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  • 1. Bjorklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Driver behaviour in intersections: formal and informal traffic rules2005In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 239-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drivers' behaviour in intersections is not only influenced by the rules of priority in the intersection but also by the design of the intersection as well as the behaviour of other road users. If behaviours that supplement or contradict formal traffic rules become common in a particular traffic intersection, it is an indication that an informal traffic rule has been used. In the present study a sample of 1276 Swedish drivers (aged 18-74 years) responded to questions about how often they would yield to another driver in 10 hypothetical crossing situations. In all crossing situations the respondents were told that there was no major road, implying that they should always yield the right of way to traffic coming from the right (the right-hand ride). The results showed that drivers' reported behaviour varied over different intersections. As expected, the formal rule of priority (i.e., the direction from which the other driver was coming) was an important determinant for drivers' yielding behaviour. However, cues for informal rules such as the other driver's behaviour and road breadth were also of importance. Different groups of drivers could be identified according to their strategies of yielding behaviour. One group of drivers reported that they rarely yielded, whereas another group reported that they always did so. A third group complied with the right-hand rule most of the time, whereas the behaviour of a fourth group varied over intersections. The implications of the results and the appropriateness of the right-hand rule are discussed.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Driver irritation and aggressive behaviour2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 1069-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 98 drivers responded to a Swedish version of the UK Driving Anger Scale [UK DAS; [Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Stradling, S.G., 1998. Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transport. Res. Part F 1, 107-121]. The results indicated that the Swedish version, like the British original, measures three sources of driver irritation: "progress impeded", "reckless driving", and "direct hostility". Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between the three sources of self-reported driver irritation, aggressive actions, speed, sex, age, and annual mileage. The models suggested a positive relationship between the amount of driver irritation and frequency of aggressive actions for all three sources of irritation. Female drivers tended to become more irritated than male drivers, while the male drivers tended to act aggressively more often. Surprisingly, drivers who reported that they enjoy fast speeds did not become more irritated than slower drivers when obstructed. The important conclusions are that experienced irritation often leads to openly aggressively actions, and that expression of aggressive behaviours may be a cause of other drivers' feeling of irritation. 

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Bolling, Anne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalen University.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalen University.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University.
    Media instructions and visual behavior: An eye-tracking study investigating visual literacy capacities and assembly efficiency2014In: Analyzing Cognitive Processes during Design: Proceedings of the HBiD 2014 / [ed] Mirko Meboldt, Sven Matthiesen, Petra Badke-Schaub, Quentin Lohmeyer, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study aims at illuminating human visual behavior in the interaction with pictorial instructions. The study is a multi disciplinary effort and is informed by the connection between gaze and attention as well as certain aspects of the Visual Literacy field and reveals a few basic visual behavior tendencies related to certain specific pictorial instruction types. By doing so, it is also an evaluation of the usefulness of a methodological framework consisting of six measures.The analysis of this paper is primarily based on eye-tracking data. In addition, an observed assembly that generated video and sound recordings is also part of the method. In the study 12 Film/TV- production students (out of which there is complete data from 9 informants) interacted with three types of types of visual instructions of the same assembled object, a solar powered toy.

  • 5.
    Frans, Örjan
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Rimmo, P-A.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Fredrikson, M.
    Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder in the general population2005In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine the lifetime prevalence of trauma experiences and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Questionnaire-assessed PTSD, the type of traumatic event experienced, perceived trauma impact, and trauma frequency in 1824 randomly selected men and women. PTSD lifetime prevalence was estimated at 5.6% with a 1 : 2 male-to-female ratio, in spite of men reporting greater trauma exposure. The highest PTSD risk was associated with sexual and physical assault, robbery and multiple trauma experiences. Controlling for trauma type did not account for gender differences, while controlling for experienced distress did. The conditional probability for PTSD varied as a function of trauma type, frequency and impact of the event, with increased rates associated with prevalent trauma exposure and higher perceived distress. The latter accounted for the gender effect, suggesting that gender differences in PTSD in part represent a generally greater vulnerability to stress in women.

