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  • 1.
    Aalhuizen, Therése
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Per
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Språkbarriärer och tolkanvändning i vården ur sjuksköterskans perspektiv: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During 2014 over 200 different languages were spoken in Sweden, and by the end of 2017 approximately 20 % of the population was foreign born. 110 000 healthcare injuries, many of them due to failure in communication were reported by the nursing association (2017). The evident language barriers create a lack of trust and confidence between patient and nurse. To overcome the identified language barriers interpreters have become a necessary tool in order to exchange information and create a trusting relationship between patients and nurses.

    Aim: To explore the nurses experiences and perceptions of existing language barriers and the use of interpreters within healthcare.

    Method: A literature review of fifteen scientific articles. These were identified in the databases PubMed and Cinahl through searches for relevant articles with appropriate keywords.

    Results: Nurses consider language barriers to be the biggest obstacle to good communication, which often lead to misunderstandings and misinterpretations. The identified problem of communication is experienced as time consuming and the nurses perceive more planning to be needed when dealing with patients with a different mother tongue. Furthermore, it presents a severe challenge to maintain good care and establish an understanding of the patient’s story. Nurses prefer to use an interpreter on site, however interpreters by phone are more accessible. More than one underlying cause is linked to nurse’s skepticism to use interpreters. To mention one many nurses doubt the accuracy of the interpretation. Moreover, nurses acknowledge their need of further training and education in the use of interpreters.

    Conclusion: The result identified is based upon nurse’s first hand experiences of language barriers and the use of interpreters. The literature review has provided insightful knowledge and increased the understanding of language barriers and the use of interpreters in health care. The research will be an asset in future careers and provide help in overcoming set problem.

  • 2.
    Abdalle Hussein, Suaado
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Moreira, Melissa Silva
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Äldre personers och anhörigas upplevelser av besök på akutmottagningar: en litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background.  Older people currently constitute the largest patient group visiting emergency departments worldwide and are often accompanied by carers and/or relatives. The aging part of the population is increasing which leads to a greater strain on the health care system. While emergency departments offer acute care services to the general population, they are not well suited for the particular needs of older people and their relatives. Being aware of the issues older people and their relatives face during visits to the emergency department can help to deliver better suited care for this growing part of the population.  Aim. The aim of this literature review is to investigate older peoples’ and relatives’ experiences of visiting emergency departments.  Methods. The method of this study is a literature review of 14 articles from Australia, Europe, North America and South America. The databases used to find the articles were CINAHL and PubMed. Results. Results were divided into positive and negative themes. The six negative themes that emerged were: Lack of communication; Lack of patient involvement; Long waiting times; Lack of attentiveness; Inadequate physical environment and inadequate management of needs and symptoms. The positive theme that emerged was that emergency departments as reliable and easily accessible health care facilities. Conclusions. Older people and their relatives see their emergency department experience as mostly negative, exposing a need for better communication practices, positive person-centred interactions between health care staff and patients as well as their relatives and changes to the physical environment and health care system of the emergency department.

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  • 3.
    Abdikadir, M. Bisharo
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ubah, Warsame H.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vuxna patienters upplevelse i samband med palliativ vård - en litteraturöversikt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Palliative care is about relieving the suffering of patients with incurable diseaseand meeting their physical, psychosocial and existential needs to promote the patient's quality of life. Palliative care should be built on four cornerstones: symptom relief, cooperation, communication and support for relatives. The care staff must have enough knowledge about palliative care in order to perform the practical nursing care to the patients in the palliative phase.Aim: The aim of this study is to describe adult patients' experience in connection with palliative care.Method: The literature review contains 17 scientific articles with qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. The data search was performed in the databases CINAHL and PubMed.Results: The result showed six categories that are knowledge of palliative care, loss of self-esteem and vulnerability, existential support, empathy and sympathy, feelings of security and communication and self-determination. The results showed that several patients missing knowledge about palliative care and those patients have different perceptions of palliative care, for example, some patients believe that palliative care means the end of life while other patients describe that palliative care for them is more than the end of life. For example, patients express that it is a supportive care to improve their quality of life.Conclusion: Patients need more knowledge about palliative care and therefore it is important that care staff offer information to patients. This is important for patients to be well informed about their care. To increase patient participation and knowledge of palliative care, it is important that there is good communication between patients and care staff.

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  • 4.
    Abdillahi, Ayan Ismail
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Catindoy, Cyna Remonida
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser av att vårda patienter med annan kulturell bakgrund: en litteraturöversikt2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background The increasing migration in Sweden increases the demands on nurses to meet and care for patients with a different cultural background. Culture is a decisive factor that affects the patient, and the nurse needs to take this into account with the help of cultural competence. Having cultural competence means that the nurse has knowledge and understanding of the patient's culture and adapts care to the patient's cultural background. The patients feel that cultural and linguistic differences between them and the nurses affect the care and reduce the quality of care.

    Aim The purpose of the literature review is to explore the nurse's experiences of caring for patients with a different cultural background.

    Method The method for the work is a structured literature study with elements of the methodology used in systematic reviews. It consists of 14 qualitative articles collected from the databases CINAHL, PubMed and PsycInfo. The articles were analysed using Friberg's analysis model in three steps and the quality of the articles was reviewed using Ulrika Nilsson's review template.

    Results The results were presented in three main categories: experiences of communication; cultural differences and cultural competence and its strategies for improving the care of patients with different cultural backgrounds. The results showed that language differences made patient care more difficult, that the nurses faced discrimination and that a lack of cultural competence caused feelings of uncertainty and fear.

    Conclusions The nurses experienced challenges that included cultural differences, language differences, lack of cultural competence and meeting and being met by patients. Despite these challenges, the nurses were able to navigate different situations and use different strategies to overcome the challenges.

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  • 5. Abdillahi, Hamda A
    et al.
    Hassan, Khadra A
    Kiruja, Jonah
    Osman, Fatumo
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Egal, Jama A
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    A mixed-methods study of maternal near miss and death after emergency cesarean delivery at a referral hospital in Somaliland2017In: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 138, no 1, p. 119-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To explore maternal near miss and death after emergency cesarean delivery in Somaliland, including the impact of the prerequisite for family consent.

    METHODS: A facility-based, mixed-methods study was conducted to assess all maternal near misses and deaths recorded at a referral hospital that provided services to women from all regions of Somaliland. The data sources comprised a quantitative prospective cross-sectional study using the WHO near-miss tool (performed from August 1 to December 31, 2015) and qualitative interviews with 17 healthcare providers working at the referral hospital who were in direct contact with the women in labor (performed from January 15 to March 15, 2015).

    RESULTS: Of the 138 maternal near misses and deaths recorded, 50 (36%) were associated with emergency cesarean delivery. The most frequent maternal complication was severe pre-eclampsia (n=17; 34%), and the most frequent underlying causes were hypertensive disorders (n=31; 62%) and obstetric hemorrhage (n=15; 30%). Healthcare providers were often prevented from performing emergency cesarean delivery until the required consent had been received from the woman's extended family.

    CONCLUSION: Maternity care in Somaliland must be improved, and the issue of legal authority for consent examined, to ensure both safe and timely provision of emergency cesarean delivery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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  • 6.
    Abdulrahman, Mjilan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Johansson, Emelie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelser och positiva effekter av komplementär och alternativmedicin vid smärta: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eighteen of Sweden's population suffers from long-term pain. The unmeasured data in the presence is not known. Among the older population, 54% of women and 38% prevalence of men, have long-term pain. The pain affects several factors, everything from inferior well-being and physical fatigue, to the impact on social life and work. The costs for society are estimated to cost SEK 87.5 billion annually in direct and indirect costs. Complementary and alternative medicine is a collective term for treatments that are not part of the traditional medical treatment. Examples of treatments include massage, acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), cognitive behavioral therapy (KBT) and meditation/yoga. Aim: To describe patients' experiences and the positive effect of alternative and complementary medicine of long-term pain. Method: A literature review based on 14 scientific articles with qualitative or quantitative approach. Searches have been conducted in CINAHL and PubMed. Results: Three main themes emerged in the result, which was increased wellbeing, pain relief and increased mobility. The studies indicate that the patients experienced good pain relief and increased quality of life both physically and mentally during treatment with complementary and alternative medicine. Patients who have not achieved pain relief through traditional care, experienced good pain relief with complementary and alternative medicine. Conclusion:  Complementary and alternative medicine can be an alternative to traditional treatment and sometimes even a first alternative for several reasons, among other things to avoid side effects from drugs.

