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  • 1. Abdillahi, Hamda A
    et al.
    Hassan, Khadra A
    Kiruja, Jonah
    Osman, Fatumo
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Egal, Jama A
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    A mixed-methods study of maternal near miss and death after emergency cesarean delivery at a referral hospital in Somaliland2017In: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 138, no 1, p. 119-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore maternal near miss and death after emergency cesarean delivery in Somaliland, including the impact of the prerequisite for family consent.

    METHODS: A facility-based, mixed-methods study was conducted to assess all maternal near misses and deaths recorded at a referral hospital that provided services to women from all regions of Somaliland. The data sources comprised a quantitative prospective cross-sectional study using the WHO near-miss tool (performed from August 1 to December 31, 2015) and qualitative interviews with 17 healthcare providers working at the referral hospital who were in direct contact with the women in labor (performed from January 15 to March 15, 2015).

    RESULTS: Of the 138 maternal near misses and deaths recorded, 50 (36%) were associated with emergency cesarean delivery. The most frequent maternal complication was severe pre-eclampsia (n=17; 34%), and the most frequent underlying causes were hypertensive disorders (n=31; 62%) and obstetric hemorrhage (n=15; 30%). Healthcare providers were often prevented from performing emergency cesarean delivery until the required consent had been received from the woman's extended family.

    CONCLUSION: Maternity care in Somaliland must be improved, and the issue of legal authority for consent examined, to ensure both safe and timely provision of emergency cesarean delivery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abshir, Hamdiya
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Användning av information och kommunikationsteknologi för att främja egenvård på distans för patienter med diabetes typ 2 En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that is linked to suffering

    and lack of quality of life. Self-care is essential to reduce the negative

    consequences. Less than half of all patients achieve good self-care. Some of the

    reasons are limited knowledge of diabetes and poor self-care compliance. The

    introduction of ICT in diabetes care was started to improve clinical outcomes and

    quality of life for patients with diabetes type 2. Aim: To describe how information

    and communication technology can promote self-care in distance for patients with

    diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods: Literature study, in which the articles were

    searched in CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science. Articles included were 15

    articles with a quantitative, qualitative and mixed method. Results: The results

    showed that information and communication technology such as internet,

    computer and mobile phone-based self-care program promoted self-care in patients

    with diabetes type 2 by increasing knowledge, awareness, motivation and

    improving lifestyle change. Conclusion: Information and communication

    technology can facilitate the daily challenges for patients with type 2 diabetes

    because it covers the knowledge gap and increases patient awareness and

    motivation for self-care.

  • 3. Adolfsson Skinnar, Jonna
    et al.
    Österberg, Caroline
    Att vänta på organtransplantation: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva patienters upplevelse att vänta på organtransplantation.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt. Artiklarna har sökts i databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och Scopus. 15 artiklar valdes ut till resultatet, 3 artiklar hade kvantitativ ansats och 12 kvalitativ ansats.

    Resultat: 3 huvudkategorier presenteras i resultatet: Begränsningar innebar att vara bunden av teknisk apparatur och förhålla sig till en ny livsstil. Tiden fick nytt perspektiv och patienter upplevde att de alltid behövde vara beredda. Patienterna möttes av falskt alarm och upplevde väntan som oviss. Det fanns behov av stöd från anhöriga, patienter i samma situation och stöd från vårdpersonal. Tydlig och rak kommunikation var viktig för patienterna. Sjuksköterskan behövde finnas till hands. Trots oro fanns en känsla av en andra chans i livet.

    Slutsats: Patienter som väntar på en organtransplantation upplever att sjuksköterskan behöver vara tillgänglig, ha tydlig kommunikation, ge anpassad information utifrån individuella önskemål samt accepterar och förstår vikten av anhörigas närvaro och stöd så att varje patients enskilda behov kan bemötas.

  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östlund, Titti
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters erfarenhet av sårpumpsbehandling vid svårläkta sår: en litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Agerberg, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Norberg, Carina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer av betydelse för god palliativ omvårdnadsett ur ett patientperspektiv- en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to, from a patient point of view, identify factors within the specialized palliative care that constituted good care from the.Method: A systematic literature review was undertaken. Fifteen articles were reviewed. Thirteen of these were qualitative and two were quantitative.Results: Four categories were identified: self determination, capability of the nurse, nursing relations and maintaining dignity.The patients self determination was a central part of nursing. Delegating control and self determination from a patient to a nurse is also a form of self determination.Capable nurses instill trust and gave patients the opportunity of more alternatives when it came to choices concerning the care of the patient.A good relation with the nurse could give the patient a feeling of being important and being a part of something bigger, despite lack of family or friends. Important factors regarding patient-nurse relations were continuity and nurse accessibility.Maintaining dignity included being seen as the human being that the patient was before the terminal illness was diagnosed.Conclusion: Patients noted several factors as important for good palliative care. These could be summarized as self determination, nurse capability, nursing relations and maintaining dignity.

  • 6.
    Agnas, Maja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies.
    Holmenäs, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies.
    Egenvårdsråd vid ”Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”. Effekter och följsamhet   En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Agnas, Maja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Holmenäs, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Egenvårdsråd vid "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease". Effekter och följsamhet: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att undersöka vilka egenvårdsråd och effekterna av dessa som finns beskrivna i litteraturen vid NAFLD samt hur följsamheten av dessa beskrivs. Studien utfördes som en litteraturöversikt som inkluderade 16 artiklar, alla med kvantitativ ansats. Resultatet visade att livsstilsförändringar i form av fysisk aktivitet och ändrade matvanor var det bästa sättet för att minska NAFLD. Viktminskning hade en god effekt på NAFLD och även små viktminskningar reducerade mängden fett i levern. Det framkom även att fysisk aktivitet utan viktminskning var effektivt för att reducera mängden fett i levern. Vidare visade det sig att följsamheten ökade med individuellt utformade program och kontinuerlig stöttning. Förutsättningar för att uppnå livsstilsförändringar ökade med realistiskt uppsatta mål.

  • 8.
    Ahlenius, Victoria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Irarrazabal, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att ge personcentrerad vård till personer med demenssjukdom: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia impairs cognitive functions, such as memory and

    speech, changing a person’s life forever. Providing person-centred care to these

    persons intend to retain their identities, dignity and autonomy. Such care demands

    time, devotion and good knowledge of the caring nurse. Dementia is expected to

    increase in the future and therefore nurses will have to face new challenges.

    Aim: To describe nurses’ experience of providing person-centred care for people

    with dementia.

    Method: A literature review of 15 articles, published between 2009-2016, that

    have been read and analysed through content-analysis.

    Results: Nurses experience a positive change in their attitudes, when providing

    person-centred care to people with dementia, as they gained better understanding

    of their patients’ dignity and integrity. Education, training and support from

    management were seen as key factors for providing up-to-date care. Time was

    viewed as a hindrance for person-centred care, and often led to nurses prioritizing

    other routines. Two common outcomes of person-centred care were increased

    satisfaction as well as emotional burnout.

    Conclusion: Since dementia is increasing and nurses find person-centred care

    time-consuming, there is a risk of such care becoming poor. To prevent this nurses

    need good leadership and education.

  • 9.
    Akeza, Audrey
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hamidi, Romina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hur sjuksköterskor identifierar smärta hos patienter med demenssjukdom på särskilt boende - En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain is a major problem in nursing homes. Dementia is a disease that causes humans lose their ability to communicate their pain to their surroundings. People with dementia express their pain through behavioral changes because they can’t verbalize their pain experiences. As a consequence of this leads to that dementia patients are not receiving adequate pain management.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to explore how nurses identify pain in dementia patients in nursing homes.

    Method: The study was conducted as a literature survey. In total, 15 articles were used in this study that consists of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Articles have been sought in the databases Cinhal and PubMed.

    Results: The results of this study shows that according to nurses is pain identification among dementia patients an extreme challenge and requires more knowledge. Patients with mild to moderate dementia can self-report their pain to a certain extent. The most useful clues to discovering pain among dementia patients who are limited in their speaking skills is to observe facial expressions, body language and behavior changes.

