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  • 1.
    Jönsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa.
    Baker, S
    Lindberg, P
    Oscarson, N
    Öhrn, Kerstin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa.
    Factors influencing oral hygiene behaviour and gingival outcomes 3 and 12 months after initial periodontal treatment: an exploratory test of an extended Theory of Reasoned Action2012Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 138-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim was to empirically test the extended Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the prospective direct and indirect role of attitudes, beliefs, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and a cognitive behavioural intervention in adult's oral hygiene behaviour and gingival outcomes at 3- and 12-month follow-up.

    Materials and Methods. Data were derived from an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of oral hygiene educational programs integrated in non-surgical periodontal treatment (n = 113). Before baseline examination, participants completed a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation with bootstrapping was used to test the direct and indirect (mediated) pathways within the extended TRA model.

    Results. The extended TRA model explained a large amount of variance in gingival outcome scores at 12 months (56%). A higher level of self-efficacy at baseline was associated with higher frequencies of oral hygiene behaviour at 3 months. Being female was linked to more normative beliefs that, in turn, related to greater behavioural beliefs and self-efficacy. Gender was also related to behavioural beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms. Both frequency of oral hygiene behaviour at 3 months and the cognitive behavioural intervention predicted gingival outcome at 12 months.

    Conclusions. The model demonstrated that self-efficacy, gender and a cognitive behavioural intervention were important predictors of oral hygiene behavioural change.

  • 2.
    Jönsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. Competence Ctr Northern Norway TkNN, Publ Dent Hlth Serv, Tromso, Norway.
    Öhrn, Kerstin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa.
    Evaluation of the effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on oral health-related quality of life: estimation of minimal important differences 1 year after treatment2014Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 275-282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate an individually tailored oral health educational programme on patient-reported outcome compared with a standard oral health educational programme, assess change over time and determine minimal important differences (MID) in change scores for two different oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument after non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT).

    Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial evaluating two educational programmes, patients (n=87) with chronic periodontitis completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 12months. OHRQoL was assessed with the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and the UK oral health-related quality-of-life measure (OHQoL-UK). In addition, patients' global rating of oral health and socio-demographic variables were recorded. The MID was estimated with anchor-based and distributions-based methods.

    Results: There were no differences between the two educational groups. The OHRQoL was significantly improved after treatment. The MID was approximately five for OHQoL-UK with a moderate ES, and three for GOHAI with a Small ES, and 46-50% of the patients showed improvements beyond the MID.

    Conclusion: Both oral health educational groups reported higher scores in OHRQoL after NSPT resulting in more positive well-being (OHQoL-UK) and less frequent oral problems (GOHAI). OHQoL-UK gave a greater effect size and mean change scores but both instruments were associated with the participants' self-rated change in oral health. The changes were meaningful for the patients supported by the estimated MID.

  • 3.
    Jönsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa. Uppsala University.
    Öhrn, Kerstin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa.
    Lindberg, P
    Oscarson, N
    Evaluation of an individually tailored oral health educational programme on periodontal health2010Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 37, nr 10, s. 912-919Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate an individually tailored oral health educational programme (ITOHEP) on periodontal health compared with a standard oral health educational programme. A further aim was to evaluate whether both interventions had a clinically significant effect on non-surgical periodontal treatment at 12-month follow-up.

    Material and Method: A randomized, evaluator-blinded, controlled trial with 113 subjects (60 females and 53 males) randomly allocated into two different active treatments was used. ITOHEP was based on cognitive behavioural principles and motivational interviewing. The control condition was standard oral hygiene education (ST). The effect on bleeding on probing (BoP), periodontal pocket depth, “pocket closure” i.e. percentage of periodontal pocket >4 mm before treatment that were <5 mm after treatment, oral hygiene [plaque indices (PlI)], and participants' global rating of oral health was evaluated. Preset criteria for PlI, BoP, and “pocket closure” were used to describe clinically significant non-surgical periodontal treatment success.

    Results: The ITOHEP group had lower BoP scores 12-month post-treatment (95% confidence interval: 5–15, p<0.001) than the ST group. No difference between the two groups was observed for “pocket closure” and reduction of periodontal pocket depth. More individuals in the ITOHEP group reached a level of treatment success. Lower PlI scores at baseline and ITOHEP intervention gave higher odds of treatment success.

    Conclusions: ITOHEP intervention in combination with scaling is preferable to the ST programme in non-surgical periodontal treatment.