  • 6. Fredriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stigsdotter, Ingels Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice
    Archer, Trevor
    Running wheel activity restores MPTP-induced deficits2011In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 407-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel-running and treadmill running physical exercise have been shown to alleviate parkinsonism in both laboratory and clinical studies. MPTP was administered to C57/BL6 mice using two different procedures: (a) administration of a double-dose regime (MPTP 2 × 20 or 2 × 40 mg/kg, separated by a 24-h interval), vehicle (saline 5 ml/kg) or saline (vehicle 2 × 5 ml/kg), and (b) administration of a single-dose weekly regime (MPTP 1 × 40 mg/kg) or saline (vehicle 1 × 5 ml/kg) repeated over 4 consecutive weeks. For each procedure, two different physical exercise regimes were followed: (a) after the double-dose MPTP regime, mice were given daily 30-min periods of wheel-running exercise over 5 consecutive days/week or placed in a cage in close proximity to the running wheels for 3 weeks. (b) Mice were either given wheel-running activity on 4 consecutive days (30-min periods) or placed in a cage nearby for 14 weeks. Behavioral testing was as follows: (a) after 3 weeks of exercise/no exercise, mice were tested for spontaneous motor activity (60 min) and subthreshold l-Dopa (5 mg/kg)-induced activity. (b) Spontaneous motor activity was measured on the fifth day during each of the each of the first 5 weeks (Tests 1–5), about 1 h before injections (first 4 weeks), and continued on the 5th days of the 6th to the 14th weeks (Tests 6–14). Subthreshold l-Dopa (5 mg/kg)-induced activity was tested on the 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th and 14th weeks. (b) Mice from the single-dose MPTP weekly regime were killed during the 15th week and striatal regions taken for dopamine analysis, whereas frontal and parietal cortex and hippocampus were taken for analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It was shown that in both experiments, i.e., the double-dose regime and single-dose weekly regime of MPTP administration, physical activity attenuated markedly the MPTP-induced akinesia/hypokinesia in both the spontaneous motor activity and restored motor activity completely in subthreshold l-Dopa tests. Running wheel activity attenuated markedly the loss of dopamine due to repeated administrations of MPTP. BDNF protein level in the parietal cortex was elevated by the MPTP insult and increased further by physical exercise. Physical running wheel exercise alleviated both the functional and biomarker expressions of MPTP-induced parkinsonism.

  • 7.
    Gilhooly, M. L.
    et al.
    Brunel Institute for Ageing Studies, Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.
    van den Heuvel, E.
    Brunel Institute for Ageing Studies, Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.
    Jowitt, F.
    Brunel Institute for Ageing Studies, Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.
    Sutherland, I.
    Brunel Institute for Ageing Studies, Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.
    Bichard, J.
    Royal College of Art, London, United Kingdom.
    Long, A.
    Bristol Urological Institute, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Vibrating underpants, smell sensors and hospital continence services: tools and technologies for improving the lives of people with incontinence2012In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 52, no s1, p. 185-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social isolation, loss of self esteem and depression are often a consequence of incontinence. The overall aim of this interdisciplinary project was to reduce the impact of continence difficulties and, thus, assist older people in maintaining a positive identity and good quality of life. The TACT3 project was comprised of three research work packages:

    Assistive technology development:

    Vibrating underpants: A washable fabric underwear wetness sensor and alert mechanism has been developed to alert continence pad users of leakage. In addition, a colour change odour indicating formula has been developed to indicate the presence of the odour of urine at a just imperceptible level.

    Challenging environmental barriers to continence: Two sets of stakeholders were involved, older people with continence difficulties and toilet providers. Focus groups, workshops, interviews and photographic diaries were conducted to identify key issues. A web based map locating toilets in London was developed which is called the Great British Toilet Map.

    Improving continence interventions and services: 140 patients and their carers were interviewed twice within a 12 month interval from a specialist continence clinic for older people and generic continence clinic. Twenty health and social care managers and 200 practitioners were also be interviewed. Care outcomes are being analysed from each clinic and a cost benefit analysis will be carried out.

    Key findings from this three year interdisciplinary project are highlighted. Prototypes of the vibrating underpants and the odour sensor will be on display. This research was funded by the UK New Dynamics of Ageing Programme.