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  • 7.
    Abelström, Kim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Mulamba, Carmine
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser av transkulturell omvårdnad: en litteraturöversikt2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Due to various circumstances, more and more people are forced to flee their countries of origin, which leads to more and more countries becoming multicultural. A multicultural society is in turn reflected in health care. Nurses are faced with great challenges in the care of patients who have other cultural backgrounds. Therefore, it is important that nurses are culturally competent and able to communicate with patients who do not share the same language and culture.

    AimThe purpose was to describe the nurse's experiences of transcultural nursing among adult patients.

    MethodA literature review based on 15 scientific articles was conducted. The collection of data was done by using databases PubMed and CINAHL

    ResultsThe results of the study showed that nurses face several challenges in the field of transcultural nursing which include lack of cultural competence, communication barriers, prejudices, and individual values. It became clear that sufficient cultural competence, effective communication, respect, and a welcoming attitude are significant and decisive factors in being able to provide meaningful and dignified care to patients with a different cultural background.

    ConclusionsNurses face challenges in caring for patients from different cultural backgrounds, which can lead to uncertainty and misunderstanding. To ensure quality care, nurses need to increase their knowledge of transcultural nursing and develop effective communication strategies.

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  • 8.
    Abshir, Hamdiya
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Användning av information och kommunikationsteknologi för att främja egenvård på distans för patienter med diabetes typ 2 En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that is linked to suffering

    and lack of quality of life. Self-care is essential to reduce the negative

    consequences. Less than half of all patients achieve good self-care. Some of the

    reasons are limited knowledge of diabetes and poor self-care compliance. The

    introduction of ICT in diabetes care was started to improve clinical outcomes and

    quality of life for patients with diabetes type 2. Aim: To describe how information

    and communication technology can promote self-care in distance for patients with

    diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods: Literature study, in which the articles were

    searched in CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science. Articles included were 15

    articles with a quantitative, qualitative and mixed method. Results: The results

    showed that information and communication technology such as internet,

    computer and mobile phone-based self-care program promoted self-care in patients

    with diabetes type 2 by increasing knowledge, awareness, motivation and

    improving lifestyle change. Conclusion: Information and communication

    technology can facilitate the daily challenges for patients with type 2 diabetes

    because it covers the knowledge gap and increases patient awareness and

    motivation for self-care.

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  • 9.
    Adamek, Caisa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lissars, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda personer med demenssjukdom inom slutenvård: En litteraturstudie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia is an umbrella term for illnesses that cause cognitive impairment. A person centered approach is the foundation of caring for people with dementia. The relatives to admitted patients with dementia experience the care as generally good, but with room for improvement. Aim: This literature review aims to illustrate RNs experiences in caring for persons with dementia in an inpatient hospital setting. Method: This literature review was made with a methodology similar to ones used in systematic reviews. The search engines PubMed, CINAHL and APA PsycInfo were used and the chosen articles were checked for quality according to a template for qualitative research. The results were analyzed using Fribergs five steps for qualitative analysis. Results: A large number of RNs experienced challenges in the care of PwD. Organisational pressure and a lack of interprofessional co-operation led to an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs, as the stressful environment increased the rate of responsive behaviours in PwD. Distraction was common for RNs to use to counter responsive behaviours. RNs also used person centred communication to facilitate a good relationship. Conclusions: Experienced factors like lack of time and lack of knowledge was experienced as contributing to nurses having difficulties performing person centred care. This can resultin a reduced wellbeing for people with dementia when they are in need of care.

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  • 10.
    Adani Buubshe, Fartun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Gray, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Vårdmiljöns betydelse för att lindra nyopererade patienters postoperativa smärta - en litteraturöversikt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Florence Nightingale (1820 - 1910) was a major advocate for the importance of environment for optimal patient recovery. The modern healthcare environment typically consists of two components, one physical and one psychosocial, where both parts are considered crucial for the patient’s return to health. This is particularly important to bear in mind in the postoperative context and with the experience of postoperative pain, which varies from patient to patient. Nurses are responsible for providing postoperative pain relief, chiefly by nursing, utilizing the health care environment and administering pharmacological painkillers.Aim: The purpose of the study is to describe the importance of the health care environment in relieving newly operated patients postoperative pain.Method: A literature review with qualitative design. The results of the study are based on 15 scientific articles that have been quality reviewed. The scientific articles were searched on CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Science and via manual search.Results: The literature review identified physical care environment with subcategories; patient room and contact with the external environment. In the category psychosocial care environment subcategories; sense of control, relationships and music as distraction as pain-relieving alternatives.Conclusion: The physical and psychosocial health care environment act as a distractive element on the patient and/or have a relieving effect on the postoperative pain.

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  • 11.
    Adeli, Majid
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Telles d´Utra, Mariana
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med lipödem: En litteraturöversikt2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lipoedema has a prevalence of seven to eleven percent of adult women in Western countries, yet the condition remains largely unknown by both society and health professionals who often mistake it for obesity. Women with lipedema go through anaverage interval of eighteen years between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis where they experience exacerbation of various symptoms without knowing the cause or mistaking it for obesity. As lipedema is a chronic disease, it affects the lives of women with lipedema not only through disease-related symptoms, but also through fat-related stigma.

    Aim The purpose of the literature review is to investigate women´s experiences of living with lipedema.

    Method A literature search was conducted on the Cinahl and PubMed databases, resulting in ten scientific articles. These articles were quality reviewed using Ulrika Nilsson's review template and analysed using the analysis model of Forsberg & Wengström.

    Results Results show that women’s experiences can be grouped into two main categories: to be a Stranger in one's own body which were divided into three subcategories, Bodily Changes, Pain and Mental Illness. The other main category, Stigmatisation, was divided into two subcategories: Shame and Lack of care.

    Conclusions Experiences with lipedema are revealed to be potentially damaging to both physical as well as psychological health due to lack of information, reduced number of effective treatments and stigmatization coming from both healthcare actors as well as society. Wrong diagnosing, lack of information, misdiagnosis and ineffective treatments then leads these women to ineffective interventions and unnecessary suffering. Further research is needed to increase knowledge about diagnoses and treatments for lipoedema to increase the quality of life of women with lipoedema. 

  • 12. Adolfsson Skinnar, Jonna
    et al.
    Österberg, Caroline
    Att vänta på organtransplantation: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva patienters upplevelse att vänta på organtransplantation.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt. Artiklarna har sökts i databaserna CINAHL, PubMed och Scopus. 15 artiklar valdes ut till resultatet, 3 artiklar hade kvantitativ ansats och 12 kvalitativ ansats.

    Resultat: 3 huvudkategorier presenteras i resultatet: Begränsningar innebar att vara bunden av teknisk apparatur och förhålla sig till en ny livsstil. Tiden fick nytt perspektiv och patienter upplevde att de alltid behövde vara beredda. Patienterna möttes av falskt alarm och upplevde väntan som oviss. Det fanns behov av stöd från anhöriga, patienter i samma situation och stöd från vårdpersonal. Tydlig och rak kommunikation var viktig för patienterna. Sjuksköterskan behövde finnas till hands. Trots oro fanns en känsla av en andra chans i livet.

    Slutsats: Patienter som väntar på en organtransplantation upplever att sjuksköterskan behöver vara tillgänglig, ha tydlig kommunikation, ge anpassad information utifrån individuella önskemål samt accepterar och förstår vikten av anhörigas närvaro och stöd så att varje patients enskilda behov kan bemötas.

  • 13.
    Adolfsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östlund, Titti
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters erfarenhet av sårpumpsbehandling vid svårläkta sår: en litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Agdahl, Petra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som kan påverka livskvalitén hos patientermed cancersjukdom inom palliativ vård - En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cancers can affect both sexes at any age and it is estimated that at least one in three people will be diagnosed with cancer at some point in their lives. In the diagnosis of cancer, the care can have two orientations, curative or palliative. When curative care no longer is possible, the care is transferred to palliative care, which means that the focus is primarily on symptom relief, promoting quality of life and well-being. People may have different wishes and goals at the end of life and in order for the quality of life to be promoted, the individual wishes should be taken into account. Quality of life is individual and includes the factors that affect the individual and is a subjective assessment of the individual's social, emotional, material and physical well-being.Aim: To describe factors that can affect the quality of life of patiens with cancer in a late stage of palliative care from a patient perspective.Method: The study is conducted as a literature review based on 15 quantitative and 7 qualitative scientific articles. Data searches have been performed in the CINAHL and PubMed databases.Results: The results showed that there are 6 main categories that make up the factors that affect the quality of life, these are background factors, social factors, palliative care environment, psychological factors, physical factors and existential factors.Conclusion: Younger individuals experience a poorer quality of life than older people. Where the individual is cared for and the care environment was an important factor in promoting a good quality of life at the end of life. Depression and anxiety were factors that negatively affected the individual. The physical symptoms such as pain were strongly associated with poorer quality of life.

