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  • 1.
    Asino, Wilhelmina
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Evaluating aspects of sustainability in tourism at a mountain destination: Accessibility and economic impacts assessment in Sälen: Case of Sälen in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Travelling to, from and within the destination area accounts for a high level of tourism emissions. Yet, little has been done to improve and direct the travelling pattern at reducing carbon dioxide emissions. By encouraging visitors to use public rather private transport also limits traffic congestion and increases the use of public space by means of walking and cycling therefore enhancing destination competitiveness. Although there have a number of attempts to encourage the use of public transportation over car use, it still remains a challenge. This paper reports the findings of surveys of tourists who visited Sälen during the peak season of Easter break and projected their travel choice and spending patterns within the destination. The results shows that there is a relationship between location, accessibility and tourist expenditure.

    Therefore, understanding the pattern of visitors’ expenditures within a destination can serve as a strategic element in economic sustainability and capturing factors that have a high expenditure at a destination.

  • 2.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Möjligheten att utveckla ett verktyg för att mäta besöksnäringens konkurrenskraft2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Population redistribution in Sweden: long term trends and contemporary tendencies1995Inngår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 77, nr 1, s. 31-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Firm entry in the Swedish wholesale trade sector: dDoes market definition matter?2014Inngår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 703-717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm entry into local markets has often been studied using administrative areas such as municipalities as the assumed relevant markets. However, administrative areas and the actual relevant markets based on local demand for firms’ products often do not coincide, which could bias the results of studies treating administrative areas as the relevant markets. Based on a behavioral assumption regarding how retailers act when purchasing products from wholesale trade firms, we create alternative markets using Voronoi diagrams. We then compare the empirical results of investigating the determinants of firm entry using municipalities as the relevant markets with the results obtained using Voronoi markets. The results indicate that, in both cases, the same variables are statistically significant in affecting entry, though the estimated effects differ in size.

  • 5.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 6.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 7.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Measuring transport related CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2015Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 40, s. 28-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in transport related carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their transport CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 8.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    An empirical test of the gravity p-median model2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to it and the attractiveness of it. However regarding the location of the facility, the presumption is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility.This paradox was recently solved by the introduction of the gravity p-median model. The model is yet to be implemented and tested empirically. We implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating locksmiths, vehicle inspections, and retail stores ofv ehicle spare-parts, and we compared the solutions with those of the p-median model. We found the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  • 9.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    Testing the gravity p-median model empirically2015Inngår i: Operations Research Perspectives, ISSN 2214-7160, Vol. 2, nr 124, artikkel-id 132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  • 10.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    A compelling argument for the gravity p-median model2013Inngår i: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 226, nr 3, s. 658-660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population always travels to the nearest facility. Drezner and Drezner (2006, 2007) provide three arguments on why this assumption might be incorrect, and they introduce the extended gravity p-median model to relax the assumption. We favour the gravity p-median model, but we note that in an applied setting, the three arguments are incomplete. In this communication, we point at the existence of a fourth compelling argument for the gravity p-median model.

  • 11.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Jia, Tao
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.

  • 12.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Jia, Tao
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions2013Inngår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 16s. 382-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.

  • 13.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    CERUM, Umeå university.
    Asymmetric information and distance: an empirical assessment of geographical credit rationing2005Inngår i: Journal of Economics and Business, ISSN 0148-6195, E-ISSN 1879-1735, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 39-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Does the geographical proximity between the borrowing firm and the lending bank, matter in credit risk management? If so, the bank might expose itself to a greater risk by lending to distant firms and should therefore respond by rationing them harder. In this paper, we incorporate geographical credit rationing in a simple theoretical model, and derive implications, which are empirically testable. We use data on corporate loans granted between the years of 1994 and 2000 by a leading Swedish bank, and find no evidence of geographical credit rationing.