  • 8.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Stigsdotter, Ingels Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Wheel-Running Exercise Restores 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine -Induced Motor Deficits in Mice2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
  • 9.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Neanderthals did speak, but FOXP2 doesn't prove it2014In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 37, no 6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ackermann et al. treat both genetic and paleoanthropological data too superficially to support their conclusions. The case of FOXP2 and Neanderthals is a prime example, which I will comment on in some detail; the issues are much more complex than they appear in Ackermann et al.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    The thinking Neanderthals: what do we know about Neanderthal cognition?2014In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, ISSN 1939-5078, E-ISSN 1939-5086, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 613-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of Neanderthal cognition is difficult, because of the archaeological invisibility of cognition, and because of the methodological issues that arise both from that invisibility and from their being close to modern humans. Nevertheless, fair progress has been made in gathering relevant evidence. There is now good evidence that Neanderthals were cognitively sophisticated, displaying many of the cognitive traits that were traditionally regarded as proxies for modern human cognition, notably including language. It can neither be proven nor excluded that they were our cognitive equals, but they were close enough to us, biologically and cognitively, to interbreed successfully and leave a genetic legacy in our DNA. 

  • 11.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    et al.
    Interactive Institute, Studio Sonic, Piteå, Sweden.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Sjömark, Ceciia
    Context, individuality and music's affect on listeners2005In: Proceedings of CONTEXT'05, the Fifth International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lekander, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Den psykosociala arbetsmiljön utifrån modellen; krav, kontroll och socialt stöd: En jämförande studie mellan personal på offentligt och privat äldreboende2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier har visat att äldre personer i behov av vård ökar vilket kan leda till att vårdpersonalen upplever högre krav. Detta kan i sin tur resultera i arbetsrelaterad stress och ohälsa hos personalen. Utifrån Robert Karasek och Töres Theorells modell om krav, kontroll och socialt stöd kan man undersöka hur den psykosociala arbetsmiljön upplevs på en arbetsplats. Enkäter delades ut i samarbete med enhetschefer på de båda äldreboendena. 40 undersökningsdeltagare ingick i studien. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att försöka urskilja om det finns skillnader mellan personalen på offentligt och privat äldreboende gällande den psykosociala arbetsmiljön utifrån modellen krav, kontroll och socialt stöd samt upplevelsen av arbetsrelaterad stress. H1, Det finns en relation mellan upplevelse av krav och upplevd arbetsrelaterad stress. H2: Det finns en relation mellan upplevelse av kontroll och upplevd arbetsrelaterad stress. H3: Det finns en relation mellan upplevelse av socialt stöd och upplevd arbetsrelaterad stress. H4: Det finns en signifikant skillnad i upplevelsen av krav mellan offentlig och privat personal. H5: Det finns en signifikant skillnad i upplevelsen av kontroll mellan offentlig och privat personal. H6: Det finns en signifikant skillnad i upplevelsen av socialt stöd mellan offentlig och privat personal. H7: Det finns en signifikant skillnad i upplevelsen av stress mellan offentlig och privat personal. H1-4 kan godtas. H5-7 kan förkastas. Resultaten diskuteras utifrån Robert Karasek och Töres Theorells modell.

  • 13.
    McKee, Kevin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Stockholm University; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Five years from now: Correlates of older people’s expectation of future quality of life2014In: Age Well - Challenges for Individuals and Society: Program 22nd Nordic Congress of Gerontology Gothenburg 25-28 May, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have explored older people’s expected future quality of life (QoL), despite evidence that perceptions of one’s future influence healthy ageing. Research on this topic should embrace a range of potential influences, including perceptions of one’s neighbourhood and region. This study examined expected QoL in a random sample of the population of Dalarna, a Swedish region. A self-completion questionnaire assessed demographic characteristics, current neighbourhood and regional evaluations, self-evaluations, expectations for the future, and current and expected QoL.  In total, 786 people aged ≥ 65 years participated. Current QoL was favourably evaluated, and while expected QoL also received a positive assessment, the mean value for expected QoL was notably lower than that for current QoL (t(755)=24.06, p<.05). Indeed, only 3.6% (n=27) of participants rated their expected QoL higher than their current QoL. A sequential multiple regression model explained 44% of the variance in older people’s expected QoL. Nine IVs were significant (p<.05) in the final model of expected QoL: current QoL (1% unique variance explained), age (1%), education level (1%), Regional Development Beliefs (1%), Perceived Regional Status (2%), self-reported health (3%), social influence (1%), Expected Regional Opportunity (3%) and expected change in housing need (1%). Our findings establish the significance of an older person’s perception of their locality for their expected future QoL. Policies that focus only on individual and relational factors for the promotion of healthy ageing are overlooking the potential contribution of an older person’s connection to their neighbourhood and region.