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  • 15.
    Agemalm, Stina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Aldén, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Identifiering av smärta och smärtlindrande omvårdnadsåtgärder vid vård av äldre personer i livets slut: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med sjuksköterskor arbetandes på särskilt boende2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Each year approximately 1 percent of Sweden’s population dies, which corresponds to approximately 90 000 people. Of these, about 36 percent dies while living in special housing. Pain is a common symptom in older people receiving end-of-life care. Identifying pain and alleviating pain thus becomes central and an important part of the work of the nurse responsible for care.

    Aim

    The aim is to describe nurses’ experiences of identifying pain and using nursing interventions for pain relief in older people living in special housing at the end of life.

    Method

    The method used is a qualitative interview study with and inductive approach. Semistructured interviews have been used for the collection of data were nurses with at least one year of experience of working in special housing for people older than 65 years of age in end-of-life care were included as informants. Content analysis was done according to a method described by Graneheim and Lundman (2004).

    Results

    The result of the study is presented with four categories; Relationship central for end-oflife care, Identifying pain is difficult, Nursing interventions alleviate pain and A qualified team promotes nursing. All categories are presented with associated subcategories.

    Conclusions

    The results of the study show that knowledge of the person made person-centered care possible and increased the possibility to individualize nursing interventions and made it easier to identify pain in older people. Nursing staff lacked knowledge about identifying pain and alleviating pain with nursing interventions. It was nurses who had the responsibility to tutor, and competence supply the team however the results show that nurses does not follow guidelines regarding estimation instruments when identifying pain and neither do they have satisfactory knowledge of the four dimensions of pain.

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  • 16.
    Agerberg, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Norberg, Carina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer av betydelse för god palliativ omvårdnadsett ur ett patientperspektiv- en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to, from a patient point of view, identify factors within the specialized palliative care that constituted good care from the.Method: A systematic literature review was undertaken. Fifteen articles were reviewed. Thirteen of these were qualitative and two were quantitative.Results: Four categories were identified: self determination, capability of the nurse, nursing relations and maintaining dignity.The patients self determination was a central part of nursing. Delegating control and self determination from a patient to a nurse is also a form of self determination.Capable nurses instill trust and gave patients the opportunity of more alternatives when it came to choices concerning the care of the patient.A good relation with the nurse could give the patient a feeling of being important and being a part of something bigger, despite lack of family or friends. Important factors regarding patient-nurse relations were continuity and nurse accessibility.Maintaining dignity included being seen as the human being that the patient was before the terminal illness was diagnosed.Conclusion: Patients noted several factors as important for good palliative care. These could be summarized as self determination, nurse capability, nursing relations and maintaining dignity.

  • 17.
    Aghaesmaili, Mahboubeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Hematfar, Narges
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Stigmatisering av personer som lider av psykisk ohälsa utanför psykiatrin - En litteraturöversikt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People suffering from mental illness experience stigma in differentcontexts. There are various factors that affected by stigma in people suffering frommental illness, which also leads to experiences of discrimination in them. Stigma isa common problem in today's society, which has consequences in people sufferingfrom mental illness.Aim: The purpose of this study is to describe factors related to the stigma of as wellas these consequences for people suffering from mental illness outside psychiatry.Method: The thesis carried out as a literature review where 15 scientific articlessearched based on the purpose, which then analyzed and compiled into the results.The articles were of both qualitative, quantitative design and a mixed method. TheCINAHL and PsycINFO databases used as search engines.Result: The result consists of four main categories. “Quality of life” describes theconsequences of stigma on quality of life. “Cultural and socio-demographic factors”which discuss the impact of cultural perspectives on stigma and the link betweenstigma and educational attainment are described. “Social distancing,” points outfactors that cause people suffering from mental illness to withdraw from socialsituations. "Family" there describes the family as a source of stigma.Conclusion: Stigma affects the quality of life of people suffering from mentalillness. Furthermore, lack of access and level of education can increase the risk ofstigma. Stigma also leads to social distancing in people suffering from mentalillness. In addition, the family of people suffering from mental illness considered animportant source of stigma, which means that they avoid talking about mental illnessin the family.

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  • 18.
    Agnas, Maja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Holmenäs, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Egenvårdsråd vid "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease". Effekter och följsamhet: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att undersöka vilka egenvårdsråd och effekterna av dessa som finns beskrivna i litteraturen vid NAFLD samt hur följsamheten av dessa beskrivs. Studien utfördes som en litteraturöversikt som inkluderade 16 artiklar, alla med kvantitativ ansats. Resultatet visade att livsstilsförändringar i form av fysisk aktivitet och ändrade matvanor var det bästa sättet för att minska NAFLD. Viktminskning hade en god effekt på NAFLD och även små viktminskningar reducerade mängden fett i levern. Det framkom även att fysisk aktivitet utan viktminskning var effektivt för att reducera mängden fett i levern. Vidare visade det sig att följsamheten ökade med individuellt utformade program och kontinuerlig stöttning. Förutsättningar för att uppnå livsstilsförändringar ökade med realistiskt uppsatta mål.

  • 19.
    Ahlblom, Annika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Latvakoski, Sabina
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Föräldrars upplevelse av spädbarns sömn vid en och sex månaders ålder: En kvantitativ studie2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The first year of life is critical for sleep development, and the quality of sleep affects both the physical and neurological development. The sleep of infants constitutes a common cause of worry among new parents, which can lead to modifications in recommended sleep arrangements to promote both parents’ and infants’ wellbeing. Aim: To investigate parents’ experience and description of preterm (<37 weeks of pregnancy) and full-term infants’ sleeping habits at one and six months of age. Method: This was a quantitative study with a longitudinal design consisting of 923 parents to 504 infants born during 2020/2021 who received care in either the maternity- or neonatal ward in Sweden. Data was collected from questionnaires and was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test and Cohen’s d. Results: Fathers and parents with a low educational level experienced the infant’s sleep less problematic compared to mothers and parents with a high educational level at both one and six months of age. Over time there was no difference related to educational level. One moth post-partum, parents to preterm infants experienced that the sleeping habits were more of a problem compared to parents to full term infants. Parents to breastfed infants experienced the sleeping habits as more problematic at six months of age, and co-sleeping was common during the infants’ first month of life. Conclusions: Parents’ experience of infants’ sleeping habits is affected by various factors in the immediate home environment. Hence there is a need for individualized support and interventions for new parents regarding infants’ sleep environment.

  • 20.
    Ahlenius, Victoria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Irarrazabal, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att ge personcentrerad vård till personer med demenssjukdom: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia impairs cognitive functions, such as memory and

    speech, changing a person’s life forever. Providing person-centred care to these

    persons intend to retain their identities, dignity and autonomy. Such care demands

    time, devotion and good knowledge of the caring nurse. Dementia is expected to

    increase in the future and therefore nurses will have to face new challenges.

    Aim: To describe nurses’ experience of providing person-centred care for people

    with dementia.

    Method: A literature review of 15 articles, published between 2009-2016, that

    have been read and analysed through content-analysis.

    Results: Nurses experience a positive change in their attitudes, when providing

    person-centred care to people with dementia, as they gained better understanding

    of their patients’ dignity and integrity. Education, training and support from

    management were seen as key factors for providing up-to-date care. Time was

    viewed as a hindrance for person-centred care, and often led to nurses prioritizing

    other routines. Two common outcomes of person-centred care were increased

    satisfaction as well as emotional burnout.

    Conclusion: Since dementia is increasing and nurses find person-centred care

    time-consuming, there is a risk of such care becoming poor. To prevent this nurses

    need good leadership and education.