  • 14.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    A stopping rule while searching for optimal solution of facility-location2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization, such as p-median problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The minimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. However, pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. A small branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to estimate the minimum and use the estimate for either stopping or evaluating the quality of the solution. In this paper we use test-problems taken from Baesley's OR-library and apply Simulated Annealing on these p-median problems. We do this for the purpose of comparing suggested methods of minimum estimation and, eventually, provide a recommendation for practioners. An illustration ends the paper being a problem of locating some 70 distribution centers of the Swedish Post in a region.

  • 15.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Confidence in heuristic solutions?2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization problems frequently rely on heuristics to minimize an objective function. The optimum is sought iteratively and pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in operations research applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. Deterministic bounds offer a mean of ascertaining the quality, but such bounds are available for only a limited number of heuristics and the length of the interval may be difficult to control in an application. A small, almost dormant, branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to derive statistical bounds for the optimum. We discuss alternative approaches to derive statistical bounds. We also assess their performance by testing them on 40 test p-median problems on facility location, taken from Beasley’s OR-library, for which the optimum is known. We consider three popular heuristics for solving such location problems; simulated annealing, vertex substitution, and Lagrangian relaxation where only the last offers deterministic bounds. Moreover, we illustrate statistical bounds in the location of 71 regional delivery points of the Swedish Post. We find statistical bounds reliable and much more efficient than deterministic bounds provided that the heuristic solutions are sampled close to the optimum. Statistical bounds are also found computationally affordable.

  • 16.
    Christiaan de Vries, Sander
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Potential threat of international student dissatisfaction in the Netherlands analysed by cross – cultural adaption theory: Examining the effect of racial abuse on international student satisfaction, host receptivity and host conformity.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous research articles already touched upon the subject of racism in the Netherlands, the denial and ignorance of race and racism is however still there in Dutch society. The aim of this research paper was to determine whether or not the international students studying in the Netherlands feel welcome and satisfied in Dutch society. This was done by online questionnaires. This research examined how cross- cultural adaption (host receptivity and host conformity pressure) and international student encounters with racism affected their overall student satisfaction and likelihood to recommend the Netherlands as favorable country to study to others back in their home country. Out of the survey of 254 international students, 48 had experienced some form of racial abuse. The findings are presented, but it does have to be stated that the required sample size has not been met in this research (a required 382 sample size). Therefore the credibility and reliability of this research paper might be questioned. This also means that the results cannot be generalized to the population of international students in the Netherlands, or any other population. Furthermore, the non-representation of several nationalities might bias the results. The results however did indicate that racial abuse did affect the students’ likeliness to recommend the Netherlands as a favorable country to study to others. Also, the host receptivity score, host conformity pressure score and satisfaction with living and studying in the Netherlands was reported more negatively when the respondent was a victim of racism in the Netherlands.

  • 17.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    What happens when IKEA comes to town?2017Inngår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 313-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a new IKEA store on retail revenues, employment and inflow of purchasing power in the entry municipalities as well as in neighbouring municipalities were investigated using data from 2000–11. A propensity score-matching method was used to find non-IKEA entry municipalities that were as similar as possible to the entry municipalities based on the situation before entry. The results indicate that IKEA entry increased entry municipality durable goods revenues by about 20% and employment by about 17%. Only small and, in most cases, statistically insignificant effects were found in neighbouring municipalities.

  • 18.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Technical Educational Institute of Crete, Greece.
    The Development of a Conceptual Model to Support Sustainable Tourism Policy in North Mediterranean Destinations2012Inngår i: Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, ISSN 1936-8623, E-ISSN 1936-8631, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 710-738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable tourism is a malleable concept that needs to be operationalized for successful implementation. Policies based on firm conceptualizations are needed in order to put sustainable tourism into practice. The present research develops a conceptual model to support sustainable tourism policy making. It brings together, into a single model, knowledge from diverse literature sources and structures it as a system of interrelated components using a holistic, adaptive, and complex systems' approach. In building the model it is the interrelationships of the elements that shape it and underline its contribution as something more than a listing of policy considerations. This comprehensive representation of interrelationships should help policy makers to navigate through the complexities of sustainable tourism and to make more knowledgeable decisions.