    Conclusion: The authors conclude that it is important to create and develop a relationship between caregivers and demented patients. This is to get to know the patient and knowing his usual habits and behavior changes as to facilitate the identification of pain

  • 10.
    Akhter, Halima
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Akter, Dalia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mapping of midwifery education sites in Dhaka division, and presentation of acceptable and feasible requirements for a national accreditation toolkit: A questionnaire study among midwifery faculty2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Extensive demands are placed on midwives in their professional role. The midwifery education is obligated to answer to these professional requirements. ountry specific, feasible and acceptable accreditation toolkit for institution/collages/universities is, therefore, relevant to develop.

    Objective:

    The objective was to map the existing situation of the midwifery education sites in Dhaka division and to explore acceptable and feasible requirements to be included in an accreditation toolkit for Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    A questionnaire study with open and closed response alternatives was used.

    Results

    : Six nursing diploma institute and one nursing college were included in the mapping. The theory in relation to practice (theory/practice) in the education was 40%/60% for 5 institution/colleges and 50%/50% for one institute. Both qualitative open questions and closed questions based on ICM Global standards revealed that the acceptable and feasible requirements for a nationwide accreditation tool for midwifery educations needs clearly written admission and student policies, supportive staffs and formally prepared and globally oriented competent unbiased teachers who maintain their standard by participating in professional development activities.

    Conclusion:

    Implementing globally standard accreditation tool for educating and training competent midwives is not a far-fetched idea in the context of Bangladesh. The clinical applicability of this essay lies in the fact that competent midwives can profoundly provide suggestions for improvements of midwifery educations with support of an accreditation tool.

  • 11.
    Akhter, Shirina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Begum, Momtaz
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions in relation to family planning among future midwives in Bangladesh: A quantitative study among midwifery students2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Family planning allows people to attain their desired number of children and determine the spacing of pregnancies. It is achieved through the use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of infertility. It secures the well-being and autonomy of women while supporting the health and development of the communities. A midwife can support people having family planning facilities and thus reduce maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity and unnecessary interventions, and improve psychosocial and public health.

    Objective:

    The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions towards family planning among future midwives in Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among final year midwifery students (n=141) of 16 public midwifery nursing institutes and colleges of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was used and data analyzed by descriptive statistics in Excel.

    Results:

    Almost all respondents agreed on the statement that women should be treated with respect when seeking family planning services. One third disagreed or strongly disagreed that unmarried women should abstain rather than use family planning. Almost half of the respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed that women should be free to choose if and when they want to become a pregnant. Majority of the respondents had inadequate knowledge about effectiveness regarding different FP methods and misconceptions regarding hormonal family planning methods.

    Conclusion:

    This study showed that diverse attitudes related to family planning and women’s right to access family planning services exist among future midwives. The study also found misconceptions regarding side effects of family planning methods and inadequate knowledge regarding effectiveness and appropriateness of different family planning methods.

    Clinical implications:

    To increase knowledge, midwifery curriculum should have a special emphasis on the effectiveness of different contraceptive methods and effects of hormonal contraceptives, and particularly the link to clinical practice. Value clarification training can be a way to address attitudes in relation to family planning. Further qualitative research should be conducted to gain a deeper understanding of midwifery students’ attitudes and perceptions.

  • 12.
    Aktar, Renoara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Yesmin, Syeada
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mapping of five midwifery education sites in Dhaka and Mymensingh divisions And Acceptable and feasible requirements perceived by the nursing instructors for development of an accreditation toolkit: A questionnaire study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    High demands are placed on midwives in their professional role. The midwifery education is obligated to answer to these professional requirements. Country specific, feasible and acceptable requirement accreditation toolkit for institution/collages/universities to achieve is therefore relevant to develop. This study is part of a survey mapping 25 midwifery education sites in seven divisions in Bangladesh. This is to provide a baseline assessment for possible requirement for the ongoing development of an accreditation toolkit for institutes and collages providing midwifery education.

    Objective:

    The objective was twofold. First, to map five midwifery education sites in Dhaka and Mymensingh divisions as a baseline in the process of developing an accreditation toolkit in Bangladesh. Secondly, to explore nursing instructors’ suggestions of acceptable and feasible requirements for an accreditation toolkit for midwifery education in Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    The design was a questionnaire study. The total number of participants was 36. Data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire with both open and closed response options, which were analyzed through essentially non-parametric statistics and systematic text condensation.

    Results

    : The mapping showed that the students enrolled at the midwifery programs were young, being lectured by comparably few faculty members compared to the number of students, a faculty with an extensive experience of nursing but with less experience in midwifery. Suggestions for the development of an accreditation toolkit were that the assessor should be Bangladeshi, and that posts for clinical teachers and mentors should be one assessment criteria. Further findings showed that 40 normal births were less important to achieve in core competences for midwifery students than other requirements related to midwifery skills.

    Conclusion:

    An accreditation tool can" close the gap" between the curricula in text and implementation of the same. Mapping of existing education sites amongst partners provides a potential for development of a Bangladeshi national and a global midwifery education accreditation toolkit. The clinical applicability of this essay lies in a development of an accreditation tool that can support institutes to achieve the goal that a Midwifery Diploma curriculum is being implemented that support student’s learning, and the goal that the students will become "Midwives" according to global standards and ICM definition.

  • 13.
    Akum, Bertha
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Rusu, Violeta
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientens berättelse i mötet med sjuksköterskan ipsykiatrisk vård En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: är att beskriva vad det är som påverkar patientens berättelse i mötet medsjuksköterskan. Metod: Designen har en kvalitativ ansats. De valde studiernakvalitetsgranskades och analyserades enligt Friberg. Databaser som användes för sökning avlitteratur var: PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Wiley Online Library och Web of Science.Artiklarna skulle vara kvalitativa, skrivna på engelska eller svenska och vara tillgängliga ifulltext. I studien har även rapporter och systematiska översikter inkluderas. Åtta kvalitativaartiklar användes. Resultat: Fyra teman identifierades: patientens upplevelser i relation medsjuksköterskan, patientens berättelse och narrativa ramverk för att förstå upplevelsen av sinsjukdom, patientens uppfattning om terapeutiska relationer samt kommunikation mellanpatient och sjuksköterska. Slutsats: Att patienten inte berättar sin berättelse i mötet medsjuksköterska beror på patientens upplevelser och uppfattningar. Dessutom beror det på vilkakommunikationsfärdigheter sjuksköterskan förmedlar i mötet med patienten. Den miljön debefinner sig, till exempel sjukhus, har inverkan på patientens berättelse i mötet medsjuksköterskan. Lika viktigt är interaktionsprocessen mellan sjuksköterskan och patienten,när de ses som individer, inte som sjuksköterska och patient. Genom att förstå en personsunika upplevelse kan sjuksköterskor uppfatta och med en vårdande relation hjälpa till medkomplexiteten och rikedomen i en persons individuella väg mot återhämtning.

  • 14.
    Alvbåge, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Könsskillnader i vårdmötet: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title. Gender disparities in healthcare encounters: A literature review.

    Aim. This essay investigates what impact the sex of patients and nurses has in

    healthcare encounters.

    Background. That sex and gender norms have an impact on encounters,

    communication and clinical decision making is known from previous research. But

    no research has been made that gives an overview of how this affects healthcare

    encounters. Investigating this is important to bring awareness of what impact this

    has on the patient.

    Method. This essay was conducted as a literature review.

    Findings. Five qualitative studies and five quantitative studies that investigated

    different aspects of healthcare encounters from a gender perspective were chosen

    and analyzed. The analysis resulted in five main themes that each reflect different

    aspects of healthcare encounters. Among other things, factors that may limit

    female patients’ autonomy were identified and that the nurses’ gender may be a

    deciding factor in whether the patients are given opportunity to talk about their

    feelings.

    Conclusion. The result suggests that patients’ and nurses’ gender has an impact in

    healthcare encounters. In some areas the difference was more pronounced than in

    others, for example when it comes to talking about emotions, moral support in

    dialogues and opportunity for patients to be listened to.

