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  • 1.
    Cameron, David Lansing
    et al.
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    School district administrators’ perspectives on the professional activities and influence of special educators in Norway and Sweden2014In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 669-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate school district administrators’ perspectives concerning the professional activities and influence of special educators in Norway (n=266) and Sweden (n=290). We examine three themes drawn from a survey of practices and policies in each country: (a) the organisational arrangements in which special educators work, (b) perceived changes in special educators’ activities, and (c) ratings of special educators’ influence on the content of instruction and the availability of resources for children with special needs. Findings suggest that special educators frequently work in teams, function largely as advisors, and spend less time working with individual students than in previous years. There appears to be a more pronounced increase in special educators’ time devoted to advising and documentation in Sweden than in Norway. Swedish special educators were also more frequently described as working in multidisciplinary teams. Participants in both countries rated the influence of special educators significantly higher than that of parents and teachers on the availability and distribution of resources; and significantly higher than politicians, public officials, teachers, and parents with regard to influence over the content of instruction. We discuss these findings in relation to the goals and development of inclusive education in Scandinavia.

  • 2. Göransson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Klang, Nina
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Almqvist, Lena
    Professionalism, governance and inclusive education – A total population study of Swedish special needs educators2018In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research shows that special needs educators (SNEs) have had problems defining their occupational roles and jurisdiction, particularly regarding inclusive education. There are two occupational groups of SNEs in Sweden, namely special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) and special education teachers. In this paper, we use the collective name SNEs to refer to both groups. Here, results from a total population study of Swedish SNEs are presented (N?=?3367, response rate 75%). The aim is to explore differences in SNEs? interpretation of school difficulties and if these differences are influenced by SNEs? employment in different parts of the school organisation. Statistical cluster-analysis was used to categorise SNEs into five distinct groups based on how they view the problems of pupils in school difficulties. Key concepts employed in the analysis are, primarily organisational vs occupational governance in relation to professional jurisdiction. Findings suggest that SNEs are less unanimous in their views of school problems, than prior research indicates. The variance is partly due to where they work in the school organisation, but we also find indications that different groups of SNEs experience different forms of governance with regard to their professionalism. The results are important due to the scope of the data and method of analysis as well as the illustrated variance of professional values and situations of SNEs and the potential consequences for the development of inclusive education.

  • 3.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Making schools inclusive?: Educational leaders´views on how to work with children in need of special support2013In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational leaders have a comprehensive responsibility for how preschools and schools work with children in need of special educational support. The aim of this research is to study how educational leaders (a) explain why children have problems in schools, (b) consider how preschools/schools should help children in need of special support and (c) the role they believe that Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs) should have in such work. Educational leaders (N = 45) working in preschools and regular compulsory schools in a Swedish municipality responded (100%) to a questionnaire. According to the results of this study, this group seems to view difficulties in schools as being caused primarily by individual shortcomings. Educational leaders often advocate solutions that are closely linked to the work of special educators. The educational leaders believe SENCOs should work with supervising staff and focus on documentation and evaluations. Preschool leaders attribute children's need of special support to teachers more often than their colleagues in compulsory schools.

  • 4.
    Olsen, Kathrin
    et al.
    Faculty of Education and Arts, Nord University, Norway.
    Croydon, Abigail
    UCL Institute of Education, London, United Kingdom.
    Olson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Stockholms universitet, Högskolan i Skövde.
    Jacobsen, Karl Henry
    NTNU, Oslo, Norge.
    Pellicano, Elisabeth
    UCL Institute of Education, London, United Kingdom.
    Mapping inclusion of a child with autism in a mainstream kindergarten: how can we move towards more inclusive practices?2018In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study identify and reflect on barriers to inclusion that children with autism can meet in kindergarten. We use a single case study with participant- and video observation to map inclusion for a single 5-year-old boy with autism, in a mainstream kindergarten in Norway. Analysis identified three modes of inclusion; distance keeping, maintaining proximity and interacting. The mapping procedure demonstrated that barriers to inclusion continue to operate. The extent of the child’s participation seemed to relate to what he was doing and who he was with; overall, limited social inclusion amongst peers being achieved. Results indicated that predictable frameworks and teacher support increased participation. We discuss how participation for children with autism can be promoted. Our study points toward the need to extend current adaptations and support to children with autism within the educational settings, to enable a more inclusive practice.

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