  • 19.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI.
    Is the spatial scope of agglomeration economies on wages the same across the wage earnings distribution?2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the spatial scope of employment density across the wage distribution within four distance bands around each individual’s place of work. Observable and unobservable individual and workplace characteristics are controlled for. Remaining endogeneity in the wage model framework is assessed with an IV approach. Results indicate a positive effect of employment density on wages within 5 kilometres. The effect is negative beyond 50 kilometres. The spatial scope of employment density is larger at the higher end of the wage distribution but the effect closest to the establishment seems larger at the lower end of the wage distribution.

  • 20.
    Jonsson, Marina
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Geografi.
    Hur anpassar sig lantbruk till storstadsnära områden?: – En studie av olika jordbruk i de norra delarna av Stockholms län2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det

    storstadsnära

    lantbruket

    är

    påtaglig

    i

    Stockholms

    närområde,

    men

    även

    längre

    ut

    landsbygden

    i

    Stockholms

    län.

    Samtidigt

    som

    städerna

    växer

    och

    tar

    jordbruksmark

    i

    anspråk

    ökar

    befolkningen

    och

    fler

    munnar

    måste

    mättas.

    Dock

    har

    jordbruket

    nära

    storstaden

    fått

    konkurrens

    av

    kommunernas

    bygglovsansvariga

    och

    måste

    vara

    väldigt

    innovativa

    för

    att

    kunna

    fortsätta

    med

    sitt

    värv.

    Det

    finns

    också

    en

    stor

    marknad

    för

    den

    eller

    de

    som

    kan

    hitta

    nya

    vägar

    för

    att

    försörja

    sin

    familj

    och

    lantbruket

    om

    man

    bara

    är

    tillräckligt

    uppfinningsrik.

    Fem

    lantbrukare

    i

    tre

    kommuner

    i

    de

    norra

    delarna

    av

    Stockholms

    län

    har

    intervjuats

    om

    hur

    de

    upplever

    sin

    situation

    i

    storstadens

    närhet.

    Spridningsbilden

    har

    varit

    allt

    från

    norra

    delarna

    av

    Norrtälje

    som

    är

    en

    landsbygdskommun

    till

    Vallentunas

    och

    Upplands

    Väsbys

    kommuner

    som

    räknas

    till

    storstadskommuner.

    Fenomenet

    storstadsnära

    lantbruk

    är

    inte

    något

    unikt

    i

    Sverige

    utan

    finns

    över

    stora

    delar

    av

    främst

    den

    industrialiserade

    världen.

    Befolkningen

    urbaniseras

    alltmer

    och

    städerna

    måste

    växa

    för

    att

    klara

    av

    den

    ökande

    befolkningen,

    därav

    att

    man

    måste

    ta

    jordbruksmark

    i

    anspråk.

    Samtidigt

    finns

    det

    fortfarande

    lantbruk

    som

    försöker

    överleva

    i

    det

    storstadsnära

    området

    och

    för

    att

    göra

    det

    bör

    lantbrukaren

    vara

    en

    entreprenör

    med

    många

    strängar

    sin

    lyra

    och

    vara

    lyhörd

    för

    vad

    som

    kan

    vara

    företagsekonomiskt

    gångbart

    i

    just

    det

    området

    som

    lantbrukaren

    befinner

    sig.

    Många

    lantbrukare

    försöker

    ta

    tillvara

    de

    möjligheter

    som

    finns

    gården

    genom

    dess

    läge

    i

    landskapet

    och

    närhet

    till

    storstaden.

    Allt

    från

    att

    arbeta

    med

    kommunens

    snöröjning

    och

    grönytor

    till

    att

    hyra

    ut

    för

    lantbruket

    tomma

    lokaler

    eller

    satsa

    att

    producera

    matprodukter

    för

    potentiella

    kunder

    i

    det

    storstadsnära

    området.