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  • 21.
    Ahlqvist, Jessica
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Barnmorskors erfarenheter av att mätaförlossningsrädsla på barnmorskemottagning: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Förlossningsrädsla är vanligt förekommande och drabbar cirka 20 procent av alla gravida.Barnmorskan på barnmorskemottagningen möter de gravida med förlossningsrädsla i sitt arbete och har ettviktigt uppdrag i att identifiera förlossningsrädsla. I Sverige finns idag inget gemensamt och standardiserat sättatt mäta förlossningsrädsla inom klinisk vård. Fear of Birth Scale (FOBS) är emellertid ett validerat sätt attscreena för förlossningsrädsla som används inom flera regioner.Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka barnmorskor på barnmorskemottagningars erfarenheter av att använda Fear ofBirth Scale (FOBS) för att mäta förlossningsrädsla.Metod: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med induktiv ansats valdes för studiens genomförande. Totalt intervjuadesåtta barnmorskor som arbetade på barnmorskemottagningar i fem olika regioner i Sverige.Resultat: Resultatet utmynnade i två teman; Att mäta och vägleda rätt samt Dialogen som verktyg förskattning. Temat Att mäta och vägleda rätt omfattade fyra subteman; Tidpunkter och insatser, Konkretmätskala tydliggör, Dynamiken en utmaning samt Strategier vid språkbarriärer. Temat Dialogen som verktygför skattning omfattade två subteman; Öppet samtal i fokus samt Att tolka och anpassa i situationen.Slutsats: FOBS har bidragit till att sätta ämnet förlossningsrädsla på agendan hos barnmorskan på BMM.Under rätt förutsättningar kan FOBS bidra till att underlätta barnmorskans arbete med att identifiera ochbedöma förlossningsrädsla, men tid och fortbildning krävs.Klinisk tillämpbarhet: Identifiering och stöd vid förlossningsrädsla ingår i mödrahälsovårdens omfattandeuppdrag. Med rätt förutsättningar kan FOBS vara ett användbart hjälpmedel för att hitta och inleda en dialogom förlossningsrädsla, som är ett komplext ämne där vissa grupper särskilt sårbara och har ett stort stödbehov

  • 22.
    Ahlström, Evelina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hellman, Nicklas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Effekt av fysisk aktivitet hos äldre personer med depression och depressiva symtom: - En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today's society, depression is considered a world problem. A reduced desire for life, low self-esteem, tiredness and low energy are a few of the symptoms that a person with depression and depressive symptoms suffer from. The use of physical activity in various forms is recommended as a treatment for depression and depressive symptoms in elderly people. Person-centered care aims to ensure that the individual's own experience of health is in focus which increases the well-being of a person suffering from depression or depressive symptoms.Purpose: The purpose of the literature review is to investigate the effect of physical activity in elderly people with depression and depressive symptoms.Method: The degree project was carried out as a literature review. 14 articles were searched in the PubMed and CINAHL databases with keywords designed from the purpose. The articles were reviewed based on Dalarna University's review template and compiled based on different quality grades. Articles with medium and high quality were included. The results were categorised and compiled based on similarities and differences that emerged from the analysis.Results: The results of the literature review are shown to have an effect in depression and depressive symptoms in elderly people. Being physically active through an assigned individual exercise program, training in groups or in the form of yoga was shown to be able to positively affect the depressive symptoms and depression. The intensity of exercise and frequency may have an impact on the effect of depressive symptoms or depression.Conclusion: The effect of physical activity in various forms has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms in elderly people.

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  • 23. Ahlström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Göransson, Katarina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    von Rosen, Anette
    Does gender matter at triage?2007In: Australasian emergency nursing journal, ISSN 1574-6267, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 202-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Ahmed, Caisha Arai
    et al.
    Khokhar, Amrish Tayyibah
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Bogren, Malin
    Defibulated immigrant women's sexual and reproductive health from the perspective of midwives and gynaecologists as primary care providers in Sweden - A phenomenographic study.2021In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 29, article id 100644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To capture care providers' perceptions of defibulated immigrant women's sexual and reproductive health, illuminated by their experiences as care providers for these women.

    METHODS: Individual interview study with 13 care providers at Swedish healthcare facilities: six gynaecologists and seven midwives caring for defibulated immigrant women, analysed with a phenomenographic method.

    FINDINGS: One of the care providers' perceptions of women who had been defibulated was that they had an altered genital function, meaning a wider introitus, improved vaginal intercourse, and more ease urinating and menstruating. The care providers also perceived that women who were defibulated had to balance their wellbeing, struggling between a positive self-image and handling their emotions. Existing in-between cultural values led to a fear of being excluded while at the same time having a desire to be included in the new culture.

    CONCLUSION: Defibulation affects women's sexual and reproductive health and calls for a holistic perspective when providing services, individualized according to the woman's care needs. Support and counselling, should include information about defibulation already during the adolescent years to promote sexual and reproductive health and well-being.

  • 25.
    Ahmed, Hamdi
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences.
    Babayeva, Irade
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences.
    Att belysa stressfaktorer som påverkar kommunikationen mellan sjuksköterskor och patienter inom sluten vård: En litteraturöversikt2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One of the most important qualities in the nursing profession is to establish a dialogue with patients to learn more about the patient's current situation. The purpose of this study is to study the stressors that affect communication between nurses and patients. Stressrelated to work causes poor physical and mental health and affects the nurses' work environment. A good nurse always tries to improve the relationship with the patients so that it is easier to get to the basic problem. A well performed communication contributes to patients feeling involved and given the opportunity to convey their experience. Aim: To clarify stress factors that affect communication between nurses and patients in inpatient care. Method: A structured literature review with elements of the methodology used in systematic literature reviews. The result contained 15 scientific articles and was taken from Psycinfo, PubMed and Cinahl. Results: Understaffing increases the nurse's workload, which minimizes the ability to see the patient's needs. Time pressure will cause the nurses to not have time to complete their work tasks, which in turn burdens their colleagues. Cultural and language barriers are one of the stressors that hinder communication between patients and nurses. Conclusions: Lack of experienced nurses increases the nurse's work-related stress, which in turn reduces the ability to see patients' needs. Documentation and understaffing creates a stressful work environment, and this leads to an increased workload. Lack of time minimizes communication between nurses and patients, which leads to a lack of nursing. Cultural differences could mean that nurses do not communicate with patients as much due to the fear of insulting the patients' culture.

  • 26.
    Ahmed, Marwo
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ilau, Diana-Madalina
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Mäns upplevelser av sexualitet efter radikal prostatektomi: En kvalitativ metasyntes2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prostate is a gland located under the male bladder and surrounding the urethra. Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in Sweden among men. A common treatment is radical prostatectomy, which means removal of the prostate gland. One of the side effects of this treatment is erectile dysfunction, which affects over half of men after the procedure. Men's sexuality is intimately linked to the social context and can be influenced by both physiological and psychosocial factors

    Aim: To describe men's experience of sexuality after radical prostatectomy.

    Method: Meta-ethnography was chosen as the analysis method to answer the purpose of the meta-synthesis. PubMed, CINAHL and PsykINFO were used for data collection. The quality of the articles was assessed according to the Joanna Briggs review template. The results of the meta-synthesis are based on 15 scientific articles.

    Results: The result consists of three main categories that emerged during the analysis of the articles: The first main category is the experience of sexual life, which includes the subcategory Lack of support and the subcategory Restrictions on sexual activity. The second main category is Impact on psychosocial well-being and perceived emotions followed by the sub-category Life transitions and changes, impact on quality of life and the sub-category Redefining sexuality. The third main category is Changed Identity which is followed by the sub-category Loss of Confidence, Masculinity and Masculinity.

    Conclusion: Men experienced negative changes in their sexual scripts, influenced by traditional masculinity norms. For that reason, it is of great importance that this patient group receives adequate support after the operation and sexual counseling in order to promote sexual health, sexuality and to minimize negative side effects on quality of life and men's perception of masculinity and masculinity. Clinical applicability: This study may contribute to an increased insight, knowledge and understanding of men who have undergone radical prostatectomy. Which can further help midwives manage the treatment of these patients. Improved insight and understanding of the problem can promote high-quality person-centred care, reduce hospital stays and increase patients' trust in health care. 

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  • 27.
    Ahmed, Marwo
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Salah, Farhia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Närståendes upplevelser av att leva med en familjemedlem som drabbats av stroke: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stroke is a collective name for conditions that occur when the oxygen supply to the brain are disturbed as a result of a blockage or cerebral haemorrhage. The condition affects 15 million people annually making stroke one of the foremost the cause of death in the world. Stroke can contribute to major injuries which can be life changing for the person and the family. The nurse has an important role in providing support and care to the patient and informing and supporting relatives through this change.Aim: To describe family caregivers experience of life after strokeMethod: A literature review where 14 qualitative articles have been analyzed, the articles are taken from the databases Psycinfo, PubMed and CINAHL.Results: Three main categories were developed in the results. The categories was changed relationships and roles within the family, An everyday life with limitations and the consequences of a life in change..Conclusion: The literature review showed that relatives felt that life changed significantly after a family member's stroke diagnosis. The changed life situation made it difficult for relatives to restore a balance in everyday life. Through careful planning before hospital discharge, the nurse can identify which support measures are relevant for the family to have a functioning everyday life. The nurse should also be aware of the need for physical and emotional support in the meeting with relatives. The nurse can offer training, workshops or other forums where relatives can talk and meet families in similar situations. This can thus increase the nurse's ability to promote the health and well-being of relatives.