  • 14.
    McKee, Kevin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University.
    Five years from now: Correlates of older people’s expectation of future quality of life2015In: Research on Aging, ISSN 0164-0275, E-ISSN 1552-7573, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 18-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have explored older people’s expected future quality of life (QoL), despite evidence that perceptions of one’s future influence healthy ageing. Research on this topic should embrace a range of potential influences, including perceptions of one’s neighbourhood and region. This study examined expected QoL in a random sample of the population of Dalarna, a Swedish region. A self-completion questionnaire assessed demographic characteristics, current neighbourhood and regional evaluations, self-evaluations, expectations for the future, and current and expected QoL. In total, 786 people aged ≥ 65 years participated. A sequential multiple regression model explained 44% of the variance in older people’s expected QoL, with self-reported health (sr2=.03), Expected Regional Opportunity (sr2=.03), and Perceived Regional Status (sr2=.02) having the strongest associations with expected QoL. Research on the importance of one’s neighbourhood to QoL in older people should encompass people’s perceptions of their region, to better inform social policy for healthy ageing.

  • 15.
    Millet, Patrick
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    Time for change: Can empowerment be a solution to meet the perils of modern day working life?2005In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 291-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working life continues to undergo rapid change. This change creates greater demand and sophistication and causes employees to experience more pressure, professionally and personally. Thus, absences from work due to sickness and injuries increase. In Sweden, this problem has become serious. This article argues that psychological empowerment and individual control are two key factors that minimize the many perils faced by the modern worker and those seeking to return to the work force through the vocational rehabilitation process. The findings show that a shift in ideology is needed. Specifically, there must be a shift from scientific management and Weberian bureaucracy towards organizational structures, routines, and cultures that support and increase individual worker psychological empowerment and control.

  • 16. Samrani, George
    et al.
    Marklund, Petter
    Engström, Lisa
    Broman, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies. Högskolan i Skövde.
    Persson, Jonas
    Behavioral facilitation and increased brain responses from a high interference working memory context.2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 15308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many real-life situations require flexible behavior in changing environments. Evidence suggests that anticipation of conflict or task difficulty results in behavioral and neural allocation of task-relevant resources. Here we used a high- and low-interference version of an item-recognition task to examine the neurobehavioral underpinnings of context-sensitive adjustment in working memory (WM). We hypothesized that task environments that included high-interference trials would require participants to allocate neurocognitive resources to adjust to the more demanding task context. The results of two independent behavioral experiments showed enhanced WM performance in the high-interference context, which indicated that a high-interference context improves performance on non-interference trials. A third behavioral experiment showed that when WM load was increased, this effect was no longer significant. Neuroimaging results further showed greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus, striatum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and midbrain in participants performing the task in the high- than in the low-interference context. This effect could arise from an active or dormant mode of anticipation that seems to engage fronto-striatal and midbrain regions to flexibly adjust resources to task demands. Our results extend the model of conflict adaptation beyond trial-to-trial adjustments by showing that a high interference context affects both behavioral and biological aspects of cognition.