  • 4.
    Jönsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa.
    Öhrn, Kerstin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa.
    Lindberg, Per
    Oscarson, Nils
    Cost-effectiveness of an individually tailored oral health educational programme based on cognitive behavioural strategies in non-surgical periodontal treatment2012Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 39, nr 7, s. 659-665Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of this cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), performed from a societal perspective, was to compare costs and consequences of an individually tailored oral health educational programme (ITOHEP) based on cognitive behavioural strategies integrated in non-surgical periodontal treatment compared with a standard treatment programme (ST).

    Material and Methods. A randomized (n = 113), evaluator-blinded, controlled trial, with two different active treatments, was analysed with respect to their costs and consequences 12 months after non-surgical treatment. Costs referred to both treatment costs and costs contributed by the patient. Consequences (outcome) were expressed as the proportion of individuals classified as having reached the pre-set criteria for treatment success after non-surgical treatment (“successful-NSPT”).

    Results. More individuals in the ITOHEP group reached the pre-set criteria for treatment success than individuals in the ST group did. The CEA revealed an incremental cost-effectiveness of SEK1724 [€191.09; SEK9.02 = €1 (January 2007)] per “successful-NSPT” case, of which treatment costs represented SEK1189 (€131.82), using the unit cost for a dental hygienist.

    Conclusion. The incremental costs per “successful-NSPT” case can be considered as low and strengthens the suggestion that an ITOHEP integrated into non-surgical periodontal treatment is preferable to a standardized education programme.

  • 5.
    Jönsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Omvårdnad. Department of Public Health and Caring Science, Uppsala University, Sweden, Dental Health Care Administration in Uppsala County Council, Sweden.
    Öhrn, Kerstin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa.
    Oscarson, Nils
    National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effectiveness of an individually tailored oral health educational programme on oral hygiene behaviour in patients with periodontal disease: a blinded randomized-controlled clinical trial (one-year follow-up)2009Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 36, nr 12, s. 1025-1034Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of an individually tailored oral health educational programme for oral hygiene self-care in patients with chronic periodontitis compared with the standard treatment. 

    Material and method: A randomized, evaluator-blinded, controlled trial with two different active treatments were used with 113 subjects (60 females and 53 males) randomly allocated to an experimental or a control group. The individually tailored oral health educational programme was based on cognitive behavioural principles and the individual tailoring for each participant was based on participants' thoughts, intermediate, and long-term goals, and oral health status. The effect of the programmes on gingivitis [gingival index (GI)], oral hygiene [plaque indices (PlI) and self-report], and participants' global rating of treatment was evaluated 3 and 12months after oral health education and non-surgical treatment. 

    Results: Between baseline and the 12-month follow-up, the experimental group improved both GI and PlI more than the control group. The mean gain-score difference was 0.27 for global GI [99.2% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.39, p < 0.001] and 0.40 for proximal GI (99.2% CI: 0.27-0.53, p < 0.001). The mean gain-score difference was 0.16 for global PlI (99.2% CI: 0.03-0.30, p=0.001), and 0.26 for proximal PlI (99.2% CI: 0.10-0.43, p < 0.001). The subjects in the experimental group reported a higher frequency of daily inter-dental cleaning and were more certain that they could maintain the attained level of behaviour change. 

    Conclusion: The individually tailored oral health educational programme was efficacious in improving long-term adherence to oral hygiene in periodontal treatment. The largest difference was for interproximal surfaces.

  • 6.
    Öhrn, Kerstin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa.
    Oral health and quality of life2006Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Öhrn, Kerstin
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Vårdvetenskap med inriktning mot munhälsa.
    Sanz, Mariano
    Prevention and therapeutic approaches to gingival inflammation2009Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 36, s. 20-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most important preventive and therapeutic effort to reduce inflammation is to remove the dental plaque thoroughly. Oral self-care is thus of crucial importance to achieve and maintain oral health. There is a scarcity of scientific evidence on the most effective models for behavioural change aimed to improve oral hygiene. There is a need for randomized-controlled trials, based on behavioural sciences and performed with great methodological rigour, to investigate the usefulness of these proposed behavioural changes. Oral hygiene regimens for patients with natural teeth as well as dental implants should include brushing twice daily, inter-dental cleaning once daily and rinsing with efficient rinses as an adjunct to mechanical infection control. Power toothbrushes are preferable as they are more effective than manual toothbrushes. Inter-dental brushes seem to be most effective and useful for inter-dental cleaning. Scaling and root planing is effective in reducing inflammation and probing depths in patients with periodontitis.

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