  • 28.
    Ahrne, Malin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Small, Rhonda
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Schytt, Erica
    Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Falun; Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Group antenatal care compared with standard antenatal care for Somali-Swedish women: a historically controlled evaluation of the Hooyo Project2023In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e066000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Comparing language-supported group antenatal care (gANC) and standard antenatal care (sANC) for Somali-born women in Sweden, measuring overall ratings of care and emotional well-being, and testing the feasibility of the outcome measures.

    DESIGN: A quasi-experimental trial with one intervention and one historical control group, nested in an intervention development and feasibility study.

    SETTING: Midwifery-led antenatal care clinic in a mid-sized Swedish town.

    PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant Somali-born women (<25 gestational weeks); 64 women in gANC and 81 in sANC.

    INTERVENTION: Language-supported gANC (2017-2019). Participants were offered seven 60-minute group sessions with other Somali-born women led by one to two midwives, in addition to 15-30 min individual appointments with their designated midwife.

    OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes were women's overall ratings of antenatal care and emotional well-being (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)) in gestational week ≥35 and 2 months post partum. Secondary outcomes were specific care experiences, information received, social support, knowledge of pregnancy danger signs and obstetric outcomes.

    RESULTS: Recruitment and retention of participants were challenging. Of eligible women, 39.3% (n=106) declined to participate. No relevant differences regarding overall ratings of antenatal care between the groups were detected (late pregnancy OR 1.42, 95% CI 0.50 to 4.16 and 6-8 weeks post partum OR 2.71, 95% CI 0.88 to 9.41). The reduction in mean EPDS score was greater in the intervention group when adjusting for differences at baseline (mean difference -1.89; 95% CI -3.73 to -0.07). Women in gANC were happier with received pregnancy and birth information, for example, caesarean section where 94.9% (n=37) believed the information was sufficient compared with 17.5% (n=7) in standard care (p<0.001) in late pregnancy.

    CONCLUSIONS: This evaluation suggests potential for language-supported gANC to improve knowledge acquisition among pregnant Somali-born women with residence in Sweden ˂10 years. An adequately powered randomised trial is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03879200).

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  • 29.
    Ahrne, Malin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Byrskog, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Small, Rhonda
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Schytt, Erica
    Uppsala Univ, Ctr Clin Res Dalarna; Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway.
    Group antenatal care (gANC) for Somali-speaking women in Sweden - a process evaluation.2022In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Language supported group antenatal care (gANC) for Somali-born women was implemented in a Swedish public ANC clinic. The women were offered seven 60-min sessions, facilitated by midwives and starting with a presentation of a selected topic, with an additional 15-min individual appointment before or after. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility for participants and midwives of implementing The Hooyo ("mother" in Somali) gANC intervention, including implementation, mechanisms of impact and contextual factors.

    METHODS: A process evaluation was performed, using The Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines for evaluating complex interventions as a framework. A range of qualitative and quantitative data sources were used including observations (n = 9), complementary, in-depth and key-informant interviews (women n = 6, midwives n = 4, interpreters and research assistants n = 3) and questionnaire data (women n = 44; midwives n = 8).

    RESULTS: Language-supported gANC offered more comprehensive ANC that seemed to correspond to existing needs of the participants and could address knowledge gaps related to pregnancy, birth and the Swedish health care system. The majority of women thought listening to other pregnant women was valuable (91%), felt comfortable in the group (98%) and supported by the other women (79%), and they said that gANC suited them (79%). The intervention seemed to enhance knowledge and cultural understanding among midwives, thus contributing to more women-centred care. The intervention was not successful at involving partners in ANC.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Hooyo gANC intervention was acceptable to the Somali women and to midwives, but did not lead to greater participation by fathers-to-be. The main mechanisms of impact were more comprehensive ANC and enhanced mutual cultural understanding. The position of women was strengthened in the groups, and the way in which the midwives expanded their understanding of the participants and their narratives was promising. To be feasible at a large scale, gANC might require further adaptations and the "othering" of women in risk groups should be avoided.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT03879200).

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  • 30.
    Akeza, Audrey
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hamidi, Romina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hur sjuksköterskor identifierar smärta hos patienter med demenssjukdom på särskilt boende - En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain is a major problem in nursing homes. Dementia is a disease that causes humans lose their ability to communicate their pain to their surroundings. People with dementia express their pain through behavioral changes because they can’t verbalize their pain experiences. As a consequence of this leads to that dementia patients are not receiving adequate pain management.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to explore how nurses identify pain in dementia patients in nursing homes.

    Method: The study was conducted as a literature survey. In total, 15 articles were used in this study that consists of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Articles have been sought in the databases Cinhal and PubMed.

    Results: The results of this study shows that according to nurses is pain identification among dementia patients an extreme challenge and requires more knowledge. Patients with mild to moderate dementia can self-report their pain to a certain extent. The most useful clues to discovering pain among dementia patients who are limited in their speaking skills is to observe facial expressions, body language and behavior changes.

    Conclusion: The authors conclude that it is important to create and develop a relationship between caregivers and demented patients. This is to get to know the patient and knowing his usual habits and behavior changes as to facilitate the identification of pain

  • 31.
    Akhter, Halima
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Akter, Dalia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mapping of midwifery education sites in Dhaka division, and presentation of acceptable and feasible requirements for a national accreditation toolkit: A questionnaire study among midwifery faculty2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Extensive demands are placed on midwives in their professional role. The midwifery education is obligated to answer to these professional requirements. ountry specific, feasible and acceptable accreditation toolkit for institution/collages/universities is, therefore, relevant to develop.

    Objective:

    The objective was to map the existing situation of the midwifery education sites in Dhaka division and to explore acceptable and feasible requirements to be included in an accreditation toolkit for Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    A questionnaire study with open and closed response alternatives was used.

    Results

    : Six nursing diploma institute and one nursing college were included in the mapping. The theory in relation to practice (theory/practice) in the education was 40%/60% for 5 institution/colleges and 50%/50% for one institute. Both qualitative open questions and closed questions based on ICM Global standards revealed that the acceptable and feasible requirements for a nationwide accreditation tool for midwifery educations needs clearly written admission and student policies, supportive staffs and formally prepared and globally oriented competent unbiased teachers who maintain their standard by participating in professional development activities.

    Conclusion:

    Implementing globally standard accreditation tool for educating and training competent midwives is not a far-fetched idea in the context of Bangladesh. The clinical applicability of this essay lies in the fact that competent midwives can profoundly provide suggestions for improvements of midwifery educations with support of an accreditation tool.

  • 32.
    Akhter, Shirina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Begum, Momtaz
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions in relation to family planning among future midwives in Bangladesh: A quantitative study among midwifery students2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Family planning allows people to attain their desired number of children and determine the spacing of pregnancies. It is achieved through the use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of infertility. It secures the well-being and autonomy of women while supporting the health and development of the communities. A midwife can support people having family planning facilities and thus reduce maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity and unnecessary interventions, and improve psychosocial and public health.

    Objective:

    The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions towards family planning among future midwives in Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among final year midwifery students (n=141) of 16 public midwifery nursing institutes and colleges of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was used and data analyzed by descriptive statistics in Excel.

    Results:

    Almost all respondents agreed on the statement that women should be treated with respect when seeking family planning services. One third disagreed or strongly disagreed that unmarried women should abstain rather than use family planning. Almost half of the respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed that women should be free to choose if and when they want to become a pregnant. Majority of the respondents had inadequate knowledge about effectiveness regarding different FP methods and misconceptions regarding hormonal family planning methods.

    Conclusion:

    This study showed that diverse attitudes related to family planning and women’s right to access family planning services exist among future midwives. The study also found misconceptions regarding side effects of family planning methods and inadequate knowledge regarding effectiveness and appropriateness of different family planning methods.

    Clinical implications:

    To increase knowledge, midwifery curriculum should have a special emphasis on the effectiveness of different contraceptive methods and effects of hormonal contraceptives, and particularly the link to clinical practice. Value clarification training can be a way to address attitudes in relation to family planning. Further qualitative research should be conducted to gain a deeper understanding of midwifery students’ attitudes and perceptions.

