdas uttalanden till skapandet av en modell. Stockholm, Arbetslivsinstitutet.

  • 30.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Pontén, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Införande av systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete på träföretag: Utvärdering av en metod, dess resultat och påverkan på arbetets attraktivitet2006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Träföretag i Dalarna förväntade sig att ett förbättrat och systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete (SAM) leder till attraktivare och bättre arbete, vilket i sin tur leder till förbättrad rekrytering av personal. Fem träföretag valde att delta i ett projekt där SAM infördes med en utvecklad metod kallad TräSAM. Projektet innehöll tre delar – genomförande av SAM, konsultstöd och revision. TräSAM-metoden bestod av ett utbildningsprogram som involverade alla anställda på företaget. Det övergripande syftet var att praktiskt prova och utvärdera TräSAM-metoden, samt att undersöka hur arbetets attraktivitet förändrats. I projektet ingick företag som tillverkade dörrar (25 anställda), hus (22), kökssnickerier (16) och träkomponenter (22) samt ett sågverk (90). Enkäter, deltagande och intervjuer i kombination med litteraturstudier användes för att utvärdera TräSAM. Samtliga anställda på företagen deltog i utvärderingen. Utvärderingen gjordes med avseende på process (metodens styrkor och svagheter), resultat och effekt, med utgångspunkt i företagens och deras personals behov. TräSAM-metoden innehåller till stor del de framgångsfaktorer som tidigare forskning identifierat för fungerande SAM i småföretag. Därtill har metoden motivations- och engagemangsskapande egenskaper. Metodens förtjänster är främst att företagen själva stegvis inför SAM, som ett lagarbete, med stöd av arbetsmiljöintermediärer. TräSAM-metoden har visat sig kunna genomföras på små företag som är beredda att avsätta de resurser som krävs för metodens genomförande. Arbetena blev attraktivare enligt de anställda på alla företag som deltog i TräSAM. Många kvaliteter i ett Attraktivt Arbete ökade signifikant, enligt personalen på fyra av de fem företagen. Såväl arbetsförhållanden, arbetsinnehåll som arbetstillfredsställelse ökade. Ett attraktivt arbete bidrar till att behålla, engagera och attrahera personal. Utvärderingen visar att genomförandet av TräSAM har bidragit till att öka arbetets attraktivitet. Ett företags önskan att erbjuda attraktiva arbeten kan alltså vara motiverande till att införa SAM. En väl genomförd implementering och ett fungerande SAM kan därmed också förbättra rekryteringen av personal.

  • 31.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Pontén, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Uppföljning av ”Ny kunskap ger Nya affärer” 20072011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tema Arbetsliv vid Högskolan Dalarna har tillsammans med företag och arbetsplatser utvecklat konkreta metoder och processer för attraktivare arbeten. Vår vilja är att dessa metoder sprids till många små och medelstora företag. Att stödja och utbilda ”stödjande tjänsteföretag”, såsom företagshälsovård, organisationskonsulter, m.fl., så att de kan kommersialisera de utvecklade metoderna ses som en bra strategi. ”Stödjande tjänsteföretag” i Dalarna bjöds in till 3-timmars informationsseminarier och halvdagarskurser för sex olika metoder. Totalt deltog 37 personer i planeringen och/eller i aktiviteterna. En uppföljning gjordes efter ett och ett halvt år genom intervjuer med 25 av dessa avseende det praktiska utförandet av aktiviteterna, metodernas design, den praktiska användningen av metoderna, kommersiell användning av metoderna och framtida samverkan. Följande slutsatser kan dras från uppföljningen av genomförda aktiviteter: • Informationsseminarierna och kursdagarna genomfördes på ett bra sätt. • Kursdagarna hade resulterat i ”nya affärer” för 9 av de 20 intervjuade kursdeltagarna och flera av dem sökte aktivt kunder. Metodernas ansats, möjligheten att engagera och motivera de anställda och de konkreta resultaten uppskattades av kunderna. • Ett mer långsiktigt stöd till de som ska genomföra metoderna kommersiellt kan behövas. • Strukturen och innehållet i metoderna fungerade bra i kommersiell användning. De kunde enkelt kombineras med andra metoder. • Metoderna upplevdes som imponerande, konkreta och användbara, men de behöver utvecklas så att det skapade engagemanget kan behållas på en hög nivå. De behöver också utvärderas i ekonomiska termer och mätbara förbättringar. • Alla intervjuade ville lära sig fler metoder och näringslivsrepresentanterna bistår gärna med kontakter och träffar. Flera av de ”stödjande tjänsteföretagen” och alla näringslivsrepresentanterna ville fortsätta med ytterligare samverkan med Tema Arbetsliv, Högskolan Dalarna.