  • 15. Alvinsson, Kim
    et al.
    Dagvall, Robert
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder som främjar självbestämmanderätten hos patienter med demenssjukdom på äldreboenden: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte är att belysa omvårdnadsåtgärder som främjar självbestämmande hos dementa patienter på äldreboenden. Metod: Litteraturstudien innefattar 15 artiklar där kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats har använts. Sökningarna gjordes i databaserna CINAHL och PubMed. Resultat: Studien visade att omvårdnadsåtgärder som främjar patienter med demenssjukdoms självbestämmande är: Närvaro ifrån vårdgivarna, förenklade val, låta det ta tid, låt patienten fatta beslut i sin egen takt, lära känna patienten för att förstå dennes önskemål, anpassad information, talande kort som komplement och bevara en så hemlik boendemiljö som möjligt. Slutsats: Resultatet av litteraturstudierna visar att det finns omvårdnadsåtgärder som främjar självbestämmande hos dementa patienter på äldreboenden. Detta kan och bör införas av vårdgivarna på äldreboenden runt om i världen.

  • 16.
    Alvwinge, Tonie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjogedal, Madlene
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Betydelsen av personcentrerad vård för psykiatrisjuksköterskor i mötet med suicidnära ungdomar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ett suicidförsök beror ofta på snabba och intensiva krafter eller påfrestningar som

    en sårbar individ inte kan hantera på egen hand. Suicidförsök beräknas vara cirka tio gånger

    vanligare än antalet fullbordade suicid, men det finns ett stort mörkertal eftersom statistiken

    baseras på individer som fått vård inom heldygnsvård. Tillgänglig statistik visar att antalet

    suicidförsök har ökat bland alla åldergrupper, men största ökningen går att se hos

    åldersgruppen 15-24 år.

    Syfte: Syftet är att få en uppfattning om hur psykiatrisjuksköterskan beskriver hur det är att

    bemöta suicidnära ungdomar utifrån personcentrerad vård inom heldygnsvård.

    Metod: En studie med en kvalitativ design med semistrukturerade intervjuer som

    datainsamlingsmetod. Psykiatrisjuksköterskor med erfarenhet av arbete på barn och

    ungdomspsykiatrin inom heldygnsvård deltog i studien.

    Resultat: Psykiatrisjuksköterskan beskriver att personcentrerad vård var en förutsättning för

    alliansskapande med den suicidnära ungdomen och alliansskapandet sågs som det mest

    centrala i omvårdnaden. Studien pekade på att alliansen med den suicidnära ungdomen var en

    viktig förutsättning för att få en fungerande öppen kommunikation. Studien visade dessutom

    att den personcentrerade omvårdnaden var en viktig aspekt för skapande av delaktighet och

    respektfullt bemötande utifrån att psykiatrisjuksköterskan tar den suicidnära ungdomen på

    allvar och vågar ställa öppna och direkta frågor. Vidare sågs psykiatrisjuksköterskans

    specialistutbildning och kliniska erfarenhet ha stor betydelse rörande kunskap om psykiatriska

    tillstånd, riskfaktorer, läkemedel och bedömningsinstrument.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar på viktiga omvårdnadsaspekter utifrån personcentrerad vård som

    kan bidra till att psykiatrisjuksköterskan tillsammans med den suicidnära ungdomen kan

    analysera, kliniskt hantera och förebygga suicidrisker och suicidförsök inom heldygnsvård.

  • 17.
    Amanda, Olsson
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nilsson, Isabel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans riskbedömning och omvårdnadsåtgärder för att förebygga malnutrition på äldreboenden En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att belysa hur sjuksköterskan bedömer malnutrition samt vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder som används för att förebygga malnutrition på äldreboenden.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt där artiklar söktes via databaserna CINAHL with Fulltext och PubMed. Sökningarna resulterade i 13 artiklar som analyserades för att hitta skillnader och likheter och resulterade i kategorier och underkategorier som svarade mot litteraturöversiktens syfte och frågeställningar.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att det vanligaste mätinstrumentet för att bedöma malnutrition på äldreboenden var MNA. Där mätinstrument inte användes, användes ofta BMI i stället av sjuksköterskor för att få en bild av den äldres nutritionsstatus. Omvårdnadsåtgärder som visat ge god effekt var utbildning   av vårdpersonalen,  individuella matplaner och energi- och proteintillskott i mat och dryck.

    Slutsats: Mer kunskap till sjuksköterskor om vikten att utföra nutritionsbedömning för alla äldre vid inskrivning och kontinuerligt och även hur de bör använda mätverktygen. Behov av individanpassade omvårdnadsåtgärder med energi- och proteinberikad mat, energi-proteintillskott, en god munhälsa och måttlig fysisk aktivitet har god effekt.

  • 18. Amundsson, Maria
    et al.
    Mark, Jonna
    Faktorer av betydelse för implementering av vetenskaplig evidens i klinisk omvårdnad: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: I föreliggande litteraturstudie var syftet att beskriva vilka faktorer som har betydelse för implementering av vetenskaplig evidens i klinisk omvårdnad samt att jämföra dessa faktorer med ramverket PARIHS implementeringsteori.

    Metod: Artiklar söktes via databaserna PubMed och CINAHL. Inklusionskriterierna uppfylldes hos 21 artiklar vilka gick vidare till kvalitetsgranskning. Slutligen kvarstod 16 artiklar vilka resultatet baserats på. Artiklarna analyserades genom identifiering av likheter och skillnader i innehåll avseende faktorer av betydelse för implementering.

    Resultat: Enligt studiens resultat omfattar evidens egenskaper hos evidens och intervention samt patienters möjlighet att vara involverade i projektgruppen. Kontext bestod av resurser på arbetsplatsen, ledarskap och mentorskap samt attityder och åsikter hos personalen. Facilitering innefattade säkerställande av att personalen besatt kunskap och hade relevant utbildning, att det fanns ett multidisciplinärt samarbete samt att vedertagna implementeringsstrategier användes.

    Slutsats: Resultatet från studien svarar i hög grad mot PARIHS element evidens, kontext och facilitering. Författarna är av uppfattningen att implementering av vetenskaplig evidens är en komplex process där ett flertal olika faktorer samverkar, vilket bekräftas av beskrivning av implementering utifrån ramverket PARIHS. Implementering kräver kunskap om hur positiva och negativa faktorer kan förstärkas respektive minskas utifrån rådande förutsättningar.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Liljegren, Marika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Diabetessjuksköterskans undervisning i egenvård hospatienter med diabetes typ 22015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes is a major worldwide public health problem and the number of affected people will increase substantially in the next 10-15 years. Early efforts should be made as instructions inself-care and lifestyle changes to prevent the development of complications. Purpose: The purpose is to describe diabetic nurse's training of self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: The study was conducted as an empirical study with a qualitative approach in which ten diabetic nurses were interviewed. The interview guide included semi-structured questions and the data were processed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Diabetes Nurse's Role in the teaching of patient self-care is to be supportive and provide the patient a sense of confident as many patients are unmotivated to change their lifestyle. The first theme that emerged were diabetic nurse's role to sensitize the patient's self-care responsibilities and it consisted of four categories that she/he will serve as an advisor. However, due to lack of personal, insufficient contact time with the patients can lead to deficiencies in quality of the medical care. Diabetes nurse can use National Diabetes Register for competence development or as guidelines in teaching. Second theme that emerged was the need for education in diabetic patients and consisted of four categories in which the diabetes nurses adapt the teaching to the level of individual skills of the patient inorder to make the patient aware of healthier lifestyles. The patient requires motivation for lifestyle changes as well as to participate in group work sessions on the subject. Conclusion: Diabetes Nurse was trying to teach self-care, adapted to the patient's level of expertise. However, increased resources, i.e. increased number of nurses, and is required to conduct education in diabetes care in accordance with the guidelines. The diabetes nurses require more time to keep up with the latest research performed in the subject diabetes.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Tranlund, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    En översikt av vilka faktorer som har samband med patientens upplevelse av kontinuitet i vården: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that patients wants continuity, as they feel it adds to the feeling of security

    and closeness That it gives the nurse the opportunity to get to know the person and an

    opportunity to better follow up actions.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that influence patient perception of

    continuity of care.

    Method

    This study was conducted as a literature review.

    Result

    The results showed that it was important for the continuity that they got to meet a nurse they

    knew from before, and it was the same nurse at every appointment. It was also important that

    who they met, was up to date on their medical history. An important factor that increased

    continuity was if the patient has a chronic disease, which increases the need to require regular

    follow-up with more visits to health care. Patients experienced greater flexibility of care

    performed by a nurse instead of a doctor, the nurses took more time with the patient and that

    it was more effective.