  • 21.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    On administrative borders and accessibility to public services:: The case of hospitals in Sweden.2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service such as hospitals? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional borders. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population’s spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants’ distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

  • 22.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    On transforming a road network database to a graph for localization purpose2016Inngår i: International Journal of Web Services Research, ISSN 1545-7362, E-ISSN 1546-5004, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 46-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The problems of finding best facility locations require complete and accurate road networks with the corresponding population data in a specific area. However the data obtained from road network databases usually do not fit in this usage. In this paper we propose a procedure of converting the road network database to a road graph which could be used for localization problems. Several challenging problems exist in the transformation process which are commonly met also in other data bases. The procedure of dealing with those challenges are proposed. The data come from the National road data base in Sweden. The graph derived is cleaned, and reduced to a suitable level for localization problems. The residential points are also processed in ordered to match the graph. The reduction of the graph is done maintaining the accuracy of distance measures in the network.

  • 23.
    Palmqvist, Jenny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Geografi.
    En jämförelse mellan agroforesty och permakultur som jordbrukssystem: -   En fältstudie kring skillnader och likheter mellan systemen i Sverige och Rwanda.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillsammans med en växande världsbefolkning som ska födas och de klimatutmaningar världen befinner sig inför, blir det på alla fronter viktigt att titta på vad som kan göras för att möta dessa utmaningar. Utmaningarna och dess problem är inte ett enskilt och inte heller dess lösningar. De som granskas i denna empiriska studie är två jordbrukssystem; permakultur och agroforestry som beskrivs som hållbara på flera sätt. Syftet är att åskådliggöra vilka likheter och skillnader finns i de småskaliga jordbruken mellan två helt olika länder, som Sverige och Rwanda. – Vilka likheter och skillnader finns mellan Sverige och Rwanda, gällande grödor & konsumtion, näring och bekämpningsmedel? Studien baseras i huvudsak på intervjuer som är genomförda i Rwanda och i Sverige. Som komplement har GIS-använts för att kartera jordbruksmarken i Rwanda. Fältstudien i Rwanda har skett i samarbete med den ideella organisation Vi-skogen.

    I Agroforestry finns ingen given mall eller modell som är ett måste, bortsätt från ett integrerat odlande med inslag av buskar och träd. Trädens ekosystemtjänster integrerade i jordbruket bidrar till exempel med sin vattenhållande förmåga, ökad -bilogisk mångfald, kollagring i marken, jordförbättring; struktur och genomsläpplighet och ökad trygghet i avkastning med förbättrad livsmedelproduktion är några av alla de fördelar som följer i ett integrerat jordbruk. De är också en viktig parameter i att minska avverkning till brännved och träden används även som foder till djur. Permakultur innebär att utformningen av hållbara jordbrukssystem och människors livsmiljöer skall eftersträva att efterlikna naturens mönster. Permakultur uppmuntrar människor att utforma, bygga och designa för självförsörjning i allt från mat till boende. Den etiska grunden för metoden är att ta hand om människor, ta hand om jorden och jämnt fördela överskott från resurser.

    Det finns flera skillnader i såväl systemen som skillnader länderna emellan, några av de resultat som kan presenteras är att trots stora natur- och kulturskillnader, förekomsten av samma grödor: baljväxter, potatis och vete. Skillnaden är större i vad som konsumeras än vad som odlas, även om det går att hitta likheter. En slutsats som kan göras är att inkomst påverkar konsumtionsmönster och i vilken grad jordbrukaren är självförsörjande. Det vill säga; de socioekonomiska skillnaderna mellan länderna spelar större roll än naturförhållandena. Användandet av bekämpningsmedel och gödning är den största skillnaden mellan permakultur och agroforestry i det studerade fallen.

  • 24.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    An Evaluation of the Reliability of GPS-Based Transportation Data2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error

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