  • 33.
    Akselsson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Health Promoting Science, Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westholm, Lena
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Small, Rhonda
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Ternström, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Midwives' communication with non-Swedish-speaking women giving birth: A survey from a multicultural setting in Sweden2022In: European Journal of Midwifery, E-ISSN 2585-2906, Vol. 6, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The European Union faces challenges related to migration, cultural diversity and health. Immigration to Sweden has increased and a third of all women giving birth were born outside Sweden. A higher risk for negative pregnancy outcomes is seen among foreign-born women and one of the explanations given is inadequate communication. Midwives in Sweden have responsibility for normal birth. This study aimed to investigate labor ward midwives' experiences of caring for and communicating with women who do not speak and understand the Swedish language.

    METHODS: A questionnaire based on the Migrant Friendly Hospital questionnaire was distributed to all 46 midwives working on the Södertälje Hospital labor and postpartum ward in 2018 and 32 completed it (70%).

    RESULTS: Most of the midwives thought communication and giving support to non-Swedish speaking women during birth was difficult or very difficult (n=31; 97%). The quality of the professional interpreters' work was reported as good or very good by most of the midwives (n=31; 97%). However, the most common resource for facilitating communication during labor was an adult relative (always/often: n=25; 83%). Increased availability was the most common response for improving the interpreter service (n=22; 69%), as well as increasing the number of languages available for interpreter services (n=8; 25%).

    CONCLUSIONS: When women are giving birth, it is of the highest priority to improve communication between midwives and non-Swedish-speaking women. Better strategies for improving communication must be implemented in order to comply adequately with Swedish law and achieve equitable care of high quality for all, regardless of linguistic background.

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  • 34.
    Aktar, Renoara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Yesmin, Syeada
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mapping of five midwifery education sites in Dhaka and Mymensingh divisions And Acceptable and feasible requirements perceived by the nursing instructors for development of an accreditation toolkit: A questionnaire study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    High demands are placed on midwives in their professional role. The midwifery education is obligated to answer to these professional requirements. Country specific, feasible and acceptable requirement accreditation toolkit for institution/collages/universities to achieve is therefore relevant to develop. This study is part of a survey mapping 25 midwifery education sites in seven divisions in Bangladesh. This is to provide a baseline assessment for possible requirement for the ongoing development of an accreditation toolkit for institutes and collages providing midwifery education.

    Objective:

    The objective was twofold. First, to map five midwifery education sites in Dhaka and Mymensingh divisions as a baseline in the process of developing an accreditation toolkit in Bangladesh. Secondly, to explore nursing instructors’ suggestions of acceptable and feasible requirements for an accreditation toolkit for midwifery education in Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    The design was a questionnaire study. The total number of participants was 36. Data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire with both open and closed response options, which were analyzed through essentially non-parametric statistics and systematic text condensation.

    Results

    : The mapping showed that the students enrolled at the midwifery programs were young, being lectured by comparably few faculty members compared to the number of students, a faculty with an extensive experience of nursing but with less experience in midwifery. Suggestions for the development of an accreditation toolkit were that the assessor should be Bangladeshi, and that posts for clinical teachers and mentors should be one assessment criteria. Further findings showed that 40 normal births were less important to achieve in core competences for midwifery students than other requirements related to midwifery skills.

    Conclusion:

    An accreditation tool can" close the gap" between the curricula in text and implementation of the same. Mapping of existing education sites amongst partners provides a potential for development of a Bangladeshi national and a global midwifery education accreditation toolkit. The clinical applicability of this essay lies in a development of an accreditation tool that can support institutes to achieve the goal that a Midwifery Diploma curriculum is being implemented that support student’s learning, and the goal that the students will become "Midwives" according to global standards and ICM definition.

  • 35.
    Akter, Rina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Parvin, Masuda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Supportive components of care during cesarean section birth: A qualitative meta-synthesis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Caesarean section is the most common surgery worldwide today. The midwives support is therefore of uttermost important for women undergoing caesarean section. Aim: The aim of the meta-synthesis was to explore the experience related to planned and unplanned cesarean sections among primipara and multipara women in hospital settings worldwide. Method: This study is a meta-synthesis with meta-ethnographic analysis on women’s experiences of caesarean section birth. This is a qualitative research based on scientific literature. The inclusion criterion was peer-review qualitative articles from different original articles about women's experiences. Results: Five categories emerged: Caring attitude and behaviour, pre-existing imagination, relational influence, the need for caring and information. The findings suggest that nurse-midwife enhance their support and increase the women’s knowledge on caesarean section birth in order to improve the experience and also for women to make good choices. Women are influenced by people near to them when choosing to have a cesarean section or not. The mothers face challenges for postoperative recovery and quality of care. Midwives have a duty to assist these mothers. Conclusion: The findings emphasize the importance of person-centered communication skills and relationships in supporting a woman during caesarian section. Organizational systems and services that facilitate continuity of care giver for example, continuity of midwifery care or peer support models, are more likely to facilitate supportive care and a trust-building relationship. Clinical implication: The findings from this study can be used for educational purposes, and to create awareness about the role of midwifery care in relation to CS.

  • 36.
    Akum, Bertha
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Rusu, Violeta
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientens berättelse i mötet med sjuksköterskan ipsykiatrisk vård En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: är att beskriva vad det är som påverkar patientens berättelse i mötet medsjuksköterskan. Metod: Designen har en kvalitativ ansats. De valde studiernakvalitetsgranskades och analyserades enligt Friberg. Databaser som användes för sökning avlitteratur var: PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Wiley Online Library och Web of Science.Artiklarna skulle vara kvalitativa, skrivna på engelska eller svenska och vara tillgängliga ifulltext. I studien har även rapporter och systematiska översikter inkluderas. Åtta kvalitativaartiklar användes. Resultat: Fyra teman identifierades: patientens upplevelser i relation medsjuksköterskan, patientens berättelse och narrativa ramverk för att förstå upplevelsen av sinsjukdom, patientens uppfattning om terapeutiska relationer samt kommunikation mellanpatient och sjuksköterska. Slutsats: Att patienten inte berättar sin berättelse i mötet medsjuksköterska beror på patientens upplevelser och uppfattningar. Dessutom beror det på vilkakommunikationsfärdigheter sjuksköterskan förmedlar i mötet med patienten. Den miljön debefinner sig, till exempel sjukhus, har inverkan på patientens berättelse i mötet medsjuksköterskan. Lika viktigt är interaktionsprocessen mellan sjuksköterskan och patienten,när de ses som individer, inte som sjuksköterska och patient. Genom att förstå en personsunika upplevelse kan sjuksköterskor uppfatta och med en vårdande relation hjälpa till medkomplexiteten och rikedomen i en persons individuella väg mot återhämtning.

  • 37.
    Alalauri, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Rönnblad, Charlotta
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Coronapandemins påverkan på vårdpersonalens psykiska hälsa – en litteraturöversikt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental illness is common throughout the world and is an increasing condition. In order for a person to be able to handle crises and difficulties in life, good mental health is basically required, which can be affected if the person's life situation changes. The Coronavirus causes a serious situation, where social isolation can affect mental health.Aim: To describe the Coronapandemic`s negative impact on the mental health of healthcare workers and its underlying factors.Methods: The thesis was conducted as a literature review based on 15 scientific articles published between 2020-2021.Results: The Coronapandemic and the measures taken have greatly affected the mental health of the world, not least among healthcare workers. The pandemic has contributed depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder and difficulties sleeping. Contributing factors have been high workload, lack of protective equipment, concerns about the spread of infection, sharp changes in work and stress outside work.Conclusion: Coronapandemic stresses on healthcare have affected the mental health of healthcare workers. The fear of infecting a family, the feeling of insecurity and high workload have contributed depression, anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder and sleep disorders. Good physical and mental health of healthcare workers promotes patient safety and in order to provide safe care during an ongoing crisis, the well-being of healthcare professionals needs to be promoted. Healthcare workers with mental illness need to be caught early and given the opportunity to recover during and after a crisis such as the Coronapandemic.