    Conclusion

    The study shows that continuity is important when patients recieve care, but there is no

    research about how care should be organized, for continuity to be perceived better from a

    patient perspective, balanced against the needs of the organization to save time and money.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Tillmatning av nyfödda barn på BB i Sverige: följs föreskrifter och rekommendationer2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att beskriva omvårdnaden kring nyfödda barns tillmatning på svenska BB-avdelningar, om föreskrifter följdes och om hänsyn togs till eventuell allergihereditet. Metod: Deskriptiv tvärsnittsstudie med kvantitativ ansats Resultat: Av alla nyfödda barn vid 26 barnkliniker i Sverige vecka 26 år 2009 (n=849) tillmatades 18 % . Moderns bröstmjölk gavs till 16% medan 78 % tillmatades med komjölksbaserad modersmjölksersättning. Den vanligaste orsaken till tillmatning av ersättning var att mammans egen mjölkproduktion inte hade kommit igång (24 %). Andra vanligt förekommande anledningar till tillmatning var lågt blodsocker (18 %) samt sugproblem hos barnen (16 %). Sexton barn tillmatades trots ett blodsockervärde motsvarande >2.2mmol/l. Vad gäller allergiförekomst tillfrågades endast 37 % av barnens föräldrar före tillmatning. Dokumentation om tillmatning fanns noterat i 80 % av barnens journaler. Motsvarande siffra för mammornas journaler var 34 %. Konklusion: Bristfälliga omvårdnadsåtgärder vidtas i samband med tillmatning av nyfödda spädbarn på BB-avdelningar, där allergifrågor ställs i för låg utsträckning. BB-kliniker har varierande referensvärde för vad som räknas som lågt blodsocker. Omvårdnadsbehov för nyfödda barn och deras föräldrar, där förmedlad kunskap om amningens betydelse, tas inte på allvar och oklara riktlinjer skapar förvirring. Föreskrifter och riktlinjer bör följas i större utsträckning an vad denna studie visar.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Janina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lindström, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans roll i den pre- och postoperativa fasen hos äldre patienter, med fokus på nutritionen: En litteraturöversikt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att beskriva hur litteraturen skildrar sjuksköterskans roll i vården av den äldre patienten i den pre- och postoperativa fasen, med fokus på nutritionens betydelse för rehabiliteringen och risken för komplikationer. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt och artiklarna söktes via CINAHL och MEDLINE.  Studiens resultat innehöll ett urval på 14 artiklar med kvantitativ ansats. Resultat: Undervisning och handledning med fokus på nutritionens betydelse för rehabiliteringen och risken för komplikationer var av vikt, även bedömningsinstrument underlättade sjuksköterskans nutritionsbedömning.  I omvårdnaden var energi- och näringstillskott, individuellt anpassade vårdplaner och måltidssituationer viktiga komponenter. Förebyggande åtgärder inom både omvårdnad och medicin hade en korrelation mellan förbättrad nutrition, rehabilitering och minskade risken för komplikationer hos äldre patienter i den pre- och postoperativa vården. Slutsats: Personer över 65 år var en utsatt patientgrupp gällande undernäring och postoperativa komplikationer. Vården bör därför vara anpassad efter den enskilda äldre individens villkor och innehålla information till patienten för att möjliggöra dennes aktiva roll i den egna vården. I det preventiva arbetet behöver sjuksköterskan fortlöpande utbildning och handledning angående hur medicinska och fysiologiska faktorer tillsammans påverkar den äldre individen samt hur sjuksköterskan i ett tidigt skede kan påvisa undernäring hos äldre. 

  • 23.
    Andersson, Jessica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Cytostatikabehandlade patienters upplevelse av livskvalitet - en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the quality of life experience within patients with chemotherapy-treatment.

    Methods: The study was conducted as a literature review. Twelve articles were included with 7 qualitative approach and 5 with quantitative approach. Article was searched for in the database CINAHL.

    Results: The quality of life experience within patients’ undergoing chemotherapy were compiled from five different categories - Side effects from chemotherapy, the social experience, the physical and cognitive experience, then mental and emotional experience and the need for information and advice. The result shows that the experience of side effects within patients undergoing chemotherapy affected the quality of life negatively. The nurse can help improve the quality of life experience within patients undergoing chemotherapy by adequate information and advice.

    Conclusion: Information about potential side effects of chemotherapy is an important part of caring. The prevention work on anxiety and to advise patients to socializing with family and friends can contribute to improving the experience of quality of life within patients suffer from chemotherapy treatment.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Andersson, Mirja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att ge omvårdnad till palliativa patienter på sjukhus - en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    At the end of life, the nurse's goal is to improve the quality of life for patients with incurable disease or injury. The nurse with a nursing responsibility plays an important and central role and meets palliative patients in all health care departments in a hospital. One of the most challenging experiences might be providing care to a patient in the final phase of life, and one of the biggest difficulties may be to talk about death and sorrow. It is therefore of great importance to study how nurses experience caring for palliative patients in hospital awards.

    Aim:

    The purpose of the study is to describe nurses' experiences of caring for palliative patients at general hospitals.

    Method:

    This study was conducted as a literature study and 13 articles were included in the results. The studies had both qualitative and quantitative approach.

    Result:

    The results show that nurses have varied experiences of caring for palliative patients. Experience of inadequacy and stress is something that most nurses have in common, and it is important when patient needs and wishes can be met. More education is something that is considered necessary if you want to work with palliative care, and areas such as communication, pain and emotional support are considered desirable. Nurses also considered that a hospice is a better suited place for patients to spend their last time in life.

    Conclusion:

    Nurses working with palliative patients consider it to be stressful and difficult many times since they do not always have sufficient knowledge.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Katrin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Bettembourg Grundström, Aina
    Upplevelser av lungcancervården: Patient och närståendes perspektiv: En empirisk studie med kvalitativ ansats2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet var att utifrån patienters och närståendes nerskrivna berättelser ta del av deras upplevelser och erfarenheter av lungcancervården samt att utifrån dessa berättelser identifiera förbättringsidéer.Metod: Studien hade en empirisk design med kvalitativ ansats. Datainsamlingen skedde via idéböcker. Materialet analyserades genom kvalitativ innehållsanalys.Resultat: Två teman framkom i resultat. Det första temat var: Känslor av otrygghet och lidande kopplat till vården, livet och den egna sjukdomen. De tillhörande kategorierna var vårdlidande, livslidande och sjukdomslidande. Det andra temat var: Känslor av trygghet kopplat till goda mellanmänskliga relationer. Tillhörande kategori var goda mellanmänskliga relationer. Utökat psykosocialt stöd och utbildning i kommunikation till personal fanns bland de idéer för utveckling av lungcancervården som framkom.Konklusion: Denna studie visade att patienter med lungcancer kände otrygghet och lidande, till stor del orsakat av vården. Där goda möten ägde rum skapades trygghet och goda mellanmänskliga relationer. Utökat psykosocialt stöd och utbildning i kommunikation till personal fanns bland de idéer för utveckling av lungcancervården som framkom.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Lina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Den kvinnliga patientens erfarenhet och upplevelsevid akut kranskärlssjukdom, en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den vård som bedrivs vid akut kranskärlssjukdom är idag bristande när det gäller

    jämställdhet. Männen har varit och är dominerande i den forskning som bedrivs

    om kranskärlssjukdom, vilket utsätter kvinnan för risk vid både diagnos och

    behandling av sjukdomen. Det råder bristande medvetenhet om genusperspektiv

    vid vårdandet av akut kranskärlssjukdom, och mer forskning behövs för att

    uppmärksamma sjuksköterskans behov av att tillämpa detta förhållningssätt.

    Syfte

    Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt är att beskriva den kvinnliga patientens

    erfarenhet och upplevelser vid akut kranskärlssjukdom.

    Metod

    Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt där tio kvalitativa artiklar

    granskades. Databaserna PubMed, CINAHL och Google Scholar användes vid

    sökningen.

    Resultat

    Resultaten i denna litteraturöversikt visar hur den inlärda förväntan om typiska

    symptom och tecken på akut kranskärlssjukdom påverkat kvinnorna vid tolkningen

    av deras symptom. Under sjukdomsförloppet framkom även hur kvinnorna

    förminskade och förnekade allvaret i situationen. Symptomen kunde kopplas till

    mindre allvarliga åkommor, biverkningar av en ny medicin eller bortförklaras med

    stigande ålder.