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  • 32.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Pontén, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Åteg, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Att mäta arbetets attraktivitet för förbättring av arbetsmiljön2004In: 50. Nordisk arbetsmiljökonferens, Reykjavik, Island, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Åteg, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Attraktivt arbete2004In: Forskningsdag, Högskolan Dalarna, Borlänge, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Åteg, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Assessing motivation for work environment improvements: internal consistency, reliability and factorial structure2010In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem. Workers’ motivation to actively take part in improvements to the work environment is assumed to be important for the efficiency of investments for that purpose. That gives rise to the need for a tool to measure this motivation.

    Metho.d A questionnaire to measure motivation for improvements to the work environment has been designed. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the domains of the questionnaire has been measured, and the factorial structure has been explored, from the answers of 113 employees. Results The internal consistency is high (0.94), as well as the correlation for the total score (0.84). Three factors are identified accounting for 61.6% of the total variance.

    Discussion. The questionnaire can be a useful tool in improving intervention methods. The expectation is that the tool thereby can be useful, particularly with the aim of improving efficiency of companies’ investments for work environment improvements.

  • 35.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Åteg, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    To monitor motivation for work place improvements2009In: 7:th Seminar on Worklife Development, Lappeenranta and Ruokolahti, Finland, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation is a short summary of an article sent to Journal of Safety Research (Hedlund, Åteg m fl.). Knowledge about hazards in working life and ways to measure, eliminate and minimize them is growing. However, there are obstacles between this knowledge and actions to reduce workers’ exposure to hazards. A common problem is that the workers not are motivated to use available technology and knowledge. It is assumed that the workers’ motivation to actively take part in improvements to the work environment is important for the efficiency of investments for that purpose. With this as a background has a questionnaire that measure motivation for improvements to the work environment been developed. The objective is to present the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the questionnaire. A second objective is to explore the factorial structure of the instrument comprising different aspects of motivation for work environment improvements.

  • 36.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Åteg, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Sconfienza, Carolina
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    En studie av ungdomars och anställdas syn på arbete i två kommuner i Dalarna2003Book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Johansson, Roger
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Erixon, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering. Royal Institute of Technology.
    Assessing Flexibility: The Frequency and Horizon Approach2001Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on flexibility in the area of flexible automatic assembly systems. Far-reaching research has been done in effort to develop flexible automatic assembly systems. A dilemma that appears in understanding the focus for these research projects is the immense amounts of flexibility concepts used. This paper proposes a structure for the concepts based on frequency and horizon for different events in an assembly system. The results are presented in a proposed “flexibility map”. Based on the “frequency and horizon approach” and the definition of flexibility as “the penalty of change” [1], an argumentation concerning what kind of flexibility is most valuable in an assembly system can be discussed. The paper also points out the demands for a flexibility that allows for de-coupling of high and low frequency events in a system. A clear distinction is made between dynamic flexibility and static flexibility. It is a well-known fact that the increase of the dynamic flexibility in an assembly system will decrease the static flexibility [2]. The paper ends with a proposal for decreasing the negative correlation between dynamic- and static flexibility. An objective for further research concerning whether a certain process within an assembly system affects certain flexibility is also presented.