  • 17.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Human Factors in Public Information Systems2006In: Encyclopedia of Digital Government, Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Ivergård, Toni K. B.
    Vinberg, Stig
    E-service to citizens and companies in rural areas2004In: The International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, ISSN 0858-7027, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The county of Västernorrland and Jämtland, like most of the remote and rural areas in the Northern Periphery, face common challenges consisting of limited economic resources, high sickness rates and major recruitment needs in the future. Developed eservice may be one of the solutions to these problems: a solution especially well-suited to sparsely populated areas. In this paper, we have summarized the exciting current challenges and opportunities in the domain of e-governmental services and indicated some areas of special interest for promoting the transition to an information society with enhanced e-services for the rural citizens. There are increased interest in e-service and the will to improve the services offered to citizens and the business community.

  • 19.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Wahlberg, Olof
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Towards a Model of the Acceptance of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Small Businesses2006In: 14th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Schön, Ulla-Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Recovery in involuntary psychiatric care: is there a gender difference?2013In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 420-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on recovery from mental illness and the influence of compulsory psychiatric institutional care has revealed the complexity of this concept. There is also limited knowledge regarding the impact of gender-role expectations in these contexts, and how such expectations may influence both the care and individuals’ recovery processes.

    Aim: To explore women’s and men’s perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care on recovery from severe mental illness.

    Method: Grounded theory was used to analyse 30 first-person accounts of recovery from mental illness, elicited via interviews with individuals who had been compulsorily treated in hospital and diagnosed with a severe mental illness.

    Results: Inpatient care at an early stage was crucial for the informants’ recovery. However, there was ambivalence in their perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care. The narratives confirmed gender differences as well as gender stereotypes.

    Conclusions: The results have implications for recovery research, in that they emphasise the importance of understanding recovery as a gender-influenced process.

  • 21. Sorqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Hurtig, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    Ronnberg, Jerker
    High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed.

  • 22. Vredin-Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    The effects of attitudes and personality traits on mode choice2006In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 507-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesise that differences in people's attitudes and personality traits lead them to attribute varying importance to environmental considerations, safety, comfort, convenience and flexibility. Differences in personality traits call be revealed not only in the individuals' choice of transport, but also in other actions of their everyday lives-such as how much they recycle, whether they take precautions or avoid dangerous pursuits. Conditioning on a set of exogenous individual characteristics, we use indicators of attitudes and personality traits to form latent variables for inclusion in an, otherwise standard, discrete mode choice model. With a sample of Swedish commuters, we find that both attitudes towards flexibility and comfort, as well as being pro-environmentally inclined, influence the individual's choice of mode. Although modal time and cost still are important, it follows that there are other ways, apart from economic incentives, to attract individuals to the, from society's perspective, desirable public modes of transport. Our results should provide useful information to policy-makers and transportation planners developing sustainable transportation systems.

  • 23.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Drivers’ beliefs about exceeding the speed limits2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 376-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine drivers’ view on their own speeding behaviour by focusing on belief based measures as suggested by the theory of planned behaviour. A sample of car owners (N = 162) completed a questionnaire including both direct and belief based measures of the latent variables in the theory of planned behaviour. The results showed that indices constructed with direct measures of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control made a larger contribution to the prediction of drivers’ intention to exceed the speed limits in both urban and rural environments, than did indices constructed with belief based measures. An extensive set of belief composites was produced and standard multiple regressions showed which of these contributed to the prediction of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control, as well as intention. The use of these findings is discussed.

  • 24.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Driver's decision to speed: a study inspired by the theory of planned behavior2006In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 427-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using structural equation modeling (LISREL 8.71), drivers' everyday speeding behavior was predicted using the theory of planned behavior as a frame of reference. One hundred and twelve test drivers had a device installed in their vehicles that continuously logged their speeding behavior in a large area under an extended period of time. The test drivers also completed a questionnaire including questions inspired by the theory of planned behavior. It was found that the independent variables stipulated in the theory afforded a level of prediction of drivers' self-reported speeding as well as of their logged speeding. Attitude towards speeding, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were significant determinants of self-reported speeding. Self-reported speeding, and subjective norm, but not perceived behavioral control, did then contribute to the prediction of drivers' logged speeding. The fact that perceived behavioral control did not directly contribute to the prediction of drivers' logged speeding may be due to the possibility that drivers with several years of experience already take into account the actual control they have over the target behavior. As the theory of planned behavior can be used as a frame of reference to predict drivers' everyday speeding behavior, it is suggested that the drivers might decide on a target behavior and in living up to this decision they continuously monitor their target speed during everyday driving. 