    Slutsats

    En djupare förståelse för hur kvinnor reagerar vid debuten av akut

    kranskärlssjukdom är nödvändig för att sjuksköterskor ska kunna agera adekvat då

    kvinnan inkommer till sjukhuset.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Lina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Tallberg, Madeleine
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Betydelsen av fysisk aktivitet för att lindra depressiva besvär hos ungdomar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att utifrån litteratur belysa betydelsen av fysisk aktivitet för att lindra depressiva besvär hos ungdomar. Design: Studien har utförts som en litteraturöversikt. Metod: Litteratur som publicerats mellan 2001-2012 söktes fram i databaserna PsycINFO och CINAHL. Sammanlagt 14 vetenskapliga artiklar har granskats och använts i litteraturöversikten. Resultat: Fysisk aktivitet har visat sig ha en positiv effekt på depression hos ungdomar. Fysisk aktivitet visade på en dämpande effekt på depressiva symtom, och påvisade att viktiga effekter av fysisk aktivitet ger en lindring av depressiva symtom. Skillnader mellan yngre tonåringar och äldre tonåringar är att de yngre tenderar att ha högre deltagande i fysisk aktivitet gentemot de äldre, varav mängden fysisk aktivitet minskar från de tidiga tonåren till de äldre. Familjefaktorer har ett starkt samband med fysisk aktivitet. Ungdomar som har en god relation med sina föräldrar har också ett större deltagande i olika fysiska aktiviteter. Flickor löper större risk än pojkar att drabbas av depression. Förebyggande strategier avseende fysisk aktivitet kan vara framgångsrika, och det är viktigt att ha fokus på ungdomar med en historia av psykisk ohälsa och hälsoriskbeteenden för att minska risken för fortsatt utveckling av psykiska problem. Slutsats: Depression hos ungdomar skapar en sämre livskvalitet. Fysisk aktivitet är en viktig del av välmåendet och bör framhävas i relation till psykisk ohälsa hos unga. Att uppmärksamma flickors tendenser till ett sämre mående är en viktig del i omvårdnadsarbetet. Det är viktigt att som sjuksköterska ha vetskap om sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och depressiva symtom för att kunna arbeta preventivt och applicera kunskapen i det dagliga arbetslivet och i möten med ungdomar.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Frid, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att möta patienter med självskadebeteende inom somatisk akutsjukvård: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deliberate self-harm is a symptom of mental illness that ever since the turn of the millennium has been increasingly highlighted. The first contact with healthcare a person with deliberate self-harm often takes place via the somatic emergency medical care. Patients testify to negative experiences in the meeting with these care instances. Therefore, it may be useful to investigate how nurses perceive the meeting with patients with deliberate self-harm. Aim: The aim of the literature review was to describe nurses’ experiences of meeting patients with deliberate self-harm in somatic emergency medical care. Method: The study was conducted as a literature review where 15 scientific articles were sought via the databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. The articles were quality-reviewed, analyzed and compiled into a result. Results: In the process of describing nurses’ experiences, three main categories emerged which were: The nurse's thoughts and feelings; Competence and knowledge; Factors that affect the meeting and care. Conclusion: The result showed that nurses in somatic emergency medical care had both positive and negative experiences in the meeting with patients with deliberate self-harm which evoked different feelings and thoughts among nurses. Common to the studies was that nurses stated that they had a lack of competence and knowledge about this patient group.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Martinsson, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Beröringens effekter inom palliativ vård: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att se vilken effekt beröring har som

    omvårdnadsåtgärd för patienter inom palliativ vård. Metod: Studien är genomförd

    som en litteraturstudie. Huvudresultat: I de flesta studierna framgick att massage

    eller beröring hade positiv effekt på smärta, oro/ångest, sömn och på

    välbefinnandet Resultatet utmynnade i sex kategorier: smärtlindrande effekt,

    lugnande effekt, effekt på välbefinnandet och livskvaliteten, effekt på sömnen,

    effekt över tid och effekt beroende på terapiform. En av studierna visade inte

    någon signifikant skillnad på välbefinnandet hos grupper som fått

    massagebehandling eller vänligt besök av vårdpersonal. Slutsats: Resultatet visar

    att man kan använda beröring som ett komplement till traditionell vård för att

    bland annat minska smärta samt nå ökat välbefinnande hos patienter inom palliativ

    vård.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ols Åström, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Smärtskattning och smärtlindring vid förlossning samt förlossningsupplevelse bland normalviktiga och överviktiga kvinnor2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lundén, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att leva med diabetes typ 1- En litteraturöversikt om barn och ungdomar samt deras föräldrars upplevelser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes typ 1 ökar bland barn och ungdomar, Sverige har den näst högsta insjuknandefrekvensen i hela världen. Diabetes typ 1 är en kronisk autoimmun sjukdom vilket innebär att kroppens immunförsvar angriper de egna insulinproducerande cellerna i pankreas. Patienter med diabetes typ 1 löper stor risk att drabbas av komplikationer och följdsjukdomar.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva barn och ungdomar samt deras föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med diabetes typ 1.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie genomfördes med totalt 15 artiklar utifrån studiens syfte, sökningarna har skett i databaserna Cinahl och PubMed. Artiklarna poängsattes med hjälp av Högskolan Dalarnas modifierade version av granskningsmallar för kvantitativa och kvalitativa artiklar.

    Resultat: Analysen av artiklarna resulterade i fyra kategorier som beskriver barn och ungdomars upplevelser: begränsningar i vardagen, stöd från föräldrar och sjukvården var centralt, rädsla för komplikationer samt att vara annorlunda. Två kategorier beskriver föräldrarnas upplevelser: oro rädsla och frustration samt att våga släppa kontrollen.

    Slutsats: Barn och ungdomar med diabetes typ 1 upplevde sitt liv som begränsat. Sjukdomen påverkar dem i skolan, under fysisk aktivitet, tillsammans med vänner, och i sociala sammanhang. Föräldrar till barn och ungdomar med diabetes typ 1 upplevde rädsla och oro över sitt barns sjukdom.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjöberg, Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Egenvård och faktorer som påverkar följsamheten till egenvård för att minska risken för recidiv av venösa bensår: - En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One percent of Sweden’s population suffers from venous leg ulcers. The risk of recurrence is high at a 70 % recurrence rate. The compliance to performing recommended self-care activities is often low.

    The aim of this study was to highlight evidence based self-care activities, and what factors that influenced the adherence to follow the recommended self-care activities in order to minimize the risk of recurrence in patients with venous leg ulcers. The Method was a literature study based on 15 research articles. The result showed that wearing compression hosiery, performing leg exercises, physical activity and resting with the legs elevated was evidence based methods that lowers the risk of recurrence of venous leg ulcers. Factors found that influenced the compliance to self-care activities among patients with venous leg ulcers were: Information, trust, pain, body image, depression, self-efficacy and restricted mobility. The conclusion was that recommending individualized evidence-based self-care activities to patients with on-going or previous venous leg ulcers lowers the risk of recurrence. A trusting relationship should be established between the nurse and the patient, and interventions aimed towards increasing the patient compliance to recommended self-care activities should be prioritized. By adapting a preventive approach in order to decrease recurrences of venous leg ulcers, the suffering of the patients are minimized as well as the health-care costs of society.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av andliga och existentiella frågor i palliativ vård: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Spiritual and existential issues increasingly end up at healthcare

    personnel. The palliative approach emphasizes the importance of providing good

    care regarding existential and spiritual issues. The nurse's role is through good

    relationships create a customized and balanced care to improve the wellbeing of

    the patient, at the end of life.

    Aim: The aim of the literature review was to compile the spiritual and existential

    issues described in the research based on nurses' experiences of palliative care.

    Methods: A literature review that compiles current research in the chosen nursing

    field.

    Results: In the result time appeared as the most common obstacle and education

    promotes giving of spiritual and existential care. To establish a relationship and

    communicate is important aspects in the art of nursing. Characteristics that the

    nurse should possess in order to facilitate the giving of spiritual and existential

    care is; good self-knowledge, empathy, intuition and observation ability.