  • 38.
    Johansson, Roger
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Erixon, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering. Royal Institute of Technology , Sweden.
    Modular FAA-SYSTEMS: A way to facilitate justification and implementation of FAA into small and middle sized companies2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small companies are the backbone of any nations industry and they are often sub contractors to major corporations, which set higher and higher demands on them. In order to survive they will inevitably be obliged to comply with the requirements [Onori et al., 2000]. In order to do so, one step is to increase their technology level. Therefore, this paper focuses on modular FAA in order to facilitate the implementation of FAA-systems into small companies. How well companies succeed in the implementation of a new technology in manufacturing depends largely on how well they understand the dependency between products and processes. Is it the right technology for the companies manufacturing system? What has to be done to the products in order to use this technology? A paradox is that new technology in manufacturing can often be justified only when a new product launch is planned. This is probably true also in the case of Flexible Automatic Assembly Systems (FAA) where the possibilities to introduce a well functioning system to use with existing products are very limited.

  • 39.
    Kenger, Patrick
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Mechanical Engineering.
    An Approach to Improve the Product Design Process2022In: Product Design - A Manufacturing Perspective / [ed] Yasa, Ph.D. Evren; Poyraz, Dr. Ozgur, Rijeka: IntechOpen , 2022Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product design is an ambitious journey of developing functional components meeting the requirements of the customer by innovative thinking. Understanding the end-user demands, needs, behaviors, and habits is an important key to a successful product design. Moreover, this journey ends happily and efficiently only when the creative design ideas are combined with the opportunities given by new design tools, new materials, and new manufacturing routes. Without considering the aforementioned aspects, product design would not be complete and fully exploited to its real potential. The essential link between product design and manufacturing is critical and desired to produce creative designs in the right quantities and qualities with the right price, finally meeting the end-user specifications.

    Thus, this book welcomes original research and review studies aiming at various aspects of product design with a manufacturing perspective to explore the design strategies, manufacturing limits, and post-manufacturing phases of material enhancement and inspection.

  • 40.
    Kenger, Patrick
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Erixon, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Studies of Design and Assembly Defects on Integrated and Modular Architectures2005In: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 05, Melbourne: International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED) , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that despite companies’ efforts to improve the quality of their products, design and assembly defects results in large repair costs both in terms of repair and providing feedback to the origin of the defect. The purpose of this paper is to study these types of defects and the defect rates in design and assembly. The paper presents a web based questionnaire answered by 29 companies. The result shows that the defect rate (defects per product) spanned from 0.01 to 10. Also, design and assembly defects covered 46%, 23% respectively, of all occurred defects. A case study is also presented, performed at a company who recently implemented a modular architecture. In this company, defects from 5 700 integrated product architectures are compared with defects from 431 modular architectures. The average defect rate increased by 21.5% – from 0.65 to 0.79 – when a more modular architecture has been implemented. Furthermore, the study showed that the assembly defects have decreased while the design defects increased. The results presented in this paper will also support the development of the MPV (Module Property Verification) method which is briefly described.

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  • 41.
    Kenger, Patrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Beneftis of modularity and module level tests2005In: Emerging solutions for future manufacturing systems, International Federation for Information Processing., 2005, Vol. 159, p. 379-386Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies implement a modular architecture to support the need to create more variants with less effort. Although the modular architecture has many benefits, the tests to detect any defects become a major challenge. However, a modular architecture with defined functional elements seems beneficial to test at module level, so called MPV (Module Property Verification). This paper presents studies from 29 companies with the purpose of showing trends in the occurrence of defects and how these can support the MPV.

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  • 42.
    Kenger, Patrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering. KTH, Industriell produktion.
    Module property verification: A method to plan and perform quality verifications in modular architectures2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular product architectures have generated numerous benefits for companies in terms of cost, lead-time and quality. The defined interfaces and the module’s properties decrease the effort to develop new product variants, and provide an opportunity to perform parallel tasks in design, manufacturing and assembly. The background of this thesis is that companies perform verifications (tests, inspections and controls) of products late, when most of the parts have been assembled. This extends the lead-time to delivery and ruins benefits from a modular product architecture; specifically when the verifications are extensive and the frequency of detected defects is high. Due to the number of product variants obtained from the modular product architecture, verifications must handle a wide range of equipment, instructions and goal values to ensure that high quality products can be delivered. As a result, the total benefits from a modular product architecture are difficult to achieve.