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  • 38.
    Ali Mohamed, Sahra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Yusuf, Sahra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder för att förebygga trycksår hosäldre: En Litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pressure ulcers are a common problem globally and often affect elderly, multi-sick patients. In 2020, 11.3% of patients in Swedish inpatient care were affected by pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are considered a healthcare injury and cause great suffering to patients and involve high costs. One of the nurse's most important areas of responsibility is to prevent care injuries and thereby reduce the patient's suffering.The purpose of the literature study is to describe evidence-based nursing measures to prevent pressure ulcers in the elderly in different care contextsMethod: The study was conducted as a literature review. The results were based on 17 scientific articles published in 2010–2020 on the CINAHL and PubMed databases. The sample consisted of 16 quantitative studies and one qualitative one, which was conducted in different contexts where the elderly are cared for, and without geographical restrictions.Results: Five categories were identified based on the selected articles. The nursing measures that emerged were: Risk assessment, significance of changes in position, pressure-relieving aids and pressure ulcer prevention skin care and the importance of nutrition. The risk assessment performed by the nurse includes the use of reliable assessment scales, the nurse's skin inspection and tools that detect the skin's moisture level (subepidermal moisture meter). Regular changes in position were shown to counteract the onset of pressure ulcers in the elderly. Skin care is considered to be one of the most important preventive measures. Pressure-distributing surfaces such as mattresses, medical sheepskin and foam dressings have a protective effect against pressure ulcers. The patient's nutritional status should also be assessed for preventive purposes, as malnutrition is a risk factor for pressure ulcers.Conclusion: The results presented five categories; structured risk assessment, the significance of changes in position, prevention of pressure ulcers through skin care, pressure-relieving aids and the importance of nutrition. These measures have a positive impact on the patient, care operations and society. Results show how the nurse, through the application of evidence-based measures, can contribute to reduced suffering and good care.

  • 39.
    Ali Mohamud, Faduma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Ahmed, Zamzam
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Livsberättelsen som ett verktyg för sjuksköterskor vid arbete med demenssjukdom: en litteraturöversikt2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Today, there are approximately 150,000 people with dementia in Sweden, dementia entails an increased need for nursing care. Person-centred care is one of the nurse's core competencies and nursing must be carried out based on a person-centred approach. The life story is the person's own experiences, past and stories and can be used as a tool for person-centered work.

    Aim The aim of this study is to describe the nurse's experience of using the life story as a tool in nursing people with dementia.

    Method A structured systematic literature study with elements of methodology used in systematic reviews. The result was based on 13 qualitative articles , which were analyzed and reviewed by the authors based on an overall perspective. The result has been compiled based on the articles' similarities and differences after dividing the articles into different categories.

    Results The analysis resulted in three themes which were Creating an understanding of the person behind the illness, Enables individual adaptations of the care, Time-consuming to use the life story. The literature review shows that nurses feel that the use of life story is positive when caring for people with dementia. By getting to know the person behind the illness, the nurses could more easily understand the person's wishes and needs and thus promote well-being. Staff-shortage and lack of time was two challenges for the nurse.

    Conclusion The life story is a tool that was considered to contribute to person-centered care, however, it turned out to be time-consuming where the care is not always organized in a way where the possibility of working with the life story is not always available. 

  • 40.
    Almaghrabi, Jomana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjöblad Mogren, Anna-Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av och attityd till att bemöta suicidnära patienter- en litteraturöversikt.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide is a common condition that the nurse encounters in all forms of health care. The nurse's approach should be based on respect, responsiveness and empathy for the individual.  Aim: to describe the registered nurses experience from and attitude to meet and care for suicidal patients   Method: A literature review based on the result of 15 qualitative and quantitative studies from 11 different countries. The articles are collected from databases in the area within-subject guide nursing like Cinahl, Pubmed and Psycinfo.  Result: Five themes were identified from the analysis of the articles. They describe the variety of emotions the nurse experience, the attitudes the nurse have, the competence they are missing in the care for the suicidal patient and the problematic within how the care and the work is organized.    Conclusion: Nurses experienced a need to increase their expertise in suicidal patients. The way care is organized affects how suicidal individuals receive help and support. Knowledge is important in reducing the fears and judgmental attitudes of nurses.

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  • 41. Almgren, Felicia
    et al.
    Shek Ahmed, Faduma
    Föräldrars upplevelse av att ha barn med typ 1-diabetes – En litteraturstudie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting children worldwide. It is not only the child who is affected, but the whole family is affected when children get T1D. T1D involves lifelong self-care and it is the parents who have the greatest responsibility when it comes to children. The nurse has a responsibility to support, guide and provide information about the management of the disease to both the child and the parents.

    Aim The aim is to describe how the lives of the parents are affected by having a child diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

    Method This study has been conducted as a structured literature review with elements of the methodology used in systematic reviews. 13 qualitative articles have been analyzed.

    Results The results were divided into four main categories and twelve subcategories that answered the purpose of the study; Need for knowledge and support, Trust and responsibility are lacking, Living with constant worry and preparedness through the child's upbringing and Adaptation to the new reality.

    Conclusions The results showed a lack of support and information from the healthcare system. This study provides an increased understanding of how the parents' lives are affected when the child is diagnosed with T1D. In order for the nurse to be able to provide good care, understanding and empathy are important for the child to achieve optimal handling of T1D.

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  • 42.
    Almquist, Lilly
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Andersson, Tilda
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Barndomstraumas påverkan på psykisk ohälsa i vuxen ålder: En litteraturöversikt2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persons who have suffered mental trauma could fall victim to mental illness from this. A traumatic experience could mean mental, physical and sexual abuse, threats of violence, bullying or other stressful events. Children who suffer from trauma have a higher risk of suffering from long-term issues, due to the fact that they are undergoing development in life. The registered nurse plays an important roll in the meeting with persons that have been affected by mental illness, by highlighting their own esources and also by encouraging recovery.

    Aim: The aim of the literature review was to describe the correlation between childhood trauma and mental illness in adulthood.

    Method: The structured literature review was based on 13 scientific articles, two articles with qualitative design and eleven with quantitative design. The article search was done in the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. The chosen articles have been analysed according to Friberg’s five step model.

    Results: The results of the literature review was based on two main categories: Consequences of mental trauma in childhood and Factors which increase the risk for mental illness with their six belonging sub categories. The result concluded that mental trauma in childhood had major negative consequences in adulthood. Repetitive traumatic events, what gender the affected person has and the persons age plays a major role in whether the person develops mental illness following childhood trauma.

    Conclusions: The literature review highligts the negative psychological consequenses a person suffers in adulthood following childhood trauma. Children are a vulnerable group and have a greater risk of developing mental illness. There are other reasons than childhood trauma for a person to develop mental illness. However, it is important that the vulnerable person recieves support, where a registered nurse has a significant role in the meeting with the person, to reduce suffering and promote recovery. Thus, it is important to identify a vulnerable child early to reduce the risk of mental illness in adulthood. 

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  • 43.
    Alsalman, Aymen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Dimas, Lorena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av språkbarriär vid omvårdnad: En litteraturöversikt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The presence of a language barrier in health care affects the ability of nurses to perform nursing. Communication is identified as an important factor between the nurse and the patient to promote high quality care. The opportunity to obtain cultural competence increases the quality of care.Aim: The aim of the literature review is to describe the nurse's experience of language barrier , and nurses' strategies for overcoming them in nursing.Method: The study was conducted as a literature review with a systematic search strategy and was based on 13 qualitative and two mix method scientific articles. Article searches were performed in databases CINAHL and Pubmed.Results: The results of the literature review shows that nurses face challenges that prevent the promotion of good and safe care when a language barrier occurs. Nurses experience that through the use of professional and non-professional interpreters they have their advantages and disadvantages. Nurses strive to overcome the language barrier by using different strategies.Conclusion: Language barrier is an obstacle to providing individual caring and being able to make an assessment of the patient's care needs. Language barrier is a threat to patient safety. Professional and non-professional interpreters increases the risk that the patient will not recive correct information.

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  • 44. Alsaloum, Sara
    et al.
    Vitikainen, Petra
    Sjuksköterskors uppfattning av hälsolitteracitet hos socioekonomiskt utsatta patienter inom primärvården2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health literacy is the individual's ability to obtain, understand, value and use information in order to maintain and promote health. For the patient to be more active in their own care and to have the ability to make decisions in health matters, a certain level of health literacy is needed. Health is affected by the prerequisites, conditions and situations that the patients have. Poorer social and economic conditions can lead to inequality in health. With the transition to good and close care, the nurse must work more person-centred and strengthen the patient's ability to self-care. Promoting health literacy is considered a sustainable investment for both the patient and society in order to achieve high quality care and a more equal health.

    Aim: The purpose was to examine nurses' perception of what affects health literacy in socioeconomically vulnerable adult patients.

    Method: The study was conducted as a qualitative interview study. Seven nurses participated in the interviews; the material was analyzed in accordance with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The results described three main categories. The first category was the individual's competence and resources, where nurses were of the opinion that the level of health literacy is affected by the individual's education and knowledge as well as support from the family. The second category was communication where nurses described that language barriers and cultural differences were challenges for good communication which was the basis for information exchange with patients. The third category was conditions for promoting health literacy. Nurses perceived that individualized care, the organization's support and collaboration between different actors were prerequisites for promoting health literacy.