    Conclusion: To be able to ameliorate spiritual and existential care time is needed

    for the external conditions to enable the meeting between nurse and patient. The

    care environment should be organized so this is made possible, teamwork applied

    and education provided.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Maribel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Vestling, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som påverkar anhörigas upplevelse av vårdpersonalens bemötande vid palliativ vård oavsett vårdmiljö: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With an aging population while chronic diseases increases forecasts

    show that the need for palliative care will increase in the future. The aim of

    palliative care is to improve quality of life for patients and their families. Research

    in this area is needed when there is little evidence that shows which form of

    support that is most relevant to families in different situations. Aim: The aim of

    the study was to illuminate relatives experiences of care attitudes made by health

    personnel associated with palliative care. Method: The study was conducted as a

    literature review and was based on 17 scientific articles. Of these, 15 were

    qualitative and 2 of mixed design. The articles were published between the years

    2006-2016. Results: The results were presented in three main categories. These

    were: treatment through communication and information, treatment through

    trusting relationships and factors influencing relative’s management of their life

    situation. Conclusion: The results highlighted the negative and positive

    experiences of healthcare personnel’s attitude towards relatives. Areas that were

    revealed and that had bearing on whether relatives felt the response as good or

    poor were communication, the need to be informed and supported, establishing a

    trusting relationship and nursing staff characteristics. The result further revealed

    that good and inadequate treatment led to consequences in the form of suffering or

    alleviated suffering for the relatives.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Waern, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Distriktssköterskans erfarenhet av att motivera patienter med diabetes mellitus typ 2 till livsstilsförändringar: Kvalitativ intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease that is increasing in the population worldwide. The disease can cause severe complications that affect patient health. An important part is to change unhealthy habits. Purpose: The aim was to describe the district nurse's experience of how they motivate patients with type 2 diabetes to lifestyle changes. Method: A qualitative approach with semistructured interviews were conducted and five district nurses were interviewed. The material was analyzed according to Graneheim and Lund's content analysis. Results: The study revealed that it was important that the district nurse created a good relationship with the patient to motivate lifestyle changes. Study participants highlighted the importance of support in the patient's environment by involving family and other patients. It also emerged that the participants motivated by being a good teacher and to work with other professionals. Personalized information and different kinds of pedagogical methods were used to increase the patient's motivation. Conclusion: To be able to motivate their patients to lifestyle changes the district nurse must provide information individually to their patients which can be done through various teaching methods. It´s also important to create a good relationship with their patients by establish trust.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Olga
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Strand, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelser av vilka faktorer som har betydelse i vården på specialistsjuksköterskeledda hjärtsviktsmottagningar.: En kvalitativ studie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart failure is a common and serious condition with high mortality rate, morbidity and impaired quality of life. It is estimated that about a quarter of a million Swedish people have chronic heart failure. The creation of a specialist nurse-led heart failure clinic with medical assistance has improved the treatment of patients with heart failure.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine patients’ perceptions of the factors that are important in the care on specialist nurse-led heart failure clinics.

    Method: Interviews with semi- structured questions were used. A qualitative manifest content analysis was used to analyze the material found during the interviews. The informants were selected through a strategic selection.

    Results: The result showed that a functional relationship between patient and specially trained nurses at the heart failure clinic, and sufficient information to manage their own care, was of the most importance to the patients. A good healthcare relationship are described by the patients as containing continuity, trust to the nurse, friendly treatment, cooperation’s with healthcare staff and availability as needed.

    Conclusion: The care of a specialist nurse-led heart failure clinics are important for patient safety. It seems important to know whom heart failure patients should contact if necessary help and support to deal with their situation. To have the ability to contact a nurse when needed was very meaningful. The informants found the information on how to handling their own care as important and as a support in their daily life.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Sofie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Vestin, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fysisk aktivitets effekt på depressiva symtom2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    To this day there’s approximately 350 million people in the world who are suffering from depression. The World Health Organization predicts that depression will be the number one public health problem in the world by the year 2030. Depressive symptoms form the basis of depression. To get the diagnoses depression the symptoms must have been ongoing for more than two weeks. Psychotherapy and antidepressants is the treatment as standard for depression to this day. As early as the year 1905, the idea was raised whether physical activity had an impact on depressive symptoms. Dorothea Orem’s nursing theory is about self-care and only when the person is motivated enough to perform physical activity the self-care can be possible.

    Aim:

    To compile scientific studies regarding physical activity and its impact on depressive symptoms in adults and the elderly.

    Method:

    A literature review which is based on 15 quantitative articles, one qualitative and one mixed method which all used different scales to estimate the degree of depressive symptoms. The article searches have been made in the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed.

    Results:

    The results in the quantitative studies showed that physical activity has an impact on depressive symptoms which reflects their decreases according to the scales used for estimation. The studies also showed that intensity, frequency and type of physical activity have an effect on the impact on the depressive symptoms and an individual adjustment is required. The qualitative study showed that the participants felt satisfied after the exercise, that they gained self-confidence and a better self-esteem.

    Conclusion:

    According to the research, physical activity has an impact on depressive symptoms, which means that the depression alleviates or that the person even recovers from the depression which is shown when the score on the used scale doesn’t meet the criteria for the diagnosis depression.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Susanne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Barn och ungdomars copingstrategier när en förälder har cancer: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet var att redogöra för vilka copingstrategier barn och ungdomar kan

    använda för att hantera en förälders cancersjukdom. Metod: Examensarbetet

    genomfördes som en litteraturstudie. Vetenskapliga artiklar söktes i Högskolan

    Dalarnas biblioteksdatabaser PubMed och CINAHL. Elva vetenskapliga artiklar med

    kvalitativ ansats, tre med kvantitativ ansats samt en vetenskaplig artikel med mixad

    metod låg till grund för resultatet. Resultat: Analysen av artiklarnas resultatdelar

    visade att barn och ungdomar hade behov av att få fortlöpande information gällande

    förälderns situation. Barn och ungdomars olika sätt att hantera känslor samt behov av

    socialt stöd från den egna familjen och omgivningen påvisades. Stöd efterlystes från

    hälso- och sjukvården men upplevdes bristfälligt. Vidare försökte informanterna att

    skapa en mening i tillvaron genom att normalisera vardagen, existentiella och andliga

    funderingar samt att prioritera familjen mer än tidigare. Slutsats: Barn och

    ungdomar behöver få information och känna delaktighet för att kunna förstå och

    hantera situationen när en förälder drabbats av cancer. Att leva med en förälder med

    cancer väcker många känslor vilket medför att barn och ungdomar behöver stöd.

    Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal bör sträva efter att skapa en vårdrelation, inte bara med

    patienten utan även med de närstående, inklusive barn och ungdomar i familjen. En

    fungerande vårdrelation möjliggör för sjukvårdspersonal att stötta hela familjen i den

    svåra situationen.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Ollas, Maja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Barnmorskors erfarenheter och strategier i mötet med nyanlända kvinnor på förlossningsavdelning, med fokus på interaktion, tillit och sammanhang: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Supporting the woman and her partner is a major part of the midwifery role during delivery. As the number of newly arrived women increases in Sweden, with varied backgrounds and languages, the demands on midwives’ skills increase. Both migration and childbirth can be described as transitions, which can lead to positive development but also to increased challenges. Migration can be a stressful life process for newly arrived woman and the situation of childbirth can contribute to further vulnerability and uncertainty. The midwife has to understand the needs of newly arrived women in order to support and contribute to a positive experience.

    Aim:

    The aim of this study is to describe midwives' experiences and strategies in the meeting with newly arrived women at childbirth, focusing on interaction, trust and context.

    Method

    : Semi-structured interviews with eight midwives analyzed with qualitative content analysis with deductive approach.

    Results:

    The results of the study provided information on strategies that the midwives use to create interaction, trust and context, as well as their experiences. Common to all midwives was that they experienced that good communication with the patient was very important for creating interaction. Ahead of the meeting with a newly arrived woman, the midwives made sure of that they were well prepared. Strategies used to create trust were to show consideration, be present and take time to listen to the woman. By listening to the woman's wishes, providing information and trying to make the woman feel active and making active choices during her childbirth, midwife creates a context for the woman.

    Conclusion:

    The study has shown that midwives have conscious strategies for meetings with immigrated women. There is, however, a need for clearer routines

    regarding the work of immigrated women in the delivery room, increased cultural skills of midwives and more resources to allow more time for these women.