  • 25.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    The long term effects of an ISA speed-warning device on drivers’ speeding behaviour2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 96-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different systems of intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) have already been tested in the field and large-scale implementation is being discussed. But do we really know how these systems affect drivers during long-term use?Between 2000 and 2003 a total of 61 test drivers had an ISA speed warning device installed in their vehicles. Data from these trials show that,initially, the device greatly reduced the amount of time the majority of test drivers spent above the speed limit, and to some extent also reduced their mean speeds, but this effect decreased with time. Further analyses of 27 of the 61 test drivers then showed that the activation of the warning system affected different drivers in quite a homogenous way, with regards to attitude, subjective norm and self-reported behaviour, but not with regards to perceived behavioural control. After activation,long-term use did, however, affect the test drivers in a homogenous way with regards to attitude, subjective norm and self-reported behaviour, as well as perceived behavioural control. When considering these results it must be remembered that the device tested was a first generation ISA speed-warning device and with more research we think that different ISA-systems could be improved and the effects made more stable during long-term use.

  • 26.
    Wide, Sverre
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Wide Boman, Ulla
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Explanation and causal reasoning: a contribution to the interpretation of competing explanatory claims2013In: Theory & psychology, ISSN 0959-3543, E-ISSN 1461-7447, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 701-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to attain a better understanding of the relationship between competing or complementary scientific explanatory claims. First, six different ways of approaching explanatory claims are briefly described and found, in part, to be unsatisfactory. It is argued that they should be supplemented by an analysis of underlying and sometimes partly unacknowledged causal presuppositions. This approach could be termed a causal analytical investigation, and in order to demonstrate its potential, it is applied to a concrete example: research into dental anxiety. The analysis shows that seemingly competing or complementary explanatory claims here neither compete with nor complement each other; instead, the analysis demonstrates that they explain different things. We then broaden the picture by discussing the relationship between aetiology and treatment. Finally we argue in favour of the general applicability of the approach and its relevance to science in general and to science-based practice.

  • 27.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Royal college of music, Sweden.
    Brändström, Sture
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Young adolescents’ usage of narrative functions of media music by manipulation of musical expression2008In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 193-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates usage and knowledge of musical narrative functions in contemporary multimedia. A group of young adolescents were given the task of adapting musical expression, using the non-verbal research tool REMUPP, to fit different visual scenes shown on a computer screen. This was accomplished by manipulating seven musical parameters: instrumentation, tempo, harmonic complexity, rhythmic complexity, register, articulation and reverb. They also answered a questionnaire giving information about their musical training and media habits. Numerical data from the manipulation of the musical parameters were analysed to search for tendencies within the group with regard to the musical expression in relation to the different visual scenes shown. The results showed a large degree of in-group consensus regarding narrative functions of music, indicating knowledge about musical narrative codes and conventions. Also, the results were clearly influenced by factors such as the participants' musical training, gender and habits of music listening, playing computer games and watching movies — highlighting the complexity of learning and pointing to the impact of the increasing availability of narrative media on our attitudes and knowledge.

  • 28.
    Åberg, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Speeding: deliberate violation or involuntary mistake?2008In: Revue europeenne de psychologie appliquee, ISSN 1162-9088, E-ISSN 1878-3457, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power of two different theoretical frameworks, the theory of planned behaviour (expanded to include moral norm) and the driver behaviour questionnaire, to predict and explain drivers' speeding behaviour are compared and a combined model is suggested. One hundred and seventy-five test drivers, participating in a large-scale ISA-evaluation, answered a questionnaire in spring 2000. Based on the questionnaire data, logged speeding in autumn 2001 was predicted and LISREL-analysis was used for structural equation modelling. According to the results the two frameworks, alone or in combination, could explain between 38 and 53% of self-reported speeding and between 24 and 26% of logged speeding. A combination of the theory of planned behaviour and the driver behaviour questionnaire is presented and implications for the understanding of driver speed control are discussed.

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