    Conclusions: The nurses in the study perceived that the individual’s own characteristics such as education and knowledge, support from the family and communication influenced the level of health literacy in the patient. In order to promote health literacy, it is required that healthcare professionals offer patients individually tailored care and that there is both organizational and societal support for this important work.

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  • 45.
    Alström, Sundari
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Pettersson, Oline
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att leva med en påse på magen: -  En litteraturöversikt om att beskriva män och kvinnors upplevelse av att leva med stomi2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An ostomy, also called stoma is an opening created in the abdomen to eliminate defecation when the gastrointestinal tract does not function properly. Obtaining a stoma means major changes in one´s life situation and thus affecting the quality of life. Through increased knowledge and understanding people's experiences, the nurse can help with good care and promote health.   Aim: To describe men and women's experiences of living with an ostomy  Method: The study has been conducted as a literature review were 15 scientific articles have been used in the results  Results: Four main themes emerged in this literature review. These were significance for men and women's experience of living with an ostomy; Altered body image, Relationships, Sex and intimacy and acceptance.  Conclusion: The literature review results showed that all men and women are unique and that a life with a stoma meant major adjustments physically, mentally and socially. Family and close relatives had a significant role in terms of emotional support that helped people to accept their stoma and adapt to the changed life situation. Support from the nurse became crucial for providing information, advice and understanding patients experience. The individual's own attitude towards the stoma and sufficient support could contribute to a better quality of life.

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  • 46.
    Alvbåge, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Könsskillnader i vårdmötet: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title. Gender disparities in healthcare encounters: A literature review.

    Aim. This essay investigates what impact the sex of patients and nurses has in

    healthcare encounters.

    Background. That sex and gender norms have an impact on encounters,

    communication and clinical decision making is known from previous research. But

    no research has been made that gives an overview of how this affects healthcare

    encounters. Investigating this is important to bring awareness of what impact this

    has on the patient.

    Method. This essay was conducted as a literature review.

    Findings. Five qualitative studies and five quantitative studies that investigated

    different aspects of healthcare encounters from a gender perspective were chosen

    and analyzed. The analysis resulted in five main themes that each reflect different

    aspects of healthcare encounters. Among other things, factors that may limit

    female patients’ autonomy were identified and that the nurses’ gender may be a

    deciding factor in whether the patients are given opportunity to talk about their

    feelings.

    Conclusion. The result suggests that patients’ and nurses’ gender has an impact in

    healthcare encounters. In some areas the difference was more pronounced than in

    others, for example when it comes to talking about emotions, moral support in

    dialogues and opportunity for patients to be listened to.

  • 47. Alvinsson, Kim
    et al.
    Dagvall, Robert
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder som främjar självbestämmanderätten hos patienter med demenssjukdom på äldreboenden: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte är att belysa omvårdnadsåtgärder som främjar självbestämmande hos dementa patienter på äldreboenden. Metod: Litteraturstudien innefattar 15 artiklar där kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats har använts. Sökningarna gjordes i databaserna CINAHL och PubMed. Resultat: Studien visade att omvårdnadsåtgärder som främjar patienter med demenssjukdoms självbestämmande är: Närvaro ifrån vårdgivarna, förenklade val, låta det ta tid, låt patienten fatta beslut i sin egen takt, lära känna patienten för att förstå dennes önskemål, anpassad information, talande kort som komplement och bevara en så hemlik boendemiljö som möjligt. Slutsats: Resultatet av litteraturstudierna visar att det finns omvårdnadsåtgärder som främjar självbestämmande hos dementa patienter på äldreboenden. Detta kan och bör införas av vårdgivarna på äldreboenden runt om i världen.

  • 48.
    Alvwinge, Tonie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjogedal, Madlene
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Betydelsen av personcentrerad vård för psykiatrisjuksköterskor i mötet med suicidnära ungdomar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ett suicidförsök beror ofta på snabba och intensiva krafter eller påfrestningar som

    en sårbar individ inte kan hantera på egen hand. Suicidförsök beräknas vara cirka tio gånger

    vanligare än antalet fullbordade suicid, men det finns ett stort mörkertal eftersom statistiken

    baseras på individer som fått vård inom heldygnsvård. Tillgänglig statistik visar att antalet

    suicidförsök har ökat bland alla åldergrupper, men största ökningen går att se hos

    åldersgruppen 15-24 år.

    Syfte: Syftet är att få en uppfattning om hur psykiatrisjuksköterskan beskriver hur det är att

    bemöta suicidnära ungdomar utifrån personcentrerad vård inom heldygnsvård.

    Metod: En studie med en kvalitativ design med semistrukturerade intervjuer som

    datainsamlingsmetod. Psykiatrisjuksköterskor med erfarenhet av arbete på barn och

    ungdomspsykiatrin inom heldygnsvård deltog i studien.

    Resultat: Psykiatrisjuksköterskan beskriver att personcentrerad vård var en förutsättning för

    alliansskapande med den suicidnära ungdomen och alliansskapandet sågs som det mest

    centrala i omvårdnaden. Studien pekade på att alliansen med den suicidnära ungdomen var en

    viktig förutsättning för att få en fungerande öppen kommunikation. Studien visade dessutom

    att den personcentrerade omvårdnaden var en viktig aspekt för skapande av delaktighet och

    respektfullt bemötande utifrån att psykiatrisjuksköterskan tar den suicidnära ungdomen på

    allvar och vågar ställa öppna och direkta frågor. Vidare sågs psykiatrisjuksköterskans

    specialistutbildning och kliniska erfarenhet ha stor betydelse rörande kunskap om psykiatriska

    tillstånd, riskfaktorer, läkemedel och bedömningsinstrument.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar på viktiga omvårdnadsaspekter utifrån personcentrerad vård som

    kan bidra till att psykiatrisjuksköterskan tillsammans med den suicidnära ungdomen kan

    analysera, kliniskt hantera och förebygga suicidrisker och suicidförsök inom heldygnsvård.

  • 49.
    Amanda, Olsson
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nilsson, Isabel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans riskbedömning och omvårdnadsåtgärder för att förebygga malnutrition på äldreboenden En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att belysa hur sjuksköterskan bedömer malnutrition samt vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder som används för att förebygga malnutrition på äldreboenden.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt där artiklar söktes via databaserna CINAHL with Fulltext och PubMed. Sökningarna resulterade i 13 artiklar som analyserades för att hitta skillnader och likheter och resulterade i kategorier och underkategorier som svarade mot litteraturöversiktens syfte och frågeställningar.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att det vanligaste mätinstrumentet för att bedöma malnutrition på äldreboenden var MNA. Där mätinstrument inte användes, användes ofta BMI i stället av sjuksköterskor för att få en bild av den äldres nutritionsstatus. Omvårdnadsåtgärder som visat ge god effekt var utbildning   av vårdpersonalen,  individuella matplaner och energi- och proteintillskott i mat och dryck.

    Slutsats: Mer kunskap till sjuksköterskor om vikten att utföra nutritionsbedömning för alla äldre vid inskrivning och kontinuerligt och även hur de bör använda mätverktygen. Behov av individanpassade omvårdnadsåtgärder med energi- och proteinberikad mat, energi-proteintillskott, en god munhälsa och måttlig fysisk aktivitet har god effekt.

  • 50.
    Ampén, Ida
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Broberg, Sanne
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Erfarenhet av amning och förväntningar inför kommande amning - mödrars perspektiv: En studie med mixad metod2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Breastfeeding is a safe and effective way to promote the health of the child and the mother, but despite this, a decrease in breastfeeding is seen in Sweden. Previous studies show that mothers' experiences and expectations of breastfeeding vary greatly, and with that the need for support and help from the health care system also varies.

    Aim The aim was to describe mothers' experiences of breastfeeding and expectations before future breastfeeding.

    Method This study has processed data from a previous pilot study. Twelve quantitative and qualitative questions have been analyzed according to a mixed method with convergent design. A total of 32 pregnant women participated in the pilot study.

    Results The results suggest that mothers have both positive and negative experiences of and expectations before breastfeeding that are enclosed by closeness, interplay and love as well as worry, aversion and complications. The result is presented under the summary main theme "Drops that hold oceans of emotions".

    Conclusions The result suggests that breastfeeding is accompanied by extensive emotions. Breastfeeding can be experienced as valuable, healthy and promoting attachment, but it can also bring hardship. For some mothers, breastfeeding seems to create a series of negative emotions that are bordered by both pain, concern, aversion and sexualization. The result also suggests a lack of support from the health care system.

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