    Clinical application:

    This study, through the strategies of midwives, can guide other midwives to support newly arrived women during childbirth. The study provides suggestions for areas of improvement and aids to improve the meeting and hence the quality of care for these women.

  • 40.
    Anderstedt, Chatrine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Icke farmakologiska omvårdnadsåtgärder för att lindraagitation hos personer med demens –2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att beskriva vilka icke farmakologiska omvårdnadsåtgärder en sjuksköterska kan användaför att lindra agitation hos äldre personer med demens. Metod Designen som har använts, är enlitteraturöversikt. Artiklar söktes via Cinahl och PubMed, med sökorden dementia, nonpharmacological,nursing och agitation. Sammanställning av sökord, antal träffar, urval,inklusionskriterier och exklusionskriterier återgavs genom text och tabeller. Till resultatsdelenvaldes 11 artiklar ut efter att granskats med granskningsmallar för kvalitetsbedömning. Bådekvantitativa och kvalitativa artiklar valdes ut i resultatet.Resultatet visade att de icke farmakologiska omvårdnadsåtgärderna, har en positiv verkan påpersoner med demens agitation. Litteraturöversiktns slutsats är att speciellt musik och beröringfungerar bra som icke farmakologisk omvårdnadsåtgärd. Den positiva effekten är dock kortvarig.Slutsats Det behövs lite nytänkande kring de icke farmakologiska omvårdnadsåtgärderna.Metoderna är bra. Det som behövs, är att komma på hur man får en långvarig effekt av dessa.

  • 41.
    Andresen,, My
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Oljans, Maja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Venösa bensår, en litteraturstudie om att främjaegenvård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Venous leg ulcer is the most common and accounts for about 70%

    of all leg ulcers. Today, approximately 50.000 people in Sweden have venous leg

    ulcers. The incidence increases with increasing age, predominantly over 65 years

    and is more common among women than men. After the occurrence of an ulcer it

    follows by a slow treatment until the wound is healed and requires good compliance

    from both the healthcare and the patient. Self-care usually does not end after the

    wound has healed but can last out a lifetime to prevent recurrence.

    Aim:

    Enlighten the factors that promote self-care in patients with venous leg ulcers.

    Method:

    A literature review based on 17 scientific articles with both quantitative

    and qualitative approach found in the databases CINAHL and PubMed. The result

    was analyzed with inspiration from Friberg (2012).

    Result:

    Several factors that can promote self-care in patients with venous leg ulcers

    have been found in the articles. In order for self-care to be promoted, patients must

    receive information and instruction on the cause and treatment. The relationship

    with the nurse should consist of trust and confidence. Patients wanted the

    recommendations to be clearly stated and ordained instead of obtaining a general

    recommendation. In order to integrate self-care as part of everyday life, it was

    beneficial with routines, aids and assistance. Setting goals and motivating as well as

    giving continuous follow-up were other significant factors for promoting self-care.

    Conclusion:

    Important factors for promoting self-care were a good relationship

    between nurse and patient. That the nurse should strengthen the patient's ability to

    perform self-care on her own and to regularly follow up and support the patient

  • 42.
    Anåker, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Anåker, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    von Koch, Lena
    Sjöstrand, Christina
    Bernhardt, Julie
    Elf, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet; Chalmers University of Technology.
    A comparative study of patients’ activities and interactions in a stroke unit before and after reconstruction – the significance of the built environment2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, article id e0177477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early mobilization and rehabilitation, multidisciplinary stroke expertise and comprehensive therapies are fundamental in a stroke unit. To achieve effective and safe stroke care, the physical environment in modern stroke units should facilitate the delivery of evidence-based care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore patients’ activities and interactions in a stroke unit before the reconstruction of the physical environment, while in a temporary location and after reconstruction. This case study examined a stroke unit as an integrated whole. The data were collected using a behavioral mapping technique at three different time points: in the original unit, in the temporary unit and in the new unit. A total of 59 patients were included. The analysis included field notes from observations of the physical environment and examples from planning and design documents. The findings indicated that in the new unit, the patients spent more time in their rooms, were less active, and had fewer interactions with staff and family than the patients in the original unit. The reconstruction involved a change from a primarily multi-bed room design to single-room accommodations. In the new unit, the patients’ lounge was located in a far corner of the unit with a smaller entrance than the patients’ lounge in the old unit, which was located at the end of a corridor with a noticeable entrance. Changes in the design of the stroke unit may have influenced the patients’ activities and interactions. This study raises the question of how the physical environment should be designed in the future to facilitate the delivery of health care and improve outcomes for stroke patients. This research is based on a case study, and although the results should be interpreted with caution, we strongly recommend that environmental considerations be included in future stroke guidelines.

  • 44.
    AQiff, Birgitta
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av akut konfusion hos äldre i akutsjukvård – En kvalitativ intervju studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title:

    Nurses experience of acute confusion in elderly patients in acute emergency care- A qualitative interview study.

    Background:

    The elderly cared for in emergency care have an incidence between 11–51% to develop acute confusion during the care period. The condition is related to increased morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Multifactorial causes lie behind the elderly being affected. Acute confusion is a clinical diagnosis, at present there are not biomarkers or examinations that can identify the condition. Acute confusion requires early awareness, swift investigation, medical care and well adapted health care environment in order for the patient to recover.

    Purpose:

    To describe nurses experiences in detecting, preventing and caring for patients suffering from acute confusion in emergency care.

    Design:

    A qualitative interview with five nurses working within geriatric emergency care at two hospitals in the south of Sweden.

    Result:

    Three categories emerged in the result; strategies to identify and assess signs of acute confusion, strategies and hinders for preventative measures and good nursing upon acute confusion, and improvement proposals for the care of elderly suffering from acute confusion. Nurses used observation, communication, and gathering of information from medical records and relatives in order to identify acute confusion. A comprehensive view in care, continuity in contacts, adaption of health care environment and relatives engagement were important factors to prevent acute confusion and provide good nursing. Hindering factors were a result of shortcomings in the health care environment, insufficient resources and time, and lack of knowledge among other requisite staff regarding appropriate reception and approach.

    Conclusion:

    An evidence-based screening instrument which identifies various states of confusion would render assessment and documentation easier for nurses. Personal centered care built upon that such is planned based on a comprehensive view and continuity in contacts, and that relatives are more engaged in care, is advocated by the nurses. Health care environment shall be adapted, be calm and supportive in form. Staff that work with confused patients need more sufficient knowledge regarding appropriate reception and approach to render patient recovery easier.

  • 45.
    Ara Akther, Hasne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Khatoon, Zohra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Social, economic and professional barriers for midwives to provide quality midwifery care in Bangladesh: A focus group discussion study with midwifery faculty members in Bangladesh2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Midwifery is central in addressing maternal and newborn health. Social, economic and professional barriers prevent midwives from providing quality midwifery care, which in the end can lead to poor maternal and newborn health. The midwifery profession is under development in Bangladesh and midwifery teachers’ perspective on barriers towards quality midwifery care is vital to identify the barriers preventing quality midwifery care in this country.

    Aim:

    To describe midwifery teacher’s perceptions on midwives’ realities in Bangladesh from social, economic and professional perspectives.

    Methods:

    A qualitative deductive design in which three focus group discussions were held with 17 midwifery teachers in total. Data was analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results:

    Social barriers hampering quality midwifery care include lack of female empowerment, gender inequality permeating education, child birth, workplaces and negative attitudes in society towards women. Low income, inadequate housing and unsafe accommodation are among economic barriers. Professionally, little opportunities to participate in policy dialogue, to raise midwives’ voices and contribute to decisions, little public awareness about the midwifery profession, heavy workload, inadequate staffing and workplace environments hamper quality care.

    Conclusion and clinical application:

    Quality maternal health depends on enhanced midwifery workforce. Minimizing the identified barriers may elevate the confidence level of midwives and enable them to provide evidence based up-to-date care freely and independently. Revising economic benefits for midwives and taking initiatives to establish separate midwifery education facilities countrywide is a good start. This thesis provides a platform for further research focusing on improvements in quality of midwifery care after the deployment of newly introduced midwifery cadre service in Bangladesh.

  • 46.
    Ara Begum, Arshe
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Yesmin, Farida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nursing and midwifery educators’ self-assessed compliance to midwifery educators’ core competences: A questionnaire survey based on international standards prior the development of a mentorship program in Bangladesh2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Building midwifery educators’ capacity has been identified as an important component to ensure quality midwifery education in Bangladesh.