    This thesis describes a method for planning and performing verifications within a modular product architecture. The method supports companies by utilizing the defined modules for verifications already at module level, so called MPV (Module Property Verification). With MPV, defects are detected at an earlier point, compared to verification of a complete product, and the number of verifications is decreased.

    The MPV method is built up of three phases. In Phase A, candidate modules are evaluated on the basis of costs and lead-time of the verifications and the repair of defects. An MPV-index is obtained which quantifies the module and indicates if the module should be verified at product level or by MPV. In Phase B, the interface interaction between the modules is evaluated, as well as the distribution of properties among the modules. The purpose is to evaluate the extent to which supplementary verifications at product level is needed. Phase C supports a selection of the final verification strategy. The cost and lead-time for the supplementary verifications are considered together with the results from Phase A and B.

    The MPV method is based on a set of qualitative and quantitative measures and tools which provide an overview and support the achievement of cost and time efficient company specific verifications. A practical application in industry shows how the MPV method can be used, and the subsequent benefits

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  • 43.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Bergdahl, Anders
    Product verification and defect repair - status and considerations2004In: 2nd International Precision Assembly Seminar, IPAS, Bad Hofgastein, Austria, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product verifications have become a cost-intensive and time-consuming aspect of modern electronics production, but with the onset of an ever-increasing miniaturisation, these aspects will become even more cumbersome. One may also go as far as to point out that certain precision assembly, such as within the biomedical sector, is legally bound to have 0 defects within production. Since miniaturisation and precision assembly will soon become a part of almost any product, the verifications phases of assembly need to be optimised in both functionality and cost. Another aspect relates to the stability and robustness of processes, a pre-requisite for flexibility. Furthermore, as the re-engineering cycle becomes ever more important, all information gathered within the ongoing process becomes vital. In view of these points, product, or process verification may be assumed to be an important and integral part of precision assembly. In this paper, product verification is defined as the process of determining whether or not the products, at a given phase in the life-cycle, fulfil the established specifications. Since the product is given its final form and function in the assembly, the product verification normally takes place somewhere in the assembly line which is the focus for this paper.

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  • 44.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Bergdahl, Anders
    Onori, Mauro
    Modular Product Verifications Based on Design for Assembly2005In: International Forum on Design for Manufacture and Assembly, Providence - Warwick, Rhode Island, USA, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to conquer markets through advanced product design and trendy business strategies are still predominant approaches in industry today. In fact, product development has acquired an ever more central role in the strategic planning of companies, and it has extended its influence to R&D funding levels as well. It is not surprising that many national R&D project frameworks within the EU today are dominated by product development topics, leaving production engineering, robotics, and systems on the sidelines. The reasons may be many but, unfortunately, the link between product development and the production processes they cater for are seldom treated in depth. The issue dealt with in this article relates to how product development is applied in order to attain the required production quality levels a company may desire, as well as how one may counter assembly defects and deviations through quantifiable design approaches. It is recognized that product verifications (tests, inspections, etc.) are necessary, but the application of these tactics often result in lead-time extensions and increased costs. Modular architectures improve this by simplifying the verification of the assembled product at module level. Furthermore, since Design for Assembly (DFA) has shown the possibility to identify defective assemblies, it may be possible to detect potential assembly defects already in the product and module design phase. The intention of this paper is to discuss and describe the link between verifications of modular architectures, defects and design for assembly. The paper is based on literature and case studies; tables and diagrams are included with the intention of increasing understanding of the relation between poor designs, defects and product verifications.

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  • 45.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Coda, Mariana
    An approach to evaluate product verifications2004In: IV Internatioal Congress on Mechanical Engineering Technologies, Varna, Bulgaria, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies implement a module product assortment as a part of their strategy to, among others, shorten lead-times, increase the product quality and to create more product variants with fever parts. However, the increased number of variants becomes a challenging task for the personnel responsible for the product verifications. By implementing verifications at module level, so called MPV (Module Property Verification) several advantages ensue. The advantages is not only a decrease in cost of verifications, but also a decrease in repair times, occupied space, storages with spare parts, and repair tools. Further, MPV also give an increased product quality due to an increased understanding of which defects that may occur. As an approach to implement MPV, this paper discusses defects and verification processes based on a study at a Swedish company. It also describes a matrix which is used to map relations between company specific cost drivers and so called verification factors. The matrix may indicate cost drivers which have a large impact on the total cost of product verifications.

