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  • 1.
    Bergman, Mats A
    et al.
    Södertörn University .
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Squeezing the last drop out of your suppliers: An empirical study of market-based purchasing policies for generic pharmaceuticals2017In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 969-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the average price of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a 1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2% in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%. We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting) effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

  • 2. Granlund, David
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Consumer information and pharmaceutical prices: theory and evidence2011In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 230-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of a reform that increased consumer information on brand name and generic pharmaceutical prices is analysed both theoretically and empirically. The theoretical results show that an increase in information likely reduces the price of brand name pharmaceuticals, while the results regarding generics are less clear. In the empirical part of the article, the introduction of the substitution reform in the Swedish pharmaceuticals market in October 2002 is used as a natural experiment regarding the effects of increased consumer information. The results clearly show that the reform has lowered the price of both brand name and generic pharmaceuticals.

  • 3.
    He, Changli
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Strandberg, Rickard
    Dickey-Fuller type of tests against non-linear dynamic models2006In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 68, no s1, p. 835-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce several test statistics testing the null hypothesis of a random walk (with or without drift) against models that accommodate a smooth nonlinear shift in the level, the dynamic structure and the trend. We derive analytical limiting distributions for all the tests. The power performance of the tests is compared with that of the unit-root tests by Phillips and Perron [Biometrika (1988), Vol. 75, pp. 335–346], and Leybourne, Newbold and Vougas [Journal of Time Series Analysis (1998), Vol. 19, pp. 83–97]. In the presence of a gradual change in the deterministics and in the dynamics, our tests are superior in terms of power.

  • 4.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Twin Data vs. Longitudinal Data to Control for Unobserved Variables in Earnings Functions — Which Are the Differences?2007In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 339-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two different approaches empirically to control for unobserved characteristics when estimating the effect of marriage on male and female earnings: the longitudinal and the twins approach. The estimates were obtained by exploiting the longitudinal dimension of a large sample of Swedish twins, so that longitudinal and twin-based estimates could be obtained in the same sample. The two approaches lead to different conclusions both regarding the role of unobserved characteristics in the cross-sectional earnings–marriage relationship and the effect of marriage on earnings. The paper investigates three potential explanations of this difference.

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