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  • 1.
    Ceron, Ermanno
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Bay, Niels
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Lubricant film breakdown and material pick-up in sheet forming of advanced high strength steels and stainless steels when using environmental friendly lubricants2014In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, Vol. 966-967, p. 219-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged sheet metal stamping companies to look for new tribo-systems in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils. The efficiency of chlorinated paraffin is due to the fact that the lubricant reacts chemically with the tool and workpiece material forming thin films, which adhere strongly to the surfaces and reduce the tendency to metal-metal contact and material pick-up. Production tests of new, environmentally benign tribo-systems are, however, costly and laboratory tests are preferred as a preliminary simulative method to investigate alternative tribo-systems. The present paper presents a case study where an industrial process, consisting of deep drawing with two subsequent re-drawings, was selected and four potential new tribo-systems were tested including different workpiece materials, i.e. AHSSs and stainless steels. The performance of the tribo-systems was analyzed in the laboratory by means of a newly developed simulative test as well as in an industrial production process. The results obtained show a good agreement between the laboratory test and the industrial production process regarding the tribological performance, i.e. tendency to material pick-up and galling, of the evaluated tribo-systems. Moreover the SEM analysis shows that different workpiece materials result in different types of material pick-up.

  • 2.
    Heinrich, Jannica
    et al.
    Tribomaterials Group, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. Tribomaterials Group, The Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    Jenei, Istvan Zoltan
    Instrumentation Physics, Stockholm University.
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Tribomaterials Group, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    Transfer of titanium in sliding contacts: new discoveries and insights revealed by in situ studies in the SEM2014In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 315, no 1-2, p. 87-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium and its alloys generally display poor tribological properties in sliding contacts due to their high chemical activity and strong adhesion to the counter surface. The strong adhesion causes a high tendency to transfer and ultimately galling or build-up edge formation, resulting in severe surface damage. As a result, forming and machining of titanium and its alloys are generally associated with significant problems such as high friction, rapid tool wear and poor surface finish of the formed/machined surface.

    In the present study, in situ tests in a scanning electron microscope have been performed to increase the understanding of the mechanisms controlling the initial transfer of titanium (Grade 2) in sliding contact with tool surfaces. Tool materials included cover cold work tool steel, cemented carbide, CVD deposited Al2O3and PVD deposited DLC. In these tests, a relatively sharp tip, representing the titanium work material, slides against a flat surface, representing the tool. The contact conditions result in plastic deformation of the work material against the tool surface, thereby simulating forming or machining. The limited and well-defined contact, along with the possibility to study the sliding in the SEM, makes it possible to correlate local surface variations to transfer of work material and frictional response. Post-test characterization of the contact surfaces was performed by high-resolution SEM, TEM, EDS and EELS.

    The initial friction was low and stable against all tested materials, but then gradually escalated against all surfaces except the DLC. The friction escalation was associated to increasing levels of transfer, while the DLC stayed virtually free from transfer. From these very initial sliding tests DLC is a promising tool coating in forming and machining of titanium.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Tribological testing of some potential PVD and CVD coatings for steel wire drawing dies2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, p. 55-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to replace cemented carbide wire drawing dies with CVD or PVD coated steel dies. Material pick-up tendency, friction and wear characteristics of four different commercial coatings – CVD TiC and PVD (Ti,Al)N, CrN and CrC/C – in sliding contact with ASTM 52100 bearing steel were evaluated using pin-on-disc testing. The load bearing capacity of the coating/substrate composites was evaluated using scratch testing. The results show that the friction characteristics and material pick-up tendency of the coatings to a large extent is controlled by the surface topography of the as-deposited coatings which should be improved by a polishing post-treatment in order to obtain a smooth surface. Based on the results obtained in this study, three different coatings – CrC/C, TiC and dual-layer TiC/CrC/C – are recommended to be evaluated in wire drawing field tests. CrC/C and TiC are recommended due to their intrinsic low friction properties and material pick-up tendency in sliding contact with steel. The dual-layer is recommended in order to combine the good properties of the two coatings CrC/C (low shear strength) and TiC (high hardness).

  • 4.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Cinca, Nuria
    Mechanisms controlling friction and material transfer in sliding contacts between cemented carbide and aluminum during metal forming2024In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 118, article id 106481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold forming of aluminum alloys is frequently associated with problems related to severe adhesion and material transfer onto the forming tools which results in high friction forces and negatively affects the surface quality of the formed parts, a phenomenon frequently named galling. In the present study, well controlled laboratory tests using a scratch testing equipment have been performed to evaluate the friction characteristics and investigate the mechanisms controlling the initial transfer of aluminum in dry sliding contact with five different cemented carbide grades. In the tests, an aluminum pin (representing the work material) with a conical tip slides against a flat, fine-polished, cemented carbide surface (representing the tool). During sliding, the mechanical contact results in plastic deformation and flattening of the work material against the tool surface, thus simulating a metal forming contact. The small scale and well-defined tribo contact in combination with post-test surface characterization using optical surface profilometry, high resolution SEM and EDS makes it possible to evaluate the influence of material transfer on the friction characteristics.The results show that sub-mu m surface irregularities in the cemented carbide surface trigger mechanical interaction with the softer aluminum surface which promotes aluminum transfer to the cemented carbide surface resulting in high friction. Common surface irregularities, promoting aluminum transfer, are sharp edges of slightly protruding carbide grains, surface steps in connection to binder phase pockets, surface steps in connection to surface pores, etc. It should be noted that even very small surface steps, < 20 nm in height, constitute efficient cutting edges able to effectively cut off the passing aluminum material and thus have a very strong impact on material transfer. In contrast, the effect of carbide composition, e.g. the presence of cubic carbides of different composition, seems to be of minor importance to reduce the adhesion and the tendency to material transfer.

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