    Objective:

    To describe midwifery educators self-assessed compliance with capabilities’ according to international standards for nursing- and midwifery educators in order to strengthen their capacity in the development of a mentorship program.

    Methods:

    This study was conducted at 25 of the 38 colleges/institutes, with 59 midwifery educators. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire with open and closed response options; both qualitative and quantitative analysis was used for analysis of data.

    Result

    : The midwifery educators’ self-assessed capabilities were scored high regarding midwifery knowledge, orientation to research, the ability to facilitate positive change for effective clinical teaching environment, and in the area of midwifery practice. Mentorship could be used in various ways. It could be used for capacity building of clinical mentors/staffs, for capacity building of nursing and midwifery faculty, for capacity building at policy level in planning, policy making, budgeting and in research initiatives. If challenges with for example electricity, internet and access to computers were met, mentorship programs could be net-based and thereby facilitating expertise from all over the world. However, face-to-face meetings were also important and more blended mode might be more effective. The focus would be to improve clinical practice, skill lab practice, and evidence-based knowledge in the field of midwifery.

    Conclusion:

    Mentorship programs could be net-based if challenges were managed, but face-to-face meetings was also seen as important. The recommendations regarding the content of a mentorship program were that areas to be included could be professionalism, skills lab and evidence based knowledge.

    Clinical applicability and further research:

    All colleges/institutions with clinical sites connected to them in Bangladesh, would benefit from mentorship to faculty and clinical supervisors. Institutional collaboration is suggested to provide peer-mentoring of midwifery faculty and clinical supervisors. As half of all pre-registration midwifery programs are embedded in the practice setting, the necessity of mentorship programs involves both faculty and clinical supervisors became evident. More research in these areas to guidance approaches to build midwifery educator’s capacity is required.

  • 47.
    Arin, Nassrin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som är väsentliga för sjuksköterskors bedömning av smärta hos patienter med medelsvår till svår demens En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syfte

    Detta examensarbete är en litteraturöversikt som syftar till att beskriva vilka faktorer som är

    väsentliga för sjuksköterskors bedömning av smärta hos patienter med medelsvår till svår

    demens

    Metod

    Litteratur hittades via databaserna PubMed och Medline. Sjutton stycken artiklar som

    motsvarade syftet i studien hittades och analyserades. De sjutton artiklarna var publicerade

    mellan 2004 och 2014

    Resultat

    Analysen av de sjutton artiklar som ligger till grund för resultaten av studien visade tre

    kategorier; Känna igen smärta, Instrument för bedömning av smärta samt Kunskap och

    förhållningssätt. I kategorin att Känna igen smärta visar sig att det är en svår, viktig och

    komplicerad uppgift för sjuksköterskan att bedöma smärta hos patienter med demens. Detta

    beror på att de ofta inte kan uttrycka det verbalt, men i stället anger sjuksköterskan annat

    beteende av demens som skulle kunna vara ett tecken på underliggande smärta. Resultaten

    visade också att detta ledde till osäkerhet bland sjuksköterskor. I kategorin Instrument för

    bedömningen av smärta visade det sig att det fanns ett antal bedömningsverktyg som kan

    hjälpa sjuksköterskan i sin bedömning och tolkning av smärta hos patienter med demens. I

    kategorin Kunskap och attityd visade att sjuksköterskor som har utbildningar hade lättare att

    dechiffrera smärta hos patienter med demens och smärta hos patienter med demens kan ofta

    misstolkas som ett tecken på bara oro. Resultatet visar att det är viktigt med fastställda rutiner

    och rätt inställning sjuksköterskan för att kunna göra en bra och rättvis bedömning av smärta

    hos patienter med demens så att de får rätt behandling för smärta.

    Slutsatser

    Studien visar att det är en svår och komplex uppgift för sjuksköterskan att bedöma smärta hos

    patienter med demens. Det är lättare att bedöma smärtan hos en patient som sjuksköterskan

    har en god relation till och känner sedan tidigare. Bedömningsinstrument kan vara ett bra sätt

    och fungera som ett hjälpmedel för sjuksköterskan att tyda och tolka smärtan hos patienter

    med demens. Fortbildning av vårdpersonal i att tyda smärta hos patienter med demens är att

    rekommendera eftersom att litteraturen visade att långvarig erfarenhet leder till större

    skicklighet att upptäcka smärta och kan dessutom vålla desensibilisering. Det råder en stor

    osäkerhet hos vårdpersonal när det kommer till bedömning av smärta hos patienter med

    demens.

  • 48.
    Aronsson, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Riskfaktorer för självmord bland män över 65 år och självmordspreventiva omvårdnadsinsatser2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Självmord är ett folkhälsoproblem bland äldre världen över. I takt med en globalt ökad medellivslängd och en större population äldre individer förväntas antalet självmord bland äldre öka. Män över 65 år genomför cirka 5-6 gånger fler självmord än kvinnor i samma ålder. Syfte: Att kartlägga de orsaker som ligger till grund för att män över 65 år begår självmord, samt beskriva preventiva omvårdnadsinsatser. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie, sökningar gjordes i Pubmed, Cinahl och Medline. Totalt inkluderades 27 artiklar. Resultat: Riskfaktorer för självmord hos äldre män var depression, förluster, fysisk funktionsnedsättning, misstro mot sjukvården samt att de var beslutsamma och använde våldsamma metoder. Självmordsprevention bör ske med gemensamma insatser i vården och i socialsektorn. Utbildning av vårdpersonal leder till ökat självförtroende, ökad kunskap och mer kompetens att identifiera individer i riskzonen. Utbildning leder även till förändrade attityder och förhållningssätt hos vårdpersonal vilket leder till mindre risk för känsla av förlorad autonomi hos patienten. Slutsats: Utbildning av vårdpersonal är av stor vikt för att förmedla kunskaper och förmågor att bemöta självmordsbenägna individer och för att påverka de attityder som råder i samhället. Ju tidigare insatser som görs för hälsa och välmående desto bättre, vilket indirekt ger självmordsprevention på köpet.

  • 49.
    Aronsson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Grandin, Simone
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Långvarig smärta efter cancerbehandling - En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cancer is increasing among the population, which can lead to an increased number of complications as chronic pain, not only from the cancer treatment but from the disease itself. Patients have also been found to feel that their pain problems are not taken seriously by the healthcare professionals. The nurses should work to relieve any suffering which is caused by pain. Suffering is a unique experience that is different for everyone. As suffering may be due to the overall life situation, the nurses need a greater understanding of the situation in order to fulfill their responsibilities. Aim: The aim of this literature review was to compile research on chronic pain after cancer treatment. Method: An integrative literature review with 11 included articles. Result: Two main themes were identified; daily life and quality of life, and six subthemes regarding how the chronic pain influences and impacts the following; physical activities, daily activities, the professional life, drug use, general wellbeing, and sex life. Conclusion: Many patients experienced a negative impact on their daily life in both mental, physical and social dimensions. Patients felt that work, physical activity and daily tasks were limited due to the chronic pain. This varied in all aspects depending on the type of cancer and which treatment the patients received.

  • 50.
    Artikulova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Martinez Vasquez, Susan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Strategier och hjälpmedel som kan förbättra munhälsan hos äldre personer inom äldreomsorg: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att belysa vilka strategier och hjälpmedel som kan förbättra

    munhälsan hos äldre personer inom äldreomsorg. Metod: En

    litteraturöversiktsstudie baserad på befintlig kunskap. Studien innefattade 15

    artiklar med såväl kvalitativ som kvantitativ ansats och söktes i databaserna Cinahl

    och Pubmed. Resultat: Resultatet visade att de strategier som framkom till följd av

    bearbetning av de femton valda vetenskapliga artiklar i denna studie var

    munvårdsutbildning till vårdgivarna, uppföljning av befintliga rutiner samt

    införandet av nya rutiner och anpassad kommunikation. Dessa strategier visade sig

    vara mycket effektiva för förbättrad munhälsa hos vårdtagarna inom äldreomsorg.

    I studien beskrivs även effekter av användning av hjälpmedel som elektrisk

    tandborste och munvårdskort. Konklusion: Resultatet visade att bland annat

    munvårdsutbildning ger ett bättre munvårdsresultat.

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