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  • 46.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Erixon, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Lennartsson, S
    Module Property Verification: A Conceptual Framework to Perform Product Verifications at Module level2003In: The 14th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stockholm, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 47.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Hagström, Lina
    Integrated Product Development in Truck Industry - A Case Study on Product Development Processes2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the result from a case study at Scania on product development processes. The objective with the case study was to gather information on Scania’s product development process (PDP) including the use of CAD and simulation tools, and project work. The objective was also to find any deviations or different interpretations among the employees on the PDP. To gather the information, semi-structured tape-recorded interviews have been used to ensure that individual interpretations from the interviewees could be gathered. Scania uses a defined and structured PDP which facilitates concurrent and cross-functional work. The PDP is implemented and followed to various degrees. The newly employed personnel may have difficulties with communication, both to find and to give information. Although, newly graduated personnel may find it easier to adapt to changes, and also to use a structured process which they have studied at universities. It was also known during the case study that the PDP is a major support for the newly employed personnel, which in turn decreases the time to get into the same working process as the more experienced personnel. Employees with decades of experience know the right sources from which to both give and gather information. Also, the terminology and definitions in the product development process may not be used as intended. This makes it difficult for other project members or teams who need to interpret the information received. At the same time, the routines among the more experienced personnel, which have been set-up throughout the years, make them more inflexible in adapting changes. The findings in the case study as well as challenges with implementing the PDP are known to Scania and are a part of the continuing work with improvement.

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  • 48.
    Kenger, Patrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Onori, M
    Module Property Analysis in the Assembly Process2003In: Proceedings of the International Precision Assembly Seminar, Bad Hofgastein, Austria, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 49.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    KTH.
    Industriell arbetsmiljö: underlag för utformning av arbetsområden och arbetslokaler utifrån de arbetandes krav1974Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet utgår från de problem i arbetsmiljön som påvisats i de senaste årens livliga miljödebatt. Dess syfte är att ge både teoretiska och praktiska hjälpmedel för beskrivning och utformning av industriell arbetsmiljö utifrån de arbetandes krav. Arbetet är brett upplagt och anknyter till dokumentärskildringar och systematiska undersökningar av industriell arbetsmiljö]ö samt aktuell forskning inom olika arbetsvetenskaper.

    Arbetsmiljökrav har beskrivits för olika arbetssituationer som förekommer i mekaniska verkstäder samt aktiviteter i anslutning till arbetet, tex förflyttningar, omklädning och paus. Hur kraven kan tillgodoses i den fysiska miljöutformningen analyseras med hjälp av en strategi för problemlösning som utvecklats i arbetet. Strategin innebär i korthet att lösningar på kravkonflikter söks genom successiv kombination av olika medel alltifrån politiska insatser till teknisk utformning. Tyngdpunkten ligger på problemlösning med fysisk-rumsliga medel.

    De hjälpmedel som utvecklats i detta forskningsprojekt är avsedda att kunna användas vid utformning av arbetsmiljö i direkt samarbete mellan projektörer och brukare. Projektörens förändrade roll i ett sådant brukarinriktat utformningsarbete diskuteras bl a mot bakgrund av den förändring i arbetarskyddslagstiftningen som ger de arbetande möjlighet alt delta i planeringen av sina arbetslokaler.

    Arbetet vänder sig till samhällsplanerare, projektörer, skyddsombud, fackföreningsfolk m fl som är intresserade av eller sysselsatta med arbetsmiljöfrågor. Vår förhoppning är att underlagsmaterialet skall vara användbart i fortsatt forsknings- och utvecklingsarbete, utbildning och praktisk projektering.

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  • 50.
    Onori, Mauro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). (Adaptive Manufacturing Systems).
    Alsterman, A
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM)..
    Johansson, Roger
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Mechanical Engineering.
    Bergdahl, A
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM)..
    Hyper Flexible Automatic Assembly: Needs and Possibilities with Standard Assembly Solutions2000Conference paper (